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Electron tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054043/systematic-approaches-for-targeting-an-atom-probe-tomography-sample-fabricated-in-a-thin-tem-specimen-correlative-structural-chemical-and-3-d-reconstruction-analyses
#1
Sung-Il Baik, Dieter Isheim, David N Seidman
Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip...
October 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051991/radiation-induced-liver-injury-mimicking-liver-metastases-on-fdg-pet-ct-after-chemoradiotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer-a%C3%A2-retrospective-study-and-literature-review
#2
Francine E M Voncken, Berthe M P Aleman, Jolanda M van Dieren, Cecile Grootscholten, Ferry Lalezari, Johanna W van Sandick, Jeffrey D Steinberg, Erik Vegt
BACKGROUND: For esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), restaging using F‑18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) following nCRT can detect interval metastases, including liver metastases, in almost 10% of patients. However, in clinical practice, focal FDG liver uptake, unrelated to liver metastases, is observed after chemoradiotherapy. This radiation-induced liver injury (RILI) can potentially lead to overstaging...
October 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051516/stromal-striae-a-new-insight-into-corneal-physiology-and-mechanics
#3
Kate Grieve, Djida Ghoubay, Cristina Georgeon, Gael Latour, Amir Nahas, Karsten Plamann, Caroline Crotti, Romain Bocheux, Marie Borderie, Thu-Mai Nguyen, Felipe Andreiuolo, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Vincent Borderie
We uncover the significance of a previously unappreciated structural feature in corneal stroma, important to its biomechanics. Vogt striae are a known clinical indicator of keratoconus, and consist of dark, vertical lines crossing the corneal depth. However we detected stromal striae in most corneas, not only keratoconus. We observed striae with multiple imaging modalities in 82% of 118 human corneas, with pathology-specific differences. Striae generally depart from anchor points at Descemet's membrane in the posterior stroma obliquely in a V-shape, whereas in keratoconus, striae depart vertically from posterior toward anterior stroma...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049927/electron-tomography-of-whole-cultured-cells-using-novel-transmission-electron-imaging-technique
#4
Taiga Okumura, Minami Shoji, Akiko Hisada, Yusuke Ominami, Sukehiro Ito, Tatsuo Ushiki, Masato Nakajima, Takashi Ohshima
Since a three-dimensional (3D) cellular ultrastructure is significant for biological functions, it has been investigated using various electron microscopic techniques. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based techniques are traditionally used, cells must be embedded in resin and sliced into ultrathin sections in sample preparation processes. Block-face observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has also been recently applied to 3D observation of cellular components, but this is a destructive inspection and does not allow re-examination...
October 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048916/reduced-magnetism-in-core-shell-magnetite-mof-composites
#5
Sameh K Elsaidi, Michael Sinnwell, Debasis Banerjee, Arun Devaraj, Ravi K Kukkadapu, Timothy Droubay, Zimin Nie, Libor Kovarik, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Sandeep Manandhar, Manjula I Nandasiri, B Peter McGrail, Praveen K Thallapally
The magnetic susceptibility of core-shell microspheres was found to decline after the growth of a metal-organic framework (MOF) shell on a synthesized magnetite (Fe3O4) core. Detailed structural analysis of the core-shell particles using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (ATP), and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy suggest the distribution of MOF precursors inside the magnetic core resulted in the oxidation of the iron oxide core.
October 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046921/pioglitazone-reduces-cold-induced-brown-fat-glucose-uptake-despite-induction-of-browning-in-cultured-human-adipocytes-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-humans
#6
Rebecca K C Loh, Melissa F Formosa, Nina Eikelis, David A Bertovic, Mitchell J Anderson, Shane A Barwood, Shane Nanayakkara, Neale D Cohen, Andre La Gerche, Anne T Reutens, Kenneth S Yap, Thomas W Barber, Gavin W Lambert, Martin H Cherk, Stephen J Duffy, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrew L Carey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is a possible therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure and glucose and lipid clearance to ameliorate obesity and associated comorbidities. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of glucose-lowering drugs increase BAT browning in preclinical experimental models but whether these actions extend to humans in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipocyte browning and adaptive thermogenesis in humans...
