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Nicholas M Pantelides, Jeyaram R Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Implant rippling is a frequent complication following breast augmentation or implant-based reconstruction and results in significant patient dissatisfaction. Traditionally, the treatment has been to replace the implant, often placing it in a subpectoral pocket to reduce the risk of recurrence. Other techniques, such as increasing the implant size or tightening the capsule, can also be used. Recently, however, there has been much interest in alternative treatments, including fat grafting or insertion of an acellular dermal matrix...
March 15, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Katharine Bailey, Nancie Im-Bolter
Epilepsy is the number one neurological disorder in children in western society. Childhood epilepsy is highly comorbid with psychopathology. Although neurological and biological factors may partially explain the increased risk of psychopathology in children with epilepsy, social contextual factors are also important to understanding development of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. The current paper examines the development of children with epilepsy utilizing Bronfenbrenner's micro-, meso-, exo-, and macrosystem social contexts...
March 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
A Ya Supin, D I Nechaev, V V Popov, E V Sysueva
The spectrum contrast threshold for the comb-filtered signal was measured at various ripple densities in listeners with normal hearing. The lowest spectrum contrast thresholds of less than 0.1 appeared at a ripple density of 3-4 oct-1 . With the ripple density falling down to 1 oct-1 , the threshold increased to 0.17. At the ripple density higher than 4 oct-1 , the threshold was also growing to achieve 1.0 at a density of 7-8 oct-1 . An increase of threshold at high ripple densities can be explained by integration within critical bands...
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jan Cimbalnik, Gregory A Worrell
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs: 100 - 600 Hz) have been widely proposed as biomarkers of epileptic brain tissue. In addition, HFOs over a broader range of frequencies spanning 30 - 2000 Hz are potential biomarkers of both physiological and pathological brain processes. The majority of the results from humans with focal epilepsy have focused on HFOs recorded directly from the brain with intracranial EEG (iEEG) in the high gamma (65 - 100 Hz), ripple (100 - 250 Hz), and fast ripple (250 - 600 Hz) frequency ranges...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Seham Alaiyed, Eunyoung Kim, Sonia Villapol, Katherine Conant
The perineuronal net (PNN) represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV-) positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jukun Liu, Xin Jia, Weishu Wu, Ke Cheng, Donghai Feng, Shian Zhang, Zhenrong Sun, Tianqing Jia
This paper reports the ultrafast imaging on the formation of periodic surface ripples induced by a single 800 nm, 50 fs laser pulse. The evolution process is observed on a Si surface with a prefabricated nanogroove. The ripples emerge very quickly, only 3 ps after the laser pulse with a fluence of 0.18 J/cm2 irradiating on the surface, and last for several hundreds of picoseconds. The ultrafast dynamics of laser-matter interaction, such as free carrier excitation, carrier and lattice heating, surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation, etc, are studied theoretically...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Jyun-Hong Chen, Yuan-Liang Zhong, Lain-Jong Li, Chii-Dong Chen
Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucial in condensed matter physics and is present on the surface of liquid helium and at the interface of semiconductors. Monolayer MoS2 of 2D materials also contains 2DEG in an atomic layer as field effect transistor (FET) ultrathin channel. In this study, we synthesized double triangular MoS<sub>2</sub> through a chemical vapor deposition method to obtain grain boundaries for forming a ripple structure in FET channel. When the temperature was higher than approximately 175 K, the temperature dependence of the electron mobility μ was consistent with those in previous experiments and theoretical predictions...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
C Cuello-Oderiz, N von Ellenrieder, R Sankhe, A Olivier, J Hall, F Dubeau, J Gotman
OBJECTIVES: There are different neurophysiological markers of the Epileptogenic Zone (EZ), but their sensitivity and specificity for the EZ is not known in Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) patients. METHODS: We studied patients with FCD who underwent stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and surgery. We marked in the SEEG: (a) typical and atypical interictal epileptiform patterns, (b) ictal onset patterns, and (c) rates of ripples (80-250 Hz) and fast ripples (FRs) (>250 Hz)...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, M Beatrice Dias, Michael Taylor
BACKGROUND: Air quality affects us all and is a rapidly growing concern in the 21st century. We spend the majority of our lives indoors and can be exposed to a number of pollutants smaller than 2.5 microns (particulate matter, PM2.5 ) resulting in detrimental health effects. Indoor air quality sensors have the potential to provide people with the information they need to understand their risk and take steps to reduce their exposure. One such sensor is the Speck sensor developed at the Community Robotics, Education and Technology Empowerment Lab at Carnegie Mellon University...
