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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445763/myosin-rod-hypophosphorylation-and-cb-kinetics-in-papillary-muscles-from-a-tnc-a8v-ki-mouse-model
#1
Masataka Kawai, Jamie R Johnston, Tarek Karam, Li Wang, Rakesh K Singh, Jose R Pinto
The cardiac troponin C (TnC)-A8V mutation is associated with hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy (HCM and RCM) in human and mice. The residue affected lies in the N-helix, a region known to affect Ca(2+)-binding affinity to the N-terminal domain. Here we report on the functional effects of this mutation in skinned papillary muscle fibers from homozygous knock-in TnC-A8V mice. Muscle fibers from left ventricle were activated at 25°C under the ionic conditions of working cardiomyocytes. The pCa-tension relationship showed a 3× increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity and a decrease (0...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432152/exposure-to-seawater-increases-intestinal-motility-in-euryhaline-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Albin Gräns, Esmée Dekens, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 minutes followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 minutes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#3
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#4
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416505/hematopoietic-transcription-factors-mutations-important-players-in-inherited-platelet-defects
#5
Natthapol Songdej, A Koneti Rao
Transcription factors (TF) are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate expression of genes. The molecular and genetic mechanisms in most patients with inherited platelet defects are unknown. There is now increasing evidence that mutations in hematopoietic TFs are an important underlying cause for defects in platelet production, morphology, and function. The hematopoietic TFs implicated in patients with impaired platelet function and number include runt related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), Fli-1 proto-oncogene, ETS transcription factor (FLI1), GATA-binding protein 1 (GATA1), growth factor independent 1B transcriptional repressor (GFI1B), ETS variant 6 (ETV6), ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1), and homeobox A11 (HOXA11)...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416442/allopregnanolone-decreases-interictal-spiking-and-fast-ripples-in-an-animal-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Maxime Lévesque, Rochelle Herrington, Leila Leclerc, Michael A Rogawski, Massimo Avoli
The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, on interictal spikes and high-frequency oscillations (ripples: 80-200 Hz, fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seven out of 25 Sprague-Dawley rats experiencing 1 h of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) began treatment with allopregnanolone (9.6-12.8 mg/kg/day) on the following day...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412559/interictal-ripples-nested-in-epileptiform-discharge-help-to-identify-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#7
Shuang Wang, Norman K So, Bo Jin, Irene Z Wang, Juan C Bulacio, Rei Enatsu, Shenyi Dai, Zhong Chen, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the subtype of interictal ripples that help delineate the epileptogenic zone in neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Totally 25 patients with focal neocortical epilepsy who had invasive electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation and subsequent surgery were included. They were followed up for at least 2years. Interictal ripples (80-250Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz) during slow-wave sleep were identified. Neocortical ripples were defined as type I ripples when they were superimposed on epileptiform discharges, and as type II ripples when they occurred independently...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406796/experimental-dosimetric-comparison-of-1-h-4-he-12-c-and-16-o-scanned-ion-beams
#8
T Tessonnier, A Mairani, S Brons, T Haberer, J Debus, K Parodi
At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, scanned helium and oxygen ion beams are available in addition to the clinically used protons and carbon ions for physical and biological experiments. In this work, a study of the basic dosimetric features of the different ions is performed in the entire therapeutic energy range. Depth dose distributions are investigated for pencil-like beam irradiation, with and without a modulating ripple filter, focusing on the extraction of key Bragg curve parameters, such as the range, the peak-width and the distal 80%-20% fall-off...
April 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394323/sharp-wave-ripples-during-learning-stabilize-the-hippocampal-spatial-map
#9
Lisa Roux, Bo Hu, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark, György Buzsáki
Cognitive representation of the environment requires a stable hippocampal map, but the mechanisms maintaining a given map are unknown. Because sharp wave-ripples (SPW-R) orchestrate both retrospective and prospective spatial information, we hypothesized that disrupting neuronal activity during SPW-Rs affects spatial representation. Mice learned new sets of three goal locations daily in a multiwell maze. We used closed-loop SPW-R detection at goal locations to trigger optogenetic silencing of a subset of CA1 pyramidal neurons...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389377/prominent-differences-in-sharp-waves-ripples-and-complex-spike-bursts-between-the-dorsal-and-the-ventral-rat-hippocampus
#10
Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
Functions of the hippocampus are segregated along its long axis and emerging evidence shows that the local circuitry is specialized accordingly. Sharp waves (SPWs) and ripples are a basic hippocampal network activity implicated in memory processing. Using recordings from the CA1 field of both dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) rat hippocampal slices we found that SPWs are larger, shorter and occur much more frequently in the VH than in the DH. Clusters of SPWs (i.e. multiple consecutive events grouped in sequences that depend on NMDA receptors) occur with higher probability in the VH and the frequency of occurrence of consecutive intra-cluster events is higher in the VH (∼10Hz) than in the DH (∼5Hz)...
April 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387418/delineating-the-role-of-ripples-on-the-thermal-expansion-of-2d-honeycomb-materials-graphene-2d-h-bn-and-monolayer-ml-mos2
#11
P Anees, M C Valsakumar, B K Panigrahi
We delineated the role of thermally excited ripples on the thermal expansion properties of 2D honeycomb materials (free-standing graphene, 2D h-BN, and ML-MoS2), by explicitly carrying out three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) molecular dynamics simulations. In 3D simulations, the in-plane lattice parameter (a-lattice) of graphene and 2D h-BN shows thermal contraction over a wide range of temperatures and exhibits a strong system size dependence. The 2D simulations of the very same system show a reverse trend, where the a-lattice expands in the whole computed temperature range...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382952/parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-coordinate-hippocampal-network-dynamics-required-for-memory-consolidation
#12
Nicolette Ognjanovski, Samantha Schaeffer, Jiaxing Wu, Sima Mofakham, Daniel Maruyama, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Activity in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for consolidating episodic memories, but it is unclear how CA1 activity patterns drive memory formation. We find that in the hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC), fast-spiking interneurons (which typically express parvalbumin (PV)) show greater firing coherence with CA1 network oscillations. Post-CFC inhibition of PV+ interneurons blocks fear memory consolidation. This effect is associated with loss of two network changes associated with normal consolidation: (1) augmented sleep-associated delta (0...
