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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439937/maternal-nutrient-restriction-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-leads-to-impaired-right-ventricular-function-in-young-adult-baboons
#1
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Hillary F Huber, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
Maternal nutrient restriction induces IUGR increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years- human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle (RV) remains poorly studied...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434752/effects-of-intrauterine-infusion-of-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-on-uterine-health-resolution-of-purulent-vaginal-discharge-and-reproductive-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
João G N Moraes, Paula R B Silva, Luís G D Mendonça, Alexandre A Scanavez, Joseane C C Silva, Ricardo C Chebel
The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of PVD, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the Metricheck device to diagnose PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable in the vagina...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434750/integrating-an-automated-activity-monitor-into-an-artificial-insemination-program-and-the-associated-risk-factors-affecting-reproductive-performance-of-dairy-cows
#3
Tracy A Burnett, Augusto M L Madureira, Bruna F Silper, A C C Fernandes, Ronaldo L A Cerri
The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434724/the-effect-of-presynchronization-with-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-simultaneously-7-d-before-ovsynch-compared-with-presynch-10-ovsynch-on-luteal-function-and-first-service-pregnancies-per-artificial-insemination
#4
J P N Martins, M J T Acevedo, T O Cunha, C Piterini, J R Pursley
Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) following Ovsynch is optimized when cows ovulate to the first GnRH of Ovsynch. Fertility programs are designed to presynchronize cows to d 6 or 7 of the estrous cycle to increase the chances of ovulation of a first-wave dominant follicle to the first GnRH of Ovsynch. The hypothesis of this experiment was that simplification of a presynchronization program through the combination of PGF2α and GnRH on the same day, 7 d before Ovsynch, would allow for similar P/AI compared with Presynch-10...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427009/early-in-life-dietary-zinc-deficiency-and-supplementation-and-mammary-tumor-development-in-adulthood-female-rats
#5
Flávia R M da Silva, Tony F Grassi, Joyce R Zapaterini, Lucas T Bidinotto, Luis F Barbisan
Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416377/comparison-between-two-estradiol-progesterone-based-protocols-for-timed-artificial-insemination-in-blocks-in-lactating-nelore-cows
#6
L F M Pfeifer, N A Castro, P M A Neves, J P Cestaro, A Schneider
The aim of this study was to compare the use of artificial insemination in time blocks (Artificial Insemination Blocks, AIB) using an 8 and 9 d estradiol-progesterone based protocol. In this experiment, lactating Nelore cows (n=253) were subjected to two estradiol-progesterone based TAI protocols. On the morning of Day 10 (8d group, n=124) or Day 11 (9d group, n=129), cows were examined by ultrasonography to evaluate the diameter of the preovulatory follicle and were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF): Block 0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0h after conventional TAI), Block 1 (POF 13...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411961/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-respiratory-health-a-descriptive-review-of-the-last-five-years-literature
#7
REVIEW
E Verduci, A Martelli, V L Miniello, M Landi, B Mariani, M Brambilla, L Diaferio, D G Peroni
The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health respiratory effects of nutrients and dietary patterns during the first 1000 days from conception. Population of interest included children from birth to two years and their mothers (during pregnancy and lactation). Studies were searched on MEDLINE® and Cochrane database, inserting individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'nutrients', 'micronutrients', 'LC-PUFA', 'Mediterranean Diet', 'human milk', 'complementary food', 'pregnancy', 'respiratory disease', 'pulmonary disease', 'asthma', 'epigenetics', 'first 1000 days', 'maternal diet' and 'respiratory health'...
April 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409206/inverted-nipple-correction-with-selective-dissection-of-lactiferous-ducts-using-an-operative-microscope-and-a-traction-technique
#8
Yoshihiro Sowa, Sizu Itsukage, Daiki Morita, Toshiaki Numajiri
BACKGROUND: An inverted nipple is a common congenital condition in young women that may cause breastfeeding difficulty, psychological distress, repeated inflammation, and loss of sensation. Various surgical techniques have been reported for correction of inverted nipples, and all have advantages and disadvantages. Here, we report a new technique for correction of an inverted nipple using an operative microscope and traction that results in low recurrence and preserves lactation function and sensation...
