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Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Yimo Han, Kayla X Nguyen, Michael Cao, Paul D Cueva, Saien Xie, Mark W Tate, Prafull Purohit, Sol M Gruner, Jiwoong Park, David A Muller
Next-generation, atomically thin devices require in-plane, one-dimensional heterojunctions to electrically connect different two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the lattice mismatch between most 2D materials leads to unavoidable strain, dislocations, or ripples, which can strongly affect their mechanical, optical, and electronic properties. We have developed an approach to map 2D heterojunction lattice and strain profiles with sub-picometer precision and the ability to identify dislocations and out-of-plane ripples...
May 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Kun-Dar Li, Tsung-Lung Chang, Jin-Ru Miao
The technique of the anisotropic wet chemical etching had turned into one of the widely used processes for manufacturing the functional materials in microelectromechanical systems. To better understand the issues of growth mechanisms for the characteristic surface morphologies during an anisotropic chemical etching, in this study the formation and evolution of surface structures were investigated by numerical simulation methods. A chemical etching model was established on the basis of chemical reaction and atomic diffusion...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Richard E Nelson, Bret Hicken, Megan Vanneman, Chuan-Fen Liu, Randall Rupper
INTRODUCTION: The passage of the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 has expanded the non-Veteran Affairs (VA) care options for eligible US Veterans. In order for these new arrangements to provide the best care possible for Veterans, it is important to understand the relationship between VA and non-VA care options. The purpose of this study was to use another recent VA policy change, one that increased the reimbursement rate that eligible Veterans receive for travel for health care to VA, to understand the use of VA and Medicare services among Medicare-enrolled Veterans...
May 15, 2018: Medical Care
Jörn Bonse, Sabrina V Kirner, Michael Griepentrog, Dirk Spaltmann, Jörg Krüger
Laser texturing is an emerging technology for generating surface functionalities on basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. Taking benefit of laser sources with ultrashort (fs) pulse durations features outstanding precision of machining and negligible rims or burrs surrounding the laser-irradiation zone. Consequently, additional mechanical or chemical post-processing steps are usually not required for fs-laser surface texturing (fs-LST). This work aimed to provide a bridge between research in the field of tribology and laser materials processing...
May 15, 2018: Materials
Raul Gago, Miriam Jaafar, Francisco Javier Palomares Simon
The surface morphology of molybdenum silicide (Mo<sub>x</sub>Si<sub>1-x </sub>) films has been studied after low-energy Ar<sup>+</sup> ion-beam sputtering (IBS) to explore eventual pattern formation on compound targets and, simultaneously, gather information about the mechanisms behind silicide-assisted nanopatterning of silicon surfaces by IBS. For this purpose, Mo<sub>x</sub>Si<sub>1-x </sub> films with compositions below, equal and above the MoSi<sub>2</sub> stoichiometry (x = 0...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Omer Ibrahim, Adele Haimovic, Nicole Lee, Michael S Kaminer
BACKGROUND: Cellulite can be significantly improved using vacuum-assisted tissue stabilized-guided subcision (TS-GS). However, the treatment of shallow and linear cellulite has remained problematic. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective study, we describe a modified technique of vacuum-assisted TS-GS. The aim is to demonstrate that this new limited-release technique is an effective treatment for long ripples and interconnected shallow dimples, which are characteristic of mild-to-moderate cellulite...
May 2, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Joy Clare Perkinson, Jennifer M Swenson, Alexander DeMasi, Christa Wagenbach, Karl F Ludwig, Scott A Norris, Michael J Aziz
Linear-regime Ar<sup>+</sup> bombardment of Si produces symmetrical ripple structures at ion incidence angles above 45<sup>○</sup> measured off-normal [1]. In the nonlinear regime, new behaviors emerge. In this paper, we present experimental results of ion bombardment that continues into the nonlinear regime until pattern saturation at multiple ion incidence angles, showing the evolution of their grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) spectra as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographs of the final, saturated structures...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jean Gotman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Andre F T Avelino, Sandy Dall'erba
Due to the concentration of assets in disaster-prone zones, changes in risk landscape and in the intensity of natural events, property losses have increased considerably in recent decades. While measuring these stock damages is common practice in the literature, the assessment of economic ripple effects due to business interruption is still limited and available estimates tend to vary significantly across models. This article focuses on the most popular single-region input-output models for disaster impact evaluation...
May 11, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Monique A M de Jong, Jeroen J Briaire, Johan H M Frijns
OBJECTIVES: In an attempt to improve spectral resolution and speech intelligibility, several current focusing methods have been proposed to increase spatial selectivity by decreasing intracochlear current spread. For example, tripolar stimulation administers current to a central electrode and uses the two flanking electrodes as the return pathway, creating a narrower intracochlear electrical field and hence increases spectral resolution when compared with monopolar (MP) stimulation. However, more current is required, and in some patients, specifically the ones with high electrode impedances, full loudness growth cannot be supported because of compliance limits...
