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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331829/additional-small-dose-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-at-timed-artificial-insemination-failed-to-improve-pregnancy-risk-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#1
J A Sauls, B E Voelz, L G D Mendonça, J S Stevenson
Two experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that administering PGF2α concurrent with timed artificial insemination (AI) in lactating dairy cows would enhance pregnancy per AI (P/AI). In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows (n = 289) in one herd were enrolled after a non-pregnancy diagnosis (30-36 d after AI) to synchronize subsequent ovulation before AI. Cows were assigned randomly to receive (im) 10 mg of PGF2α concurrent with timed AI (Day 0; treatment) or no injection (control). Blood samples were collected on Days -3, 0, and 13 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone...
January 3, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325971/incorporation-of-fetal-and-child-pfoa-dosimetry-in-the-derivation-of-health-based-toxicity-values
#2
Kyra Kimberly Kieskamp, Rachel Rogers Worley, Eva D McLanahan, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Multiple agencies have developed health-based toxicity values for exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Although PFOA exposure occurs in utero and through breastfeeding, current health-based toxicity values have not been derived using fetal or child dosimetry. Therefore, current values may underestimate the potential risks to fetuses and nursing infants. OBJECTIVE: Using fetal and child dosimetry, we aimed to calculate PFOA maternal human equivalent doses (HEDs), corresponding to a developmental mouse study lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 1mg/kg/day)...
December 23, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323435/soluble-cd14-levels-in-plasma-and-breastmilk-of-malawian-hiv-women-lack-of-association-with-morbidity-and-mortality-in-their-exposed-infants
#3
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina M Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Sandro Mancinelli, Victor T Tolno, Jane Gondwe, Roberta Amici, Maria C Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Lucia Palmisano
PROBLEM: Data on soluble CD14 (sCD14) during pregnancy and lactation are scarce. We assessed the levels of sCD14 in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV-positive women and evaluated the possible association with morbidity and mortality in the HIV-exposed children. METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and forty-nine mother/child pairs were studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from 26 weeks of gestation to at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. sCD14 concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318622/fish-oil-in-infancy-protects-against-food-allergy-in-iceland-results-from-a-birth-cohort-study
#4
Michael Clausen, Kristjan Jonasson, Thomas Keil, Kirsten Beyer, Sigurveig T Sigurdardottir
BACKGROUND: Consumption of oily fish or fish oil during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy has been linked to a reduction in the development of allergic diseases in childhood. METHODS: In an observational study, Icelandic children (n = 1304) were prospectively followed from birth to 2.5 years with detailed questionnaires administered at birth and at one and two years of age, including questions about fish oil supplementation. Children with suspected food allergy were invited for physical examinations, allergic sensitization tests, and a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge if the allergy testing or clinical history indicated food allergy...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310516/assessment-of-squalene-eligibility-in-bettering-some-maternal-and-fetal-disorders-instigated-by-gamma-irradiation-of-rats-at-mid-gestation
#5
M F Ibrahim, N Abdelaziz
Squalene is an eminent vital part of the synthesis of steroid hormones in the body as well as the first specific intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis that plays an essential role in normal embryogenesis. PURPOSE: The present work was designed to test the maternal and embryonic response to the modulating capacity of Squalene (0.4 mL/kg/day), when supplemented to rats from Day 1-18 of pregnancy, against the damaging consequences induced by maternal subjection to 3 Gy gamma irradiation on Day 10 post conception...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298367/e-cigarette-toxicity
#6
Gulay Tegin, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Simrat Kaur Sarai, Steven Lippmann
Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277069/somatic-cell-count-and-type-of-intramammary-infection-impacts-fertility-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-produced-embryo-transfer
#7
L F S P Barbosa, W V C Oliveira, M H C Pereira, M B Moreira, C G C Vasconcelos, B F Silper, R L A Cerri, J L M Vasconcelos
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of mastitis-causing bacteria and somatic cell count (SCC) on pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in Holstein-Gir crossbred (Girolando) lactating dairy cows. Cows (n = 1397) were subjected to a timed-embryo transfer protocol. Milk samples were collected two days before embryo transfer for SCC and bacteriological culture analyses. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on days 31 and 66 after timed-embryo transfer. The animals were grouped according to the National Mastitis Council recommendations: Gram-positive environmental (EV+), Gram-negative environmental (EV-), Gram-positive contagious (C+), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and control (no bacterial growth)...