October 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045157/denticity-and-mobility-of-the-carbonate-groups-in-amco3f-fluorocarbonates-a-study-on-kmnco3f-and-high-temperature-kcaco3f-polymorph
#7
Gwenaelle Rousse, Hania Ahouari, Vladimir Pomjakushin, Jean-Marie Tarascon, Nadir Recham, Artem M Abakumov
We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ∼320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044067/improvement-in-distance-and-near-visual-acuities-using-low-vision-devices-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Sarika Gopalakrishnan, Aishwarya Muralidharan, Shwetha Chambayil Susheel, Rajiv Raman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to elucidate the causes and level of visual impairment (VI) in patients with different pathologies of diabetic retinopathy (DR) who presented to a low vision care (LVC) clinic, to analyze the type of distant and near devices prescribed to them and the visual benefits thereof. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was done for 100 consecutive patients with DR who were referred to the LVC clinic from June 2015 to June 2016. The reason for referral was assessed from the electronic medical records and available fundus photographs, fundus fluorescein angiograms, and optical coherence tomography images by a retina specialist...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043666/3d-electron-microscopy-of-the-er
#9
Maike Kittelmann
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms an extensive network in plant cells. In leaf cells and vacuolated root cells it is mainly restricted to the cortex whereas in the root meristem the cortical and cytoplasmic ER takes up a large volume throughout the entire cell. Only 3D electron microscopy provides sufficient resolution to understand the spatial organization of the ER in the root. However, high contrast staining and optimally ER specific staining is essential. Here we describe a protocol for selective ER staining that allows automated or semiautomated segmentation of the organelle in 3D datasets obtained from serial sections, Array Tomography, Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBFSEM), or Focused Ion Beam (FIB) SEM...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040800/ocriplasmin-for-symptomatic-vitreomacular-adhesion
#10
REVIEW
James E Neffendorf, Varo Kirthi, Edward Pringle, Timothy L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (sVMA) is a recognised cause of visual loss and by tradition has been managed by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). A less invasive alternative to surgery in some people is enzymatic vitreolysis, using an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of ocriplasmin compared to no treatment, sham or placebo for the treatment of sVMA. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 24 February 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 24 February 2017), PubMed (1946 to 24 February 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040242/epidemiology-and-predictors-of-orbital-fractures-in-children
#11
Andrew F Miller, Daniel M Elman, Paul L Aronson, Amir A Kimia, Mark I Neuman
OBJECTIVES: Data regarding clinical predictors of orbital fractures in children are limited. We sought to describe the epidemiology of pediatric orbital fractures and identify the signs and symptoms of orbital fractures in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children younger than 22 years who underwent a facial or orbital computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate for orbital fracture. We included patients presenting to an emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital between January 2009 and May 2013...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038566/structural-variability-and-complexity-of-the-giant-pithovirus-sibericum-particle-revealed-by-high-voltage-electron-cryo-tomography-and-energy-filtered-electron-cryo-microscopy
#12
Kenta Okamoto, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Chihong Song, Filipe R N C Maia, Hemanth K N Reddy, Chantal Abergel, Jean-Michel Claverie, Janos Hajdu, Martin Svenda, Kazuyoshi Murata
The Pithoviridae giant virus family exhibits the largest viral particle known so far, a prolate spheroid up to 2.5 μm in length and 0.9 μm in diameter. These particles show significant variations in size. Little is known about the structure of the intact virion due to technical limitations with conventional electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) when imaging thick specimens. Here we present the intact structure of the giant Pithovirus sibericum particle at near native conditions using high-voltage electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) and energy-filtered cryo-EM...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037785/novel-bilayer-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-with-concentrated-plga-nano-microparticles-for-targeted-intradermal-delivery-proof-of-concept
#13
Lalit K Vora, Ryan F Donnelly, Eneko Larraneta, Patricia González-Vázquez, Raghu Raj Singh Thakur, Pradeep R Vavia
Polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays continue to receive growing attention due to their ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally-invasive fashion and achieve enhanced transdermal drug delivery and "targeted" intradermal vaccine administration. In this research work, we fabricated biodegradable bilayer MN arrays containing nano - microparticles for targeted and sustained intradermal drug delivery. For this study, model drug (vitamin D3, VD3)-loaded PLGA nano- and microparticles (NMP) were prepared by a single emulsion solvent evaporation method with 72...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036875/three-novel-accurate-pixel-driven-projection-methods-for-2d-ct-and-3d-epr-imaging
#14
Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Zhiguo Gui, Yuhua Qian, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
OBJECTIVES: This work aims to explore more accurate pixel-driven projection methods for iterative image reconstructions in order to reduce high-frequency artifacts in the generated projection image. METHODS: Three new pixel-driven projection methods namely, small-pixel-large-detector (SPLD), linear interpolation based (LIB) and distance anterpolation based (DAB), were proposed and applied to reconstruct images. The performance of these methods was evaluated in both two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images via the modified FORBILD phantom and three-dimensional (3D) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images via the 6-spheres phantom...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035426/synthesis-of-bsa-coated-bioi-bi2-s3-semiconductor-heterojunction-nanoparticles-and-their-applications-for-radio-photodynamic-photothermal-synergistic-therapy-of-tumor
#15
Zhao Guo, Shuang Zhu, Yuan Yong, Xiao Zhang, Xinghua Dong, Jiangfeng Du, Jiani Xie, Qing Wang, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Developing an effective theranostic nanoplatform remains a great challenge for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here, BiOI@Bi2 S3 @BSA (bovine serum albumin) semiconductor heterojunction nanoparticles (SHNPs) for triple-combination radio/photodynamic/photothermal cancer therapy and multimodal computed tomography/photoacoustic (CT/PA) bioimaging are reported. On the one hand, SHNPs possess strong X-ray attenuation capability since they contain high-Z elements, and thus they are anticipated to be a very competent candidate as radio-sensitizing materials for radiotherapy enhancement...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026303/delivery-of-antagomir204-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-from-plga-sheets-and-its-implication-in-promoting-osseointegration-of-titanium-implant-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Xiangwei Liu, Naiwen Tan, Yuchao Zhou, Hongbo Wei, Shuai Ren, Fan Yu, Hui Chen, Chengming Jia, Guodong Yang, Yingliang Song
Impaired osseointegration of the implant remains the big hurdle for dental implant therapy in diabetic patients. In this study, the authors first identified that miR204 was strikingly highly expressed in the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of diabetic rats. Forced expression of miR204 repressed the osteogenic potential of BMSCs, while inhibition of miR204 significantly increased the osteogenic capacity. Moreover, the miR204 inhibitor was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP-antagomiR204) and dispersed them in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solution...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025529/-volume-or-value-the-role-of-the-radiologist-in-managing-radiological-exams
#17
Carlos Francisco Silva, Teresa Guerra
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons and quantify the number of ultrasounds and computed tomographies that are potentially wasted in the hospital emergency in our institution, and the importance that the radiologist can have in the management and screening of these exams. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was decided that urgent tests that were pending for more than seven days would be the object of analysis as to why they were not performed, consulting the electronic medical records...
September 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024853/overexpression-of-constitutively-active-map3k7-in-ameloblasts-causes-enamel-defects-of-mouse-teeth
#18
Zhao Jinping, Chu Qing, Song Wenying, Yang Chunyan, Xiang Lili, Shi Yao, Wang Yumin, Xu Zhenzhen, Zhang Li, Gao Yuguang
OBJECTIVE: Compelling evidence suggests that mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapks) play an important role in amelogenesis. However, the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activating kinase 1 (Tak1, Map3k7), which is a known upstream kinase of Mapks, during amelogenesis remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of Map3k7 in amelogenesis. DESIGN: We generated transgenic mice that produced constitutively active human MAP3K7 (caMAP3K7) under the control of amelogenin (Amelx) gene promoter...
September 25, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016774/alveolar-bone-changes-after-rapid-maxillary-expansion-with-tooth-born-appliances-a-systematic-review
#19
Antonino Lo Giudice, Ersilia Barbato, Leandro Cosentino, Claudia Maria Ferraro, Rosalia Leonardi
Background: During rapid maxillary expansion (RME), heavy forces are transmitted to the maxilla by the anchored teeth causing buccal inclination and buccal bone loss of posterior teeth. Objective: To systematically review the literature in order to investigate whether RME causes periodontal sequelae, assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Search methods: Fifteen electronic databases and reference lists of studies were searched up to March 2017...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016373/cancer-yield-of-incidental-breast-lesions-detected-on-chest-computed-tomography
#20
Terrance T Healey, Saurabh Agarwal, Ronak Patel, Lisa Ratanaprasatporn, Linda Ratanaprasatporn, Ana P Lourenco
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the cancer yield for abnormal breast findings initially identified on chest computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study retrospectively reviewed reports of 41,217 consecutive chest CT examinations done from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011, to identify those with breast findings noted in the impression of the report...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
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