April 13, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407856/relationship-between-circulating-progesterone-at-timed-ai-and-fertility-in-dairy-cows-subjected-to-gnrh-based-protocols
#9
M G Colazo, I López Helguera, A Behrouzi, D J Ambrose, R J Mapletoft
The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to investigate the effect of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations at the time of timed-AI (TAI) on fertility, and 2) to examine risk factors associated with plasma P4 concentrations that impair fertility in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols. Data from 872 lactating Holstein cows that had, or had not been presynchronized prior to a 7-day GnRH-based TAI protocol were examined. However, data from only those cows (n = 697; 79.9%) that ovulated after second GnRH were analyzed...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407272/the-relative-effects-of-reproductive-condition-stress-and-seasonality-on-patterns-of-parasitism-in-wild-female-black-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra
#10
Rodolfo Martínez-Mota, Paul A Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R Gillespie
Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra)...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399529/in-utero-exposure-to-germinated-brown-rice-and-its-gaba-extract-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-in-rat-offspring
#11
Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Ooi Der-Jiun, Maznah Ismail
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported on the influence of diet on insulin resistance. Our study provides insight into the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on early environment-driven programming and susceptibility to insulin resistance in rat offspring. METHODS: Male rat offspring from female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone, HFD + GBR, or HFD + GABA extract throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned 4 weeks after delivery and followed up for 8 weeks...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398632/prenatal-and-postnatal-assessment-in-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#12
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was under development for the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The purpose of this pre-postnatal study in rabbits was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the maternal animals and on the growth, viability, development, and reproductive performance of the first filial (F1) offspring. The rabbit is considered a relevant species for toxicity testing with evacetrapib as it demonstrates significant CETP expression, whereas mice and rats do not express significant levels of CETP...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390729/a-single-ultrasound-determination-of-%C3%A2-25-follicles-%C3%A2-3-mm-in-diameter-in-dairy-heifers-is-predictive-of-a-reduced-productive-herd-life
#13
F Jimenez-Krassel, D M Scheetz, L M Neuder, J R Pursley, J J Ireland
Fertility and productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) are inferior in dairy cows with relatively low compared with intermediate but not high numbers of follicles growing during ovarian follicular waves. The present study, therefore, tested the hypothesis that fertility and productive herd life are lower in dairy heifers with high follicle numbers compared with age-matched herdmates with fewer follicles. To test this hypothesis, 11 to 15 mo old Holstein heifers were subjected to a single ultrasound measurement of the number of follicles ≥3 mm in diameter...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390723/manipulation-of-reproductive-seasonality-using-melatonin-implantation-in-anglo-nubian-does-treated-with-controlled-internal-drug-release-and-equine-chorionic-gonadotropin-during-the-nonbreeding-season
#14
M Y El-Mokadem, A N M Nour El-Din, T A Ramadan, A M A Rashad, T A Taha, M A Samak
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in anestrous Anglo-Nubian does during the nonbreeding season (February to May). A total of 48 multiparous does were divided into 2 groups (24 lactating does and 24 dry does). In each group, animals were allocated randomly into 2 equal subgroups (12 does each). In the first subgroup, does received a single 18-mg melatonin implant for 42 d followed by a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device for 19 d in conjunction with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) i...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389335/maternal-hypomagnesemia-alters-hippocampal-nmdar-subunit-expression-and-programs-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-adult-offspring
#15
R N Schlegel, J G Spiers, K M Moritz, C L Cullen, S T Björkman, T M Paravicini
It is well established that maternal undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies can lead to altered development and behaviour in offspring. However, few studies have explored the implications of maternal Mg deficiency and programmed behavioural and neurological outcomes in offspring. We used a model of Mg deficiency (prior to and during pregnancy and lactation) in CD1 mice to investigate if maternal Mg deficiency programmed changes in behaviour and NMDAR subunit expression in offspring. Hippocampal tissue was collected at postnatal day 2 (PN2), PN8, PN21 and 6 months, and protein expression of NMDAR subunits GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B was determined...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385394/effect-of-injectable-trace-mineral-complex-supplementation-on-development-of-ovarian-structures-and-serum-copper-and-zinc-concentrations-in-over-conditioned-holstein-cows
#16
Juan González-Maldonado, Raymundo Rangel-Santos, Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara, Oswaldo García-Peña
This study evaluated the effect of injecting trace minerals on reproductive performance in over-conditioned Holstein cows before synchronized estrus. Multiparous non-lactating, over-conditioned repeat breeder cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) control (n=10), and 2) supplementation with an injectable trace mineral complex 25days before expected synchronized estrus (n=10). Follicular waves were synchronized by intravaginal insertion of a CIDR for eight days and an intramuscular (i...
March 28, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382888/placental-restriction-in-multi-fetal-pregnancies-and-between-twin-differences-in-size-at-birth-alter-neonatal-feeding-behaviour-in-the-sheep
#17
R F Peter, J Gugusheff, A L Wooldridge, K L Gatford, B S Muhlhausler
Most individuals whose growth was restricted before birth undergo accelerated or catch-up neonatal growth. This is an independent risk factor for later metabolic disease, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that natural and experimentally induced in utero growth restriction increase neonatal appetite and milk intake. Control (CON) and placentally restricted (PR) ewes carrying multiple fetuses delivered naturally at term. Outcomes were compared between CON (n=14) and PR (n=12) progeny and within twin lamb pairs...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380605/crude-glycerin-decreases-nonesterified-fatty-acid-concentration-in-ewes-during-late-gestation-and-early-lactation
#18
D M Polizel, I Susin, R S Gentil, E M Ferreira, R A de Souza, A P A Freire, A V Pires, M V C Ferraz, P H M Rodrigues, M L Eastridge
Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378505/prolactin-receptors-in-rip-cre-cells-but-not-in-agrp-neurons-are-involved-in-energy-homeostasis
#19
S R Ladyman, M A MacLeod, Z Khant Aung, P Knowles, H R Phillipps, R S E Brown, D R Grattan
Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The aim of this study was to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and if they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine if Agrp neurons or Rip-Cre neurons are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurons (td-tomato/AgRP-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurons (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376507/the-role-of-o-glcnacylation-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-of-offspring-of-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#20
Karolina E Zaborska, Gillian Edwards, Clare Austin, Mark Wareing
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
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