December 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275156/aripiprazole-use-during-pregnancy-peripartum-and-lactation-a-systematic-literature-search-and-review-to-inform-clinical-practice
#8
REVIEW
A Cuomo, A Goracci, A Fagiolini
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole is used relatively frequently in women with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in childbearing years, owing to its efficacy and relatively favorable side effect profile. As is the case for other psychotropic medications, for ethical reasons, no prospective randomized placebo controlled trial to assess aripiprazole safety during pregnancy has ever been conducted. However, animal data are available and the amount of exposure and outcome data for human fetuses and infants has recently increased, providing published prospective safety data in relatively large numbers of pregnant women treated with aripiprazole...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274983/effects-of-prepartum-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-source-of-vitamin-d-in-dairy-cows-health-and-reproductive-responses
#9
N Martinez, R M Rodney, E Block, L L Hernandez, C D Nelson, I J Lean, J E P Santos
The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with distinct dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with 2 sources of vitamin D during the prepartum transition period on postpartum health and reproduction in dairy cows. The hypotheses were that feeding acidogenic diets prepartum would reduce the risk of hypocalcemia and other diseases, and the benefits of a negative DCAD treatment on health would be potentiated by supplementing calcidiol compared with cholecalciferol...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260494/developmental-exposure-to-low-levels-of-ethinylestradiol-affects-play-behavior-in-juvenile-female-rats
#10
Marco Zaccaroni, Alessandro Massolo, Daniele Della Seta, Francesca Farabollini, Giulietta Giannelli, Leonida Fusani, Francesco Dessì-Fulgheri
Juvenile social play contributes to the development of adult social and emotional skills in humans and non-human animals, and is therefore a useful endpoint to study the effects of endocrine disrupters on behavior in animal models. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a widely produced, powerful synthetic estrogen that is widespread in the environment mainly because is a component of the contraceptive pill. In addition, fetuses may be exposed to EE2 when pregnancy is undetected during contraceptive treatment. To understand whether exposure to EE2 during gestation or lactation affects social play, we exposed 72 female Sprague-Dawley rats to EE2 or vehicle either during gestation (gestation day (GD) 5 through GD 20) or during lactation (from postnatal day (PND) 1 through PND 21)...
December 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260474/arsenic-exposure-to-breast-fed-infants-contaminated-breastfeeding-in-the-first-month-of-birth
#11
Mohammad Hossien Salmani, Zinab Rezaie, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush
Humans are exposed to heavy metals through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Exposure to these chemicals may be possible during lactation. Although breastfeeding has import benefits of physical growth and development of breastfed infants, it may be a source of exposure to toxicants. The present study was conducted to determine infant exposure to the arsenic via breastfeeding. The milk samples were collected from the 150 volunteering mothers three times during the first month of lactation after delivery...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258769/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-human-health-hype-or-real
#12
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa, DSc Mohammed S Razzaque, Nasser M Al-Daghri
The incidence and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are increasing worldwide. It is estimated that over 50% of population in the world have low in vitamin D (i.e., hypovitaminosis D; levels below 30 ng/mL). 80% of our vitamin D requirement comes from the ultraviolet rays from sunlight, and for the remainder, we rely from the diet and supplements. The latter become important when one is exposing to less than optimal amounts of sunlight, inability of the skin to generate vitamin D efficiently, and/or having secondary causes that leads to increase catabolism of vitamin D...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250546/effect-of-excess-iodide-intake-on-salivary-glands-in-a-swiss-albino-mice-model
#13
Gloria Romina Ross, Emanuel Fabersani, Matías Russo, Alba Gómez, Hugo Japaze, Silvia Nelina González, Paola Gauffin Cano