May 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Nicolas Pionnier, Julie Vera, Elise Contraires, Stéphane Benayoun, Rémi Berger, Stéphane Valette
Controlling condensation conditions by surface topography is of prime interest. The aim of this work is to investigate the behavior of water droplets condensing on oriented sub-micrometric structures representing ripples with wavelengths around 800 nm. Droplet behavior was studied on different ripples heights and on untextured surfaces. It was specifically looked at how the presence of ripples creates geometrical confinement, and how that influences the deformation and the orientation of single droplets. Results show that the condensed droplets follow the orientation of textured features, especially with high structures height (150 nm)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Manuel Valero, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Understanding how the brain represents events is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The entorhinal-hippocampal system is central to such representations, which are severely compromised in some neurological diseases. In spite of much progress, a comprehensive, integrated view of spatial, temporal and other aspects of episodic representation remains elusive. Here, we review recent data on the role of cell-type specific entorhinal inputs which excite deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cells by direct and indirect pathways...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Michael Sharp, Brian A Weiss
With the ever-increasing demand for reconfigurability and modularity in manufacturing, industrial work cells are increasingly integrating newer and more diverse technologies to not only support the production of a wider range of parts, but also ease the repair or replacement of faulty systems and components. Complex relationships between different elements of a work cell originate from the integration of multiple layers of hardware and software needed to successfully execute the complicated manufacturing processes...
January 2018: Manufacturing Letters
Paola Malerba, Maxim Bazhenov
The hippocampus is important for memory and learning, being a brain site where initial memories are formed and where sharp wave - ripples (SWR) are found, which are responsible for mapping recent memories to long-term storage during sleep-related memory replay. While this conceptual schema is well established, specific intrinsic and network-level mechanisms driving spatio-temporal patterns of hippocampal activity during sleep, and specifically controlling off-line memory reactivation are unknown. In this study, we discuss a model of hippocampal CA1-CA3 network generating spontaneous characteristic SWR activity...
April 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Carlos Romero-Muñiz, Ana Martín-Recio, Pablo Pou, José M Gómez-Rodríguez, Rubén Pérez
The atomistic mechanisms involved in the oxygen (O) intercalation in the strongly interacting graphene (G) on Rh(111) system are characterized in a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study, combining scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experimental evidence points out that the G areas located just above the metallic steps of the substrate are the active sites for initializing the intercalation process when some micro-etching points appear after molecular oxygen gas exposure...
May 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
N Haghighian, D Convertino, V Miseikis, F Bisio, A Morgante, C Coletti, M Canepa, O Cavalleri
The surface structure of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) epitaxially grown on the C-face of SiC has been investigated by TM-AFM in ambient air and upon interaction with dilute aqueous solutions of bio-organic molecules (l-methionine and dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Before interaction with molecular solutions, we observe nicely ordered, three-fold oriented rippled domains, with a 4.7 ± 0.2 nm periodicity (small periodicity, SP) and a peak-to-valley distance in the range 0.1-0.2 nm. Upon mild interaction with the molecular solution, the ripple periodicity "relaxes" to 6...
May 2, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dmitry I Nechaev, Olga N Milekhina, Alexander Ya Supin
The sensitivity of human hearing to gliding rippled spectrum patterns of sound was investigated. The test signal was 2-oct wide rippled noise with the ripples gliding along the frequency scale. Both ripple density and gliding velocity were frequency-proportional across the signal band; i.e., the density was specified in ripples/oct and the velocity was specified in oct/s and ripple/s. The listener was required to discriminate between a test signal with gliding ripples and a non-rippled reference signal. Limits of gliding velocity were measured as a function of ripple density...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Pouyan Khakbaz, Jeffery B Klauda
Lipid bilayers play an important role in biological systems as they protect cells against unwanted chemicals and provide a barrier for material inside a cell from leaking out. In this paper, nearly 30 μs of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate phase transitions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers from the liquid crystalline (Lα ) to the ripple (Pβ ) and to the gel phase (Lβ ). Our MD simulations accurately predict the main transition temperature for the single-component bilayers...
April 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mishaela DiNino, Julie G Arenberg
Children's performance on psychoacoustic tasks improves with age, but inadequate auditory input may delay this maturation. Cochlear implant (CI) users receive a degraded auditory signal with reduced frequency resolution compared with normal, acoustic hearing; thus, immature auditory abilities may contribute to the variation among pediatric CI users' speech recognition scores. This study investigated relationships between age-related variables, spectral resolution, and vowel identification scores in prelingually deafened, early-implanted children with CIs compared with normal hearing (NH) children...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
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