April 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382228/a-novel-pm-motor-with-hybrid-pm-excitation-and-asymmetric-rotor-structure-for-high-torque-performance
#13
Gaohong Xu, Guohai Liu, Xinxin Du, Fangfang Bian
This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM) motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM), which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor...
May 2017: AIP Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380900/experimental-and-fdtd-study-of-silicon-surface-morphology-induced-by-femtosecond-laser-irradiation-at-a-high-substrate-temperature
#14
Guoliang Deng, Guoying Feng, Shouhuan Zhou
Substrate temperature is an important parameter for controlling the properties of femtosecond laser induced surface structures besides traditional ways. The morphology on silicon surface at different temperatures are studied experimentally. Compared to those formed at 300 K, smoother ripples, micro-grooves and nano/micro-holes are formed at 700 K. A two temperature model and FDTD method are used to discuss the temperature dependence of surface structures. The results show that the increased light absorption at elevated temperature leads to the reduction of surface roughness...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380780/controlling-periodic-ripple-microstructure-formation-on-4h-sic-crystal-with-three-time-delayed-femtosecond-laser-beams-of-different-linear-polarizations
#15
Wanlin He, Jianjun Yang, Chunlei Guo
The control of laser-induced periodic ripple microstructures on 4H-SiC crystal surface is studied using temporally delayed collinear three femtosecond laser pulse trains linearly polarized in different directions. The ripple orientation appears to develop independent of the individual laser polarizations and exhibits non-monotonical change with variable time delays, whose variation tendency is also affected by the polarization intersection angles. Remarkably, the ripple period is observed to transfer from high- to low-spatial-frequency regions, accompanied by distinctly improved morphological uniformity and clearness...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380659/tailoring-epilepsy-surgery-with-fast-ripples-in-the-intra-operative-electrocorticogram
#16
M A van 't Klooster, N E C van Klink, W J E M Zweiphenning, F S S Leijten, R Zelmann, C H Ferrier, P C van Rijen, W M Otte, K P J Braun, G J M Huiskamp, M Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: Intra-operative electrocorticography (ECoG) can be used to delineate the resection area in epilepsy surgery. High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-500Hz) seem better biomarkers for epileptogenic tissue than spikes. We studied how HFOs and spikes in combined pre- and post-resection ECoG predict surgical outcome in different tailoring approaches. METHODS: We, retrospectively, marked HFOs, divided into fast ripples (FRs, 250-500Hz) and ripples (80-250Hz), and spikes in pre- and post-resection ECoG sampled at 2048 Hz in people with refractory focal epilepsy...
April 5, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372106/deactivating-stimulation-sites-based-on-low-rate-thresholds-improves-spectral-ripple-and-speech-reception-thresholds-in-cochlear-implant-users
#17
Ning Zhou
The study examined whether the benefit of deactivating stimulation sites estimated to have broad neural excitation was attributed to improved spectral resolution in cochlear implant users. The subjects' spatial neural excitation pattern was estimated by measuring low-rate detection thresholds across the array [see Zhou (2016). PLoS One 11, e0165476]. Spectral resolution, as assessed by spectral-ripple discrimination thresholds, significantly improved after deactivation of five high-threshold sites. The magnitude of improvement in spectral-ripple discrimination thresholds predicted the magnitude of improvement in speech reception thresholds after deactivation...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366353/comparing-fourier-optics-and-contrast-transfer-function-modeling-of-image-formation-in-low-energy-electron-microscopy
#18
K M Yu, A Locatelli, M S Altman
A theoretical understanding of image formation in cathode lens microscopy can facilitate image interpretation. We compare Fourier Optics (FO) and Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) approaches that were recently adapted from other realms of microscopy to model image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Although these two approaches incorporate imaging errors from several sources similarly, they differ in the way that the image intensity is calculated. The simplification that is used in the CTF calculation advantageously leads to its computational efficiency...
March 24, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346538/discrimination-of-rippled-spectrum-patterns-in-noise-a-manifestation-of-compressive-nonlinearity
#19
Olga N Milekhina, Dmitry I Nechaev, Vladimir O Klishin, Alexander Ya Supin
In normal-hearing listeners, rippled-spectrum discrimination was psychophysically investigated in both silence and with a simultaneous masker background using the following two paradigms: measuring the ripple density resolution with the phase-reversal test and measuring the ripple-shift threshold with the ripple-shift test. The 0.5-oct wide signal was centered on 2 kHz, the signal levels were 50 and 80 dB SPL, and the masker levels varied from 30 to 100 dB SPL. The baseline ripple density resolutions were 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342280/clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-cutaneous-manifestations-of-adult-onset-still-disease
#20
Erin Santa, Jeanne M McFalls, Joya Sahu, Jason B Lee
Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by recurring fevers, arthralgia, and consistent laboratory abnormalities that include leukocytosis and hyperferritinemia. Skin findings accompany the disease in nearly 90% of the cases. Early reports described evanescent, pruritic, salmon-pink or urticarial lesions, referred to as the typical eruption of AOSD. Histopathologic findings consist of superficial perivascular dermatitis with varying number of interstitial neutrophils...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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