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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#1
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#2
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917017/physiological-ripples-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-100%C3%A2-hz-in-spike-free-scalp-eegs-of-children-with-and-without-epilepsy
#3
Anne H Mooij, Renee C M A Raijmann, Floor E Jansen, Kees P J Braun, Maeike Zijlmans
Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep...
September 15, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915251/computational-analysis-of-network-activity-and-spatial-reach-of-sharp-wave-ripples
#4
Sadullah Canakci, Muhammed Faruk Toy, Ahmet Fatih Inci, Xin Liu, Duygu Kuzum
Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs) are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as information transfer to the neocortex. To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910623/laminar-organization-of-encoding-and-memory-reactivation-in-the-parietal-cortex
#5
Aaron A Wilber, Ivan Skelin, Wei Wu, Bruce L McNaughton
Egocentric neural coding has been observed in parietal cortex (PC), but its topographical and laminar organization is not well characterized. We used multi-site recording to look for evidence of local clustering and laminar consistency of linear and angular velocity encoding in multi-neuronal spiking activity (MUA) and in the high-frequency (300-900 Hz) component of the local field potential (HF-LFP), believed to reflect local spiking activity. Rats were trained to run many trials on a large circular platform, either to LED-cued goal locations or as a spatial sequence from memory...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906417/ripple-effect-shared-governance-and-nurse-engagement
#6
Allison Ong, Nancy Short, Patricia Radovich, Janet Kroetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892057/reactivations-of-emotional-memory-in-the-hippocampus-amygdala-system-during-sleep
#7
Gabrielle Girardeau, Ingrid Inema, György Buzsáki
The consolidation of context-dependent emotional memory requires communication between the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but the mechanisms of this process are unknown. We recorded neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus and BLA while rats learned the location of an aversive air puff on a linear track, as well as during sleep before and after training. We found coordinated reactivations between the hippocampus and the BLA during non-REM sleep following training. These reactivations peaked during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) and involved a subgroup of BLA cells positively modulated during hippocampal SPW-Rs...
September 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887489/hardware-emulation-of-stochastic-p-bits-for-invertible-logic
#8
Ahmed Zeeshan Pervaiz, Lakshmi Anirudh Ghantasala, Kerem Yunus Camsari, Supriyo Datta
The common feature of nearly all logic and memory devices is that they make use of stable units to represent 0's and 1's. A completely different paradigm is based on three-terminal stochastic units which could be called "p-bits", where the output is a random telegraphic signal continuously fluctuating between 0 and 1 with a tunable mean. p-bits can be interconnected to receive weighted contributions from others in a network, and these weighted contributions can be chosen to not only solve problems of optimization and inference but also to implement precise Boolean functions in an inverted mode...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885577/self-assembled-gold-nano-ripple-formation-by-gas-cluster-ion-beam-bombardment
#9
Buddhi P Tilakaratne, Quark Y Chen, Wei-Kan Chu
In this study, we used a 30 keV argon cluster ion beam bombardment to investigate the dynamic processes during nano-ripple formation on gold surfaces. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the gold surface has maximum roughness at an incident angle of 60° from the surface normal; moreover, at this angle, and for an applied fluence of 3 × 10(16) clusters/cm², the aspect ratio of the nano-ripple pattern is in the range of ~50%. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis reveals a formation of a surface gradient due to prolonged gas cluster ion bombardment, although the surface roughness remains consistent throughout the bombarded surface area...