Iodine is an important micronutrient required for nutrition. Excess iodine has adverse effects on thyroid, but there is not enough information regarding its effect on salivary glands. In addition to food and iodized salt, skin disinfectants and maternal nutritional supplements contain iodide, so its intake could be excessive during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of excess iodide ingestion on salivary glands during mating, gestation, lactation, and postweaning period in mouse...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248225/reproductive-performance-and-herd-exit-dynamics-of-lactating-dairy-cows-managed-for-first-service-with-the-presynch-ovsynch-or-double-ovsynch-protocol-and-different-duration-of-the-voluntary-waiting-period
#14
M L Stangaferro, R Wijma, M Masello, J O Giordano
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of dairy cows managed for first service with programs varying in method of submission for insemination and voluntary waiting period (VWP) duration. Holstein cows from a commercial farm in New York were randomly allocated to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) after the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) at 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) (DO60 = 458), TAI after Double-Ovsynch at 88 ± 3 DIM (DO88 = 462), or a combination of AI at detected estrus (starting at 50 ± 3 d in milk) and TAI with the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (PGF2α, 14 d later PGF2α, 12 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI; PSOv = 450)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246123/contraceptive-use-among-lactating-women-in-ganta-afeshum-district-eastern-tigray-northern-ethiopia-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Alem Gebremariam, Hadush Gebremariam
BACKGROUND: Women who are not exclusively breastfeeding are at risk of pregnancy after four to six weeks of childbirth. Postpartum contraceptive use is crucial to prevent unintended pregnancy, and to have spaced births. The study was conducted to determine the magnitude of modern contraceptive utilization and factors associated with it among lactating women in Ganta-Afeshum district. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among lactating women with children in the age group of six to twelve months...
December 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224870/effect-of-dose-and-timing-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-treatments-during-a-resynch-protocol-on-luteal-regression-and-fertility-to-timed-artificial-insemination-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#16
R V Barletta, P D Carvalho, V G Santos, L F Melo, C E Consentini, A S Netto, P M Fricke
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment (25 mg of dinoprost) or a double dose of PGF2α (50 mg of dinoprost) during a Resynch protocol on luteal regression and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,100) were randomly assigned at a nonpregnancy diagnosis to receive (1) Ovsynch (control: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH), (2) Ovsynch with a second PGF2α treatment (GPPG: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 24 h, 25 mg of PGF2α; 32 h, 100 µg of GnRH), or (3) Ovsynch with a double dose of PGF2α (GDDP: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 50 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224865/effects-of-supplementation-with-ruminally-protected-choline-on-performance-of-multiparous-holstein-cows-did-not-depend-upon-prepartum-caloric-intake
#17
M G Zenobi, R Gardinal, J E Zuniga, A L G Dias, C D Nelson, J P Driver, B A Barton, J E P Santos, C R Staples
Objectives were to evaluate the effect of prepartum energy intake on performance of dairy cows supplemented with or without ruminally protected choline (RPC; 0 or 17.3 g/d of choline chloride; 0 or 60 g/d of ReaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). At 47 ± 6 d before the expected calving date, 93 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fed energy to excess [EXE; 1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter (DM)] or to maintenance (MNE; 1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224858/a-resynchronization-of-ovulation-program-based-on-ovarian-structures-present-at-nonpregnancy-diagnosis-reduced-time-to-pregnancy-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
R Wijma, M M Pérez, M Masello, M L Stangaferro, J O Giordano
Our objective was to evaluate time to pregnancy after the first service postpartum and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in dairy cows managed with 2 resynchronization of ovulation programs. After first service, lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to the d 32 Resynch (R32; n = 1,010) or short Resynch (SR; n = 1,000) treatments. Nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) was conducted 32 ± 3 d after AI by transrectal ultrasonography. Nonpregnant cows in R32 received the Ovsynch protocol: GnRH, PGF2α 7 d later, GnRH 56 h later, and timed AI (TAI) 16 to 18 h later...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#19
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221568/nutritional-programming-by-glucocorticoids-in-breast-milk-targets-mechanisms-and-possible-implications
#20
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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