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Electron tomography

Gordon X Wang, Stephen J Smith, Philippe Mourrain
The distribution of proteins within sub-synaptic compartments is an essential aspect of their neurological function. Current methodology such as electron microscopy (EM) and super-resolution imaging techniques can provide precise localization of proteins, but are often limited to a small number of one-time observations with narrow spatial and molecular coverage. The diversity of synaptic proteins and synapse types demands synapse analysis on a scale that is prohibitive with current methods. Here, we demonstrate SubSynMAP, a fast, multiplexed sub-synaptic protein analysis method using wide-field data from deconvolution array tomography (ATD)...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Mira M Sachdeva, Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Athanasios Papakostas, Dean Eliott
PURPOSE: Large relaxing retinectomies have become increasingly used in the repair of retinal detachment related to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retinectomies expose the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the vitreous cavity; the direct effects of silicone oil on the RPE are only beginning to be understood. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients noted to develop pigmented epiretinal deposits at regularly scheduled follow-up visits after repair of complex retinal detachments using silicone oil tamponade and retinectomy...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Manuela Kellner, Marko Heidrich, Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer, Georgios C Antonopoulos, Lars Knudsen, Christoph Wrede, Nicole Izykowski, Roman Grothausmann, Danny Jonigk, Matthias Ochs, Tammo Ripken, Mark P Kühnel, Heiko Meyer
Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bastien Bonef, Miguel Lopez-Haro, Lynda Amichi, Mark Beeler, Adeline Grenier, Eric Robin, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Nicolas Mollard, Isabelle Mouton, Eva Monroy, Catherine Bougerol
The enhancement of the performance of advanced nitride-based optoelectronic devices requires the fine tuning of their composition, which has to be determined with a high accuracy and at the nanometer scale. For that purpose, we have evaluated and compared energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) in terms of composition analysis of AlGaN/GaN multilayers. Both techniques give comparable results with a composition accuracy better than 0...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Xue Rui, Yannan Jin, Paul F FitzGerald, Mingye Wu, Adam M Alessio, Paul E Kinahan, Bruno De Man
Computed tomography (CT) has been used for a variety of applications, two of which include diagnostic imaging and attenuation correction for PET or SPECT imaging. Ideally, the x-ray tube spectrum should be optimized for the specific application to minimize the patient radiation dose while still providing the necessary information. In this study, we proposed a projection-based analytic approach for the analysis of contrast, noise, and bias. Dose normalized contrast to noise ratio (CNRD), inverse noise normalized by dose (IND) and bias are used as evaluation metrics to determine the optimal x-ray spectrum...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Carola Becker, Gerhard Scholtz
Female reproductive systems are important characters for understanding the evolution of Brachyura and resolving its phylogenetic relationships. We herein investigate a podotreme brachyuran reproductive system comprehensively for the first time studying spermathecae and gonopores of Homoloidea with histological methods, micro-computer tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that spermathecal apertures are species-specific and their shape corresponds closely to that of male copulatory organs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Tomohiro Sonoo, Satoshi Iwai, Ryota Inokuchi, Masataka Gunshin, Yoichi Kitsuta, Susumu Nakajima
Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many patients in a short time. Therefore, such a template might be especially useful, but few ED-based studies have examined such systems.A structured template produced according to widely used head injury guidelines was used by ED residents for head injury patients...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Huan-Yuan Chen, Dapi Meng-Lin Chiang, Zi-Jing Lin, Chia-Chun Hsieh, Gung-Chian Yin, I-Chun Weng, Peter Guttermann, Stephan Werner, Katja Henzler, Gerd Schneider, Lee-Jene Lai, Fu-Tong Liu
Mast cells play an important role in allergic responses. During activation, these cells undergo degranulation, a process by which various kinds of mediators stored in the granules are released. Granule homeostasis in mast cells has mainly been studied by electron microscopy (EM), where the fine structures of subcellular organelles are partially destroyed during sample preparation. Migration and fusion of granules have not been studied in detail in three dimensions (3D) in unmodified samples. Here, we utilized soft X-ray tomography (SXT) coupled with fluorescence microscopy to study the detailed structures of organelles during mast cell activation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
David R Diercks, Brian P Gorman, Johannes J L Mulders
Six precursors were evaluated for use as in situ electron beam-induced deposition capping layers in the preparation of atom probe tomography specimens with a focus on near-surface features where some of the deposition is retained at the specimen apex. Specimens were prepared by deposition of each precursor onto silicon posts and shaped into sub-70-nm radii needles using a focused ion beam. The utility of the depositions was assessed using several criteria including composition and uniformity, evaporation behavior and evaporation fields, and depth of Ga+ ion penetration...