September 8, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883400/snapshot-3d-electron-imaging-of-structural-dynamics
#10
Liu-Gu Chen, Jamie Warner, Angus I Kirkland, Fu-Rong Chen, Dirk Van Dyck
In order to understand the physical properties of materials it is necessary to determine the 3D positions of all atoms. There has been significant progress towards this goal using electron tomography. However, this method requires a relatively high electron dose and often extended acquisition times which precludes the study of structural dynamics such as defect formation and evolution. In this work we describe a method that enables the determination of 3D atomic positions with high precision from single high resolution electron microscopic images of graphene that show dynamic processes...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879673/response-of-preosteoblasts-to-titanium-with-periodic-micro-nanometer-scale-grooves-produced-by-femtosecond-laser-irradiation
#11
Peng Chen, Masayoshi Miyake, Masahiro Tsukamoto, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Takao Hanawa
To investigate the cellular response to designed topography in vitro, we studied the adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and calcification of mouse preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on titanium (Ti) surfaces with periodic micrometer scale grooves containing nanometer scale ripples in the vertical direction fabricated by single-shot, femtosecond laser irradiation (fsTi). The surface composition and chemical state of fsTi were almost the same as those of mirror-polished Ti without femtosecond laser irradiation (mTi)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872861/an-entropic-anomaly-observed-in-lipid-polymorphisms-induced-by-surfactant-peptide-sp-b-1-25
#12
Nhi Tran, Justin J Kurian, Avni Bhatt, Robert McKenna, Joanna R Long
The N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B1-25) induces unusual lipid polymorphisms in a model lipid system, 4:1 DPPC/POPG, mirroring the lipid composition of native pulmonary surfactant. It is widely suggested that SP-B1-25 induced lipid polymorphisms within the alveolar aqueous subphase provide a structural platform for rapid lipid adsorption to the air-water interface. Here, we characterize in detail the phase behavior of DPPC and POPG in hydrated lipid assemblies containing therapeutic levels of SP-B1-25 using (2)H and (31)P solid state NMR spectroscopy...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863551/rippling-pattern-of-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions-evoked-by-high-frequency-primaries-in-guinea-pigs
#13
George W S Burwood, Ian J Russell, Andrei N Lukashkin
The origin of ripples in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitude which appear at specific DPOAE frequencies during f1 tone sweeps using fixed high frequency f2 (>20 kHz) in guinea pigs is investigated. The peaks of the ripples, or local DPOAE amplitude maxima, are separated by approximately half octave intervals and are accompanied by phase oscillations. The local maxima appear at the same frequencies in DPOAEs of different order and velocity responses of the stapes and do not shift with increasing levels of the primaries...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860642/rising-tides-cumulative-impacts-and-cascading-changes-to-estuarine-ecosystem-functions
#14
Theresa A O'Meara, Jenny R Hillman, Simon F Thrush
In coastal ecosystems, climate change affects multiple environmental factors, yet most predictive models are based on simple cause-and-effect relationships. Multiple stressor scenarios are difficult to predict because they can create a ripple effect through networked ecosystem functions. Estuarine ecosystem function relies on an interconnected network of physical and biological processes. Estuarine habitats play critical roles in service provision and represent global hotspots for organic matter processing, nutrient cycling and primary production...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853329/artificial-biomembrane-morphology-a-dissipative-particle-dynamics-study
#15
Matthew Becton, Rodney Averett, Xianqiao Wang
Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835654/a-method-to-generate-small-scale-high-resolution-sedimentary-bedform-architecture-models-representing-realistic-geologic-facies
#16
T A Meckel, L Trevisan, P G Krishnamurthy
Small-scale (mm to m) sedimentary structures (e.g. ripple lamination, cross-bedding) have received a great deal of attention in sedimentary geology. The influence of depositional heterogeneity on subsurface fluid flow is now widely recognized, but incorporating these features in physically-rational bedform models at various scales remains problematic. The current investigation expands the capability of an existing set of open-source codes, allowing generation of high-resolution 3D bedform architecture models...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831349/a-limited-submuscular-direct-to-implant-technique-utilizing-allomax
#17
Michal Brichacek, Kimberly Dalke, Edward Buchel, Thomas E J Hayakawa
This study evaluates a novel limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax where only the upper few centimeters of the implant is covered by the pectoralis, whereas the majority of the implant including the middle and lower poles are covered by acellular dermal matrix. METHODS: The pectoralis muscle is released off its inferior and inferior-medial origins and allowed to retract superiorly. Two sheets of AlloMax (6 × 16 cm) are sutured together and secured to the inframammary fold, serratus fascia, and the superiorly retracted pectoralis...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831335/subcutaneously-placed-breast-implants-after-a-skin-sparing-mastectomy-do-we-always-need-adm
#18
Apresh Singla, Animesh Singla, Eric Lai, David Caminer
Immediate breast reconstruction is an acceptable treatment option after mastectomy for prophylaxis of early breast cancer. Different options exist for implant placement, incision technique, patient suitability, and institutional experience. This article is a case series exploring the feasibility and outcomes of patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction using skin-sparing mastectomy without mesh or acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and with a vertical inframammary incision. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective analysis was performed for all patients who underwent immediate single-stage reconstruction with subcutaneous silicon implants without ADM between 2009 and 2014 inclusive...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830421/health-care-needs-assessment-among-adolescents-in-correctional-institutions-in-zambia-an-ethical-analysis
#19
Maureen Kumwenda, Selestine Nzala, Joseph M Zulu
BACKGROUND: While health care needs assessments have been conducted among juveniles or adolescents by researchers in developed countries, assessments using an ethics framework particularly in developing countries are lacking. We analysed the health care needs among adolescents at the Nakambala Correctional Institution in Zambia, using the Beauchamp and Childress ethics framework. The ethics approach facilitated analysis of moral injustices or dilemmas triggered by health care needs at the individual (adolescent) level...
August 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#20
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
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