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Paula Tiittala, Matti Ristola, Kirsi Liitsola, Jukka Ollgren, Päivikki Koponen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Eija Hiltunen-Back, Irja Davidkin, Pia Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. METHODS: A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mariyana V Stoycheva, Nikolay T Vatev, Vania B Georgieva, Antonina P Dineva, Maria V Atanasova, Tatiana A Popova
BACKGROUND: The introduction of complex antiretroviral therapy has resulted in signifi cant decrease in the mortality rate of HIV positive patients, but it still remains unacceptably high, especially in some groups of patients. AIM: To investigate the death rate in patients with HIV/AIDS, lethality and mortality in co-infection, and the most common causes and predictors of fatal outcome, focused on early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 53 deceased patients with HIV/AIDS, monitored at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in St George University Hospital, Plovdiv between 01...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Virginie Poka-Mayap, Hadja Koté Fatime-Abaicho, Patrick Thierry Enono-Edende, André Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND: Death under care is a major challenge for tuberculosis (TB) treatment programs. We derived and validated a simple score to predict mortality during tuberculosis treatment in high endemicity areas. METHODS: We used data for patients aged ≥15 years, diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis at the Yaounde Jamot Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Baseline characteristics associated with mortality were investigated using logistic regressions...
April 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
C N Kotton, S Huprikar, D Kumar
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) serves to collect data on organ transplants performed in the United States. Although the infectious diseases data are limited and include mostly pretransplant serologies and other nonspecific infection-related outcomes, this multicenter data collection allows for insightful national data and the ability to monitor trends over time. We reviewed the published concise reports for each organ type in SRTR reports containing data from 2005 to 2014, and summarized our findings with respect to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, general infection, and prophylaxis...
June 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosomtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for a poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with TB with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected predose and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours postdose...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Anna Kozajda, Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
BACKGROUND: The paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in Polish enterprises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Register of Biological Agents (Krajowy Rejestr Czynników Biologicznych - KRCB) is an online database that collects the data on the intentional use of biological agents at work in Poland. RESULTS: As of December 2013 there were 533 notifications in KRCB, mainly for diagnostic (73%), research (20%) and industrial purposes (7%)...
2015: Medycyna Pracy
A O Ogbera, A Kapur, K Odeyemi, K Longe-Peters, O O Adeyeye, I Odeniyi, B E Ogunnowo
INTRODUCTION: Nigeria is a country saddled with a high tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden but the possible combination of these communicable diseases with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been overlooked. We undertook to determine the burden of HIV and DM in persons with TB by documenting the prevalence rates of these disorders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional Study that was conducted within 54TB/DOT centers in Lagos State. A total of 3,376 persons with TB who were on antiTB drugs were screened for HIV and DM using standardized tests...
June 2014: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Amina Jindani, Thomas S Harrison, Andrew J Nunn, Patrick P J Phillips, Gavin J Churchyard, Salome Charalambous, Mark Hatherill, Hennie Geldenhuys, Helen M McIlleron, Simbarashe P Zvada, Stanley Mungofa, Nasir A Shah, Simukai Zizhou, Lloyd Magweta, James Shepherd, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Janneke H van Dijk, Heather E Clouting, David Coleman, Anna L E Bateson, Timothy D McHugh, Philip D Butcher, Denny A Mitchison
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily followed by 4 months of daily isoniazid and rifampicin; a 4-month regimen in which the isoniazid in the control regimen was replaced by moxifloxacin administered daily for 2 months followed by moxifloxacin and 900 mg of rifapentine administered twice weekly for 2 months; or a 6-month regimen in which isoniazid was replaced by daily moxifloxacin for 2 months followed by one weekly dose of both moxifloxacin and 1200 mg of rifapentine for 4 months...
October 23, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Eda Kepenekli, Ahmet Soysal, Canan Kuzdan, Nezih Onur Ermerak, Mustafa Yüksel, Mustafa Bakır
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Among primary immunodefiencies, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has the highest prevalence of invasive fungal diseases. Voriconazole is recommended for the primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis in most patients. In patients whose aspergillosis is refractory to voriconazole, therapeutic options include changing class of antifungal, for example using an amphotericin B formulation, an echinocandin, combination therapy, or further use of azoles...
2014: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ravish Kumar Muddaiah, Pratibha Malini James, Ravikumar Kadahalli Lingegowda
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), a dreadful disease known to mankind continues to be a problem in a developing country like India. The incidence of people getting infected with TB is on the rise due to compounding factors like coinfection with the human immunodefiency virus and multidrug-resistant strains. There is a definitive need for early diagnosis and treatment of TB to curb transmission of the infection. Direct smear microscopy, though cheap and rapid, lacks sensitivity. Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture requires a long time, because of which there is a need for a rapid method which has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of M...
September 2013: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Iskandar Azwa, Su Yen Khong
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country...
December 2012: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Angela Chow, Jeannie Tey, Mar Kyaw Win, Yee Sin Leo
INTRODUCTION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly changed the epidemiology of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) mortality. The aim of this study is to compare the causes of death and factors associated with early death in HIV-infected persons in the pre- and peri-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 483 HIV-infected persons who were diagnosed with HIV from 1985 to 2000, and had died within 5 years of the diagnosis...
December 2012: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Amber N Shatzer, Michael Graham Espey, Mayra Chavez, Hongbin Tu, Mark Levine, Jeffrey I Cohen
Ascorbic acid has been shown to kill various cancer cell lines at pharmacologic concentrations. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells were more susceptible to ascorbic acid-induced cell killing than EBV-negative BL cells or EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Ascorbic acid did not induce apoptosis in any of the tested cells but did induce the production of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Previously, we showed that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induces cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells...
May 2013: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Srinivas Rao Ponnam, Gautam Srivastava, Kotaih Theruru
CONTEXT: More than 1000 children are newly infected with Human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) every day, and of these more than half will die as a result of AIDS due to lack of access to HIV treatment. HIV disease varies considerably in children. Among those infected prenatally, some experience few or