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neuroradiology neuroimaging

Natalie E Parks, Gaurav Goyal, Ronald S Go, Jay Mandrekar, W Oliver Tobin
Background: We describe the neuroradiologic features of a cohort of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease. Methods: We assessed patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1990, and July 31, 2016, with pathologically confirmed Erdheim-Chester disease (n = 53). Results: Neuroimaging, including head CT (n = 17), brain MRI (n = 39), orbital MRI (n = 15), and spine MRI (n = 16), was available for 42 participants. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range 46-66) with higher male prevalence (33:20)...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Pinar Eser Ocak, Ihsan Dogan, Umut Ocak, Cem Dinc, Mustafa K Başkaya
OBJECTIVE Cystic vestibular schwannomas (CVSs) are a subgroup of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) that are reported to be associated with unpredictable clinical behavior and unfavorable postoperative outcomes. The authors aimed to review their experience with microsurgical treatment of CVSs in terms of extent of resection and postoperative facial nerve (FN) function and compare these outcomes with those of their solid counterparts. METHODS Two hundred-eleven VS patients were treated surgically between 2006 and 2017...
March 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
G Zaharchuk, E Gong, M Wintermark, D Rubin, C P Langlotz
Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Sergio E Starkstein, Simone Brockman
Apathy, usually defined as loss of motivation, is common in both neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and acute neurological disorders such as stroke. Neuroradiological studies on the imaging correlates of apathy have used a variety of methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and single photon and positron emission tomography to assess brain metabolic activity and specific synaptic receptors. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the strongest anatomical correlate of apathy in Alzheimer's disease, whereas lesions of the basal ganglia are the most common correlates of apathy in cerebrovascular disorders...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Xiaoyu Dong, Chaobo Bai, Jianfei Nao
Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare neurological disease usually associated with chronic alcoholism and characterized by demyelination and necrosis. Our aims were to describe the clinicoradiological features and identify factors that may affect the prognosis of patients with MBD.We examined clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and neuroradiological features of 9 patients with MBD. The patients were classified into 2 subgroups (favorable and poor outcome subgroups) based on the Modified Oxford Handicap Scale (MOSH)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maria Isabel Vargas, Pascal Martelli, Lijing Xin, Ozlem Ipek, Frederic Grouiller, Francesca Pittau, Robert Trampel, Rolf Gruetter, Serge Vulliemoz, Francois Lazeyras
The aim of this article is to illustrate the principal challenges, from the medical and technical point of view, associated with the use of ultrahigh field (UHF) scanners in the clinical setting and to present available solutions to circumvent these limitations. We would like to show the differences between UHF scanners and those used routinely in clinical practice, the principal advantages, and disadvantages, the different UHFs that are ready be applied to routine clinical practice such as susceptibility-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, 3-dimensional time of flight, magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo, magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging, the technical principles of these sequences, and the particularities of advanced techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy, and functional imaging at 7TMR...
January 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
M Ahmadi, K Khurshid, P C Sanelli, S Jalal, T Chahal, A Norbash, S Nicolaou, M Castillo, F Khosa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada...
January 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Elizabeth George, Jeffrey P Guenette, Thomas C Lee
Primary care physicians are often tasked with evaluating neurologic symptoms, and imaging plays a critical role in neurologic diagnoses. Neuroradiology routinely employs advanced imaging modalities, and hence, determination of the appropriate imaging test and interpretation of findings in the clinical context can understandably be overwhelming. In this review article, we introduce resources that can guide physicians in the selection of neuroimaging tests and summarize guidelines on contrast agent administration...
December 2, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Annalisa Mencarelli, Paolo Prontera, Gabriela Stangoni, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Malformations of the cerebral cortex are an important cause of developmental disabilities and epilepsy. Neurological disorders caused by abnormal neuronal migration have been observed to occur with mutations in tubulin genes. The α- and β-tubulin genes encode cytoskeletal proteins, which play a role in the developing brain. TUBA1A mutations are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological problems, which are characterized by peculiar clinical details and neuroradiologic patterns. This manuscript describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, epileptic seizures, and severe developmental delay, with a de novo heterozygous c...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuroimaging findings post ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of nonneonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain magnetic resonance imaging after ECMO between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (interquartile range 3-170 months) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
November 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Michio Nakamura, Tadashi Miyazaki, Natsuki Shinozaki, Masaki Izumi, Takashi Itabashi
OBJECTIVE: Craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas(CCJ-AVFs)are extremely rare lesions that may result in both subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)and myelopathy. Diagnosis of CCJ-AVF is difficult and may be delayed due to variable clinical features and a spectrum of neuroradiological findings. To elucidate the clinical characteristics of CCJ-AVF, we analyzed the clinical symptoms, neuroimaging findings, and the results of surgical treatment in five patients. RESULTS: Among the five patients, four were diagnosed with dural AVFs, and the remaining patient was diagnosed with radicular AVF...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Christie M Lincoln, Peter Fata, Susan Sotardi, Michael Pohlen, Tomas Uribe, Jacqueline A Bello
OBJECTIVE: A wide range of treatment-related side effects result in specific neurologic symptoms and signs and neuroimaging features. Even to the most seasoned neuroradiologist, elucidating therapy-related side effects from other common mimics can be challenging. We provide a pictorial survey of some common and uncommon medication-induced and therapy-related neuroimaging manifestations, discuss pathophysiology and common pitfalls in imaging and diagnosis. METHODS: A case-based review is utilized to depict scenarios on a routine basis in a general radiology or neuroradiology practice such as medication-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome to the more challenging cases of pseudoprogression and pseudoregression in temozolmide and bevacizumab therapy in gliobastoma treatment protocols...