March 8, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsia
Gunes Unal, Michael G Crump, Tim J Viney, Tímea Éltes, Linda Katona, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Medial septal GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain innervate the hippocampus and related cortical areas, contributing to the coordination of network activity, such as theta oscillations and sharp wave-ripple events, via a preferential innervation of GABAergic interneurons. Individual medial septal neurons display diverse activity patterns, which may be related to their termination in different cortical areas and/or to the different types of innervated interneurons. To test these hypotheses, we extracellularly recorded and juxtacellularly labeled single medial septal neurons in anesthetized rats in vivo during hippocampal theta and ripple oscillations, traced their axons to distant cortical target areas, and analyzed their postsynaptic interneurons...
March 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Idia B Thurston, Kathryn H Howell, Rebecca C Kamody, Courtney Maclin-Akinyemi, Jessica Mandell
Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities...
March 2, 2018: AIDS Care
A Fasanella, K Cosentino, A Beneduci, G Chidichimo, E Cazzanelli, R C Barberi, M Castriota
Many cell membranes of living organisms can be represented as phospholipid bilayers immersed into a water environment. The physical-chemical interactions at the membranes/water interface are responsible for the stabilization of the membranes. In addition, the drug efficiency, the pharmaceutical mechanism and the improvement of the drug design can be addressed to the interactions between the membranes-water interface with the drug and to the membrane-drug interface. In this framework, it is important to find membranes models able to simulate and simultaneously simplify the biological systems to better understand both physical and chemical interactions at the interface level...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
G S Gooris, M Kamran, A Kros, D J Moore, J A Bouwstra
The outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), acts as the natural physical barrier. The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a crystalline lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. Although phospholipids are frequently present in topical formulations, no detailed information is reported on the interactions between phospholipids and SC lipids. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions between a model phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and synthetic ceramide-based mixtures (referred to as SC lipids)...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
T Mukhopadhyay, A Mahata, S Adhikari, M Asle Zaeem
Generalized high-fidelity closed-form formulae have been developed to predict the shear modulus of hexagonal graphene-like monolayer nanostructures and nano-heterostructures based on a physically insightful analytical approach. Hexagonal nano-structural forms (top view) are common for nanomaterials with monoplanar (such as graphene and hBN) and multiplanar (such as stanene and MoS2 ) configurations. However, a single-layer nanomaterial may not possess a particular property adequately, or multiple desired properties simultaneously...
March 2, 2018: Nanoscale
R C Ewing, M G A Lapotre, K W Lewis, M Day, N Stein, D M Rubin, R Sullivan, S Banham, M P Lamb, N T Bridges, S Gupta, W W Fischer
The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart...
December 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Zhoufeng Ying, Zheng Wang, Zheng Zhao, Shounak Dhar, David Z Pan, Richard Soref, Ray T Chen
Due to the projected saturation of Moore's law, as well as the drastically increasing trend of bandwidth with lower power consumption, silicon photonics has emerged as one of the most promising alternatives that has attracted a lasting interest due to the accessibility and maturity of ultra-compact passive and active integrated photonic components. In this Letter, we demonstrate a ripple-carry electro-optic 2-bit full adder using microdisks, which replaces the core part of an electrical full adder by optical counterparts and uses light to carry signals from one bit to the next with high bandwidth and low power consumption per bit...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Troy A Pittman, Olivia A Abbate, James M Economides
BACKGROUND: Prepectoral prosthetic-based breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an alternative to the partial or total submuscular approach. Potential issues with the prepectoral approach include a noticeable superior implant edge and implant rippling. These concerns are particularly apparent in thin patients. We introduce a novel muscle-sparing technique in which a partial-thickness slip of pectoralis muscle is created in an otherwise prepectoral plane to mask these upper pole defects, mask superior implant rippling, and provide greater implant support (The P1 Method)...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Daniel Roach, Robert Sheldon
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that heart period (HP) variability in the low frequency (LF) band is due to transient fluctuations of about 10 s in HP sequences, associated with fluctuations in blood pressure. METHODS: 10 healthy subjects, mean age 36 y, had HP and blood pressure acquired for 10 min each. Nonrandom HP fluctuations (ripples) lasting 6.7-20 s were detected using time-scrambled surrogate sequences as controls. RESULTS: Ripples were 99 ± 40 ms in amplitude, in concatenates 23...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
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