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Memory disorder

Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Xueying Wang, Ksenia V Kastanenka, Michal Arbel-Ornath, Caitlin Commins, Akira Kuzuya, Amanda J Lariviere, Grant A Krafft, Franz Hefti, Jasna Jerecic, Brian J Bacskai
Soluble amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) are widely recognized neurotoxins that trigger aberrant signaling in specific subsets of neurons, leading to accumulated neuronal damage and memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the profound downstream consequences of AβO-triggered events is dysregulation of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which has been implicated in synaptic failure, cytoskeletal abnormalities, and eventually neuronal death. We have developed an in vitro/in vivo drug screening assay to evaluate putative AβO-blocking candidates by measuring AβO-induced real-time changes in [Ca2+ ]i ...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jamuna Rajeswaran, Cathyln Niranjana Bennett
Substance use disorders are frequently associated with neuropsychological deficits. A comprehensive assessment of attention, memory, executive functions, language and mental speed is often warranted. Cognitive rehabilitation is a therapy programme designed as an intervention to help people with cognitive, behaviour and emotional deficits. Using systematic approaches such as cognitive retraining and EEG neurofeedback, the individuals are helped to be integrated into society.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Cláudia Lopes Carvalho, Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro Belan, Leila Regina de Castro, Márcia Radanovic
PURPOSE: To characterize the linguistic profile of adults and elderly with Down Syndrome (DS) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). METHODS: Thirty adult individuals with DS were evaluated through the MoCA cognitive battery, four functional scales (Pfeffer, Lawton-IADL, Katz-IADL and IQCODE) and the ABCD battery, which evaluates Mental State, Episodic Memory, Linguistic Expression, Linguistic Comprehension and Visuospatial Construction...
March 12, 2018: CoDAS
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
P A Gonzalez-Perez, S Hernandez-Exposito, J Perez, G Ramirez, A Dominguez
AIMS: To investigate whether or not the deficits in executive functions in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect reading comprehension and identify a potential biological marker of this neuropsychological endophenotype through event-related potentials (ERP). The phenotypic association between reading comprehension and the specific functions of inhibition and working memory is studied. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 children with ADHD (8-13 years) divided in two groups according to the presence (TDAH-; n = 27; percentile < 30) or the absence (TDAH+; n = 25; percentile > 50) of reading comprehension deficits and a control group (n = 27)...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Mathilde Sacher, Andrei-Cristian Tudorache, David Clarys, Mohamed Boudjarane, Lionel Landré, Wissam El-Hage
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently associated with episodic memory deficits. To some extent, these deficits could be related to an impairment of metamemory in individuals with PTSD. This research consequently aims at investigating prospective (feeling-of-knowing, FOK) and retrospective (confidence) metamemory judgments for episodic information in PTSD. METHOD: Twenty participants with PTSD and without depression were compared to 30 healthy comparison participants on metamemory judgments during an episodic memory task...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
M Sehmbi, C D Rowley, L Minuzzi, F Kapczinski, M Steiner, R B Sassi, N A Bock, B N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive dysfunction persists through affective and euthymic states in bipolar disorder (BD), its neurobiological correlates remain undetermined. We explore whole-cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and cognition in BD-I and controls. METHODS: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. MRI signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth. Cognitive performance was measured via standardized computerized battery and paper-and-pencil Trails B...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Yi-Heng Tai, Yu-Yi Lin, Kai-Chen Wang, Chao-Lin Chang, Ru-Yin Chen, Chia-Chu Wu, Irene H Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and is triggered via abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Aggregated Aβ is responsible for disrupting calcium homeostasis, inducing neuroinflammation, and promoting neurodegeneration. In this study, we generated curcuminoid submicron particle (CSP), which reduce the average size to ~60 nm in diameter. CSP had elevated the bioavailability in vivo and better neuroprotective effect against oligomeric Aβ than un-nanosized curcuminoids in vitro ...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Valentina Cardi, Núria Mallorqui-Bague, Gaia Albano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marie E Gaine, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Ted Abel
Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Amit Kumar, Francesca Pintus, Amalia Di Petrillo, Rosaria Medda, Paola Caria, Maria João Matos, Dolores Viña, Enrico Pieroni, Francesco Delogu, Benedetta Era, Giovanna L Delogu, Antonella Fais
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the leading cause of dementia and is affecting nearly 44 million people worldwide. AD is characterized by a progressive decline in acetylcholine levels in the cholinergic systems, which results in severe memory loss and cognitive impairments. Expression levels and activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme has been noted to increase significantly in the late stages of AD, thus making it a viable drug target. A series of hydroxylated 2-phenylbenzofurans compounds were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE enzymes were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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