November 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Michal Bienkowski, Julia Furtner, Johannes A Hainfellner
Brain tumor typing is a major task in the daily practice of clinical neuropathologists. For more than 100 years, brain tumors have been classified on the basis of a histogenetic concept, with the definition of more than 120 brain tumor entities over time. In the past decades, biomedical research on brain tumors has led to the identification of clinically meaningful diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular markers. Taking this progress into account, the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system has incorporated for the first time molecular markers for definition of brain tumor entities...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Mohsen Javadzadeh, Masoud Hassanvand Amouzadeh, Shaghayegh Sadat Esmail Nejad, Ezatollah Abasi, Abbas Alipour, Mohsen Mollamohammadi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted on the demographic data, clinical characteristics, electroencephalography, neuroradiological findings, and their impact on the recurrence of ataxia. MATERIALS & METHODS: A 3-yr retrospective review of 49 children with ataxia in Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran was conducted from Apr 2013 to Apr 2016. The demographic, clinical and paraclinical data were recorded in pre-prepared questionnaires. The patients were also classified in two groups of with or without recurrence and the results were compared...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Sorina Gorcenco, Jonna Komulainen-Ebrahim, Karin Nordborg, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Sten Andréasson, Johanna Krüger, Christer Nilsson, Ulrika Kjellström, Elisa Rahikkala, Dominik Turkiewicz, Mikael Karlberg, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga, Ulf Tedgård, Josef Davidsson, Johanna Uusimaa, Andreas Puschmann
OBJECTIVE: We describe the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and ophthalmologic phenotype of 1 Swedish and 1 Finnish family with autosomal dominant ataxia-pancytopenia (ATXPC) syndrome and SAMD9L mutations. METHODS: Members of these families with germline SAMD9L c.2956C>T, p.Arg986Cys, or c.2672T>C, p.Ile891Thr mutations underwent structured interviews and neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations. Neuroimaging was performed, and medical records were reviewed...
October 2017: Neurology. Genetics
K-W Nam, H-M Kwon, J-S Lim, M-K Han, Y-S Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have revealed that the predictors of short- and long-term stroke recurrence are different. We designed a comprehensive stroke recurrence (CSR) model, composed of demographic, clinical and radiological findings, to predict long-term ischaemic stroke recurrences. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the derivation cohort from consecutive patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke within 7 days of symptom onset. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between 2-year recurrence and demographic, clinical and neuroradiological factors...
November 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Godwin Ogbole, Joseph Odo, Richard Efidi, Richard Olatunji, Ayotunde Ogunseyinde
BACKGROUND: Low-field (LF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technology that is widely used in resource-limited settings for clinical imaging. The images produced, even though of low resolution with noise and artefacts, provide valuable information and guidance for patient assessment and treatment. This study shows a spectrum of MRI artefacts that affect image quality during routine clinical neuroradiology practice using LF MRI in a Nigerian hospital and suggests ways to avoid them...
April 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Nadine Pelzer, Evelien S Hoogeveen, Michel D Ferrari, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Mark C Kruit, Gisela M Terwindt
Background Patients with hemiplegic migraine (HM) may sometimes develop progressive neurological deterioration of which the pathophysiology is unknown. Patient We report a 16-year clinical and neuroradiological follow-up of a patient carrying a de novo p.Ser218Leu CACNA1A HM mutation who had nine severe HM attacks associated with seizures and decreased consciousness between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Results Repeated ictal and postictal neuroimaging revealed cytotoxic oedema during severe HM attacks in the symptomatic hemisphere, which later showed atrophic changes...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
S Ramji, P Touska, P Rich, A D MacKinnon
Variations of normal development and benign incidental anomalies are frequently observed on diagnostic neuroimaging. It is important these are recognised for what they are, as misinterpretation may result in unnecessary further investigation, follow-up imaging and anxiety. In this article, we review benign intracranial anomalies commonly referred to our unit for specialist neuroradiology advice or multidisciplinary discussion, concerning cysts of the pineal gland and pituitary fossa, vascular anomalies, and perivascular spaces...
October 2017: Clinical Radiology
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