October 17, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Maria Eleftheriadou, Clara Vazquez-Alfageme, Cristina Maria Citu, Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi, Sobha Sivaprasad, Philip Hykin, Robin D Hamilton, Praveen J Patel
PURPOSE: To report 2 year treatment outcomes with intravitreal aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-randomized, interventional case series. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of electronic medical record (EMR) notes (OpenEyes), paper case notes and review of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of patients with consecutively treated eyes with previously untreated nAMD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Vladan Lučić, Rubén Fernández-Busnadiego, Ulrike Laugks, Wolfgang Baumeister
Molecular complexes, arguably the basic units carrying cellular function, can be visualized directly in their native environment by cryo-electron tomography. Here we describe a procedure for the detection of small, pleomorphic membrane-bound molecular complexes in cryo-tomograms by a hierarchical connectivity segmentation. Validation on phantom and real data showed above 90% true positive rates. This segmentation procedure is implemented in the Pyto software package, together with methods for quantitative characterization and classification of complexes detected by our segmentation procedure and for statistical analysis between experimental conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Luca Fortunato, Sanghyun Jeong, Yiran Wang, Ali R Behzad, TorOve Leiknes
Fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) is acknowledged to be complex and unclear. An integrated characterization methodology was employed in this study to understand the fouling on a gravity-driven submerged MBR (GD-SMBR). It involved the use of different analytical tools, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), total organic carbon (TOC), flow cytometer (FCM), adenosine triphosphate analysis (ATP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The three-dimensional (3D) biomass morphology was acquired in a real-time through non-destructive and in situ OCT scanning of 75% of the total membrane surface directly in the tank...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Eva Bladt, Relinde J A van Dijk-Moes, Joep Peters, Federico Montanarella, Celso de Mello Donegá, Daniël Vanmaekelbergh, Sara Bals
Hetero-nanocrystals consisting of a CdSe core and a giant CdS shell have shown remarkable optical properties which are promising for applications in opto-electrical devices. Since these properties sensitively depend on the size and shape, a morphological characterization is of high interest. Here, we present a High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) study of CdSe (core) / CdS (giant shell) hetero-nanocrystals. Electron tomography reveals that the nanocrystals have a bullet shape, either ending in a tip or a small dip, and that the CdSe core is positioned closer to the tip (or dip) than to the hexagonal base...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Vikneswary Batumalai, Penny Phan, Callie Choong, Lois Holloway, Geoff P Delaney
INTRODUCTION: To compare the differences in setup errors measured with electronic portal image (EPI) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy (RT). Relationship between setup errors, body mass index (BMI) and breast size was assessed. METHODS: Twenty-five patients undergoing postoperative RT to the breast were consented for this study. Weekly CBCT scans were acquired and retrospectively registered to the planning CT in three dimensions, first using bony anatomy for bony registration (CBCT-B) and again using breast tissue outline for soft tissue registration (CBCT-S)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Salah Huwais, Eric G Meyer
PURPOSE: It is essential to have sufficient bone bulk and density at the implant site in order to achieve good bone-to-implant contact and primary stability, which are crucial for osseointegration. A new osteotomy preparation technique was recently introduced that uses a bone preservation method that creates a layer of compacted bone along the surface of the osteotomy. The hypothesis of this study was that this novel technique would increase primary implant stability, bone mineral density, and the percentage of bone at the implant surface compared with drilling technique...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Zong Ruilong, Xie Daohai, Geng Li, Wang Xiaohong, Wang Chunjie, Tian Lei
OBJECTIVES: To carry out a meta-analysis on the performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the meta-analysis, we performed searches of several electronic databases for relevant studies, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and several Chinese databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2)...
October 12, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
M F Bieniosek, J W Cates, C S Levin
Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Alexandra Zvereva, Nina Petoussi-Henss, Wei Bo Li, Helmut Schlattl, Uwe Oeh, Maria Zankl, Frank Philipp Graner, Christoph Hoeschen, Stephan G Nekolla, Katia Parodi, Markus Schwaiger
The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the definition of blood as a distinct source on organ doses, associated with the administration of a novel radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging-(S)-4-(3-(18)F-fluoropropyl)-L-glutamic acid ((18)F-FSPG). Personalised pharmacokinetic models were constructed based on clinical PET/CT images from five healthy volunteers and blood samples from four of them. Following an identifiability analysis of the developed compartmental models, person-specific model parameters were estimated using the commercial program SAAM II...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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