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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783162/a-peripheral-immune-response-to-remembering-trauma-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-fear-memory-in-mice
#1
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782953/electrodermal-reactivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#2
Jacques Luauté, Anne Dubois, Lizette Heine, Chloé Guironnet, Ariane Juliat, Valérie Gaveau, Barbara Tillmann, Fabien Perrin
OBJECTIVES: After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients with neurological impairment. We hypothesized that signs of awareness could be enhanced in some patients with disorders of consciousness under appropriate emotional stimulation such as preferred music and also probably preferred odors...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781628/early-life-stress-impairs-contextual-threat-expression-in-female-but-not-male-mice
#3
Gabriela Manzano-Nieves, Mizan Gaillard, Meghan Gallo, Kevin G Bath
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered processing of threat signals, and increased lifetime risk of anxiety and affective pathology, disorders that disproportionately affect females. We tested the impact of a limited bedding paradigm of ELS (from P4-11) on contextual threat learning, context memory, footshock sensitivity, and anxietylike behavior, in adult male and female mice. To examine contextual threat learning, mice conditioned by context/footshock association were tested 24 hr later for the context memory...
May 21, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780793/an-exponential-regression-model-reveals-the-continuous-development-of-b-cell-subpopulations-used-as-reference-values-in-children
#4
Christoph Königs, Stephan Schultze-Strasser, Andrea Quaiser, Konrad Bochennek, Dirk Schwabe, Thomas E Klingebiel, Ulrike Koehl, Claudia Cappel, Udo Rolle, Peter Bader, Melanie Bremm, Sabine Huenecke, Shahrzad Bakhtiar
B lymphocytes are key players in humoral immunity, expressing diverse surface immunoglobulin receptors directed against specific antigenic epitopes. The development and profile of distinct subpopulations have gained awareness in the setting of primary immunodeficiency disorders, primary or secondary autoimmunity and as therapeutic targets of specific antibodies in various diseases. The major B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood include naïve (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD+ CD27- ), non-switched memory (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD+ CD27+ ) and switched memory B cells (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD- CD27+ )...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#5
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779434/a-cognitive-dimensional-approach-to-understanding-shared-and-unique-contributions-to-reading-math-and-attention-skills
#6
Amanda E Child, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher, Erik G Willcutt, Lynn S Fuchs
Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778070/high-intensity-binge-drinking-is-associated-with-alterations-in-spontaneous-neural-oscillations-in-young-adults
#7
Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777198/aberrant-working-memory-processing-in-major-depression-evidence-from-multivoxel-pattern-classification
#9
Matti Gärtner, M Elisabetta Ghisu, Milan Scheidegger, Luisa Bönke, Yan Fan, Anna Stippl, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sophie Metz, Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Anke Henning, Malek Bajbouj, Karsten Borgwardt, Thorsten Barnhofer, Simone Grimm
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by severe impairments in working memory (WM). Neuroimaging studies investigating the mechanisms underlying these impairments have produced conflicting results. It remains unclear whether MDD patients show hyper- or hypoactivity in WM-related brain regions and how potential aberrations in WM processing may contribute to the characteristic dysregulation of cognition-emotion interactions implicated in the maintenance of the disorder. In order to shed light on these questions and to overcome limitations of previous studies, we applied a multivoxel pattern classification approach to investigate brain activity in large samples of MDD patients (N = 57) and matched healthy controls (N = 61) during a WM task that incorporated positive, negative, and neutral stimuli...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#10
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774519/zika-virus-baculovirus-expressed-virus-like-particles-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-mice
#12
Shiyu Dai, Tao Zhang, Yanfang Zhang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng
The newly emerged mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) strains pose a global challenge owing to its ability to cause microcephaly and neurological disorders. Several ZIKV vaccine candidates have been proposed, including inactivated and live attenuated virus vaccines, vector-based vaccines, DNA and RNA vaccines. These have been shown to be efficacious in preclinical studies in mice and nonhuman primates, but their use will potentially be a threat to immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty particles composed merely of viral proteins, which can serve as a safe and valuable tool for clinical prevention and treatment strategies...
May 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#13
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#16
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772202/rnp-granule-assembly-via-ataxin-2-disordered-domains-is-required-for-long-term-memory-and-neurodegeneration
#17
Baskar Bakthavachalu, Joern Huelsmeier, Indulekha P Sudhakaran, Jens Hillebrand, Amanjot Singh, Arnas Petrauskas, Devasena Thiagarajan, M Sankaranarayanan, Laura Mizoue, Eric N Anderson, Udai Bhan Pandey, Eric Ross, K VijayRaghavan, Roy Parker, Mani Ramaswami
Human Ataxin-2 is implicated in the cause and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and type 2 spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA-2). In Drosophila, a conserved atx2 gene is essential for animal survival as well as for normal RNP-granule assembly, translational control, and long-term habituation. Like its human homolog, Drosophila Ataxin-2 (Atx2) contains polyQ repeats and additional intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We demonstrate that Atx2 IDRs, which are capable of mediating liquid-liquid phase transitions in vitro, are essential for efficient formation of neuronal mRNP assemblies in vivo...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771624/virtual-reality-training-to-enhance-behavior-and-cognitive-function-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-brief-report
#18
Shirley Shema-Shiratzky, Marina Brozgol, Pablo Cornejo-Thumm, Karen Geva-Dayan, Michael Rotstein, Yael Leitner, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769252/frequency-of-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-presenting-to-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#19
Shahid Mukhtar, Rashid Imran, Mohsin Zaheer, Huma Tariq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) presenting to a movement disorder clinic at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan, and how frequency of NMS is different in male and female patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 102 patients, 85 were included. Inclusion criteria were patients with PD diagnosed according to the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, age ≥18 years, able to give consent and have no difficulty in answering questions...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768996/a-systematic-review-on-donepezil-based-derivatives-as-potential-cholinesterase-inhibitors-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Jan Korabecny, Katarina Spilovska, Eva Mezeiova, Ondrej Benek, Radomir Juza, Daniel Kaping, Ondrej Soukup
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and gradual deterioration of intellectual capacity. Its etiology has not been elucidated yet. To date, only one therapeutic approach has been approved for the treatment of AD. The pharmacotherapy of AD has relied on non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist - memantine, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (AChEIs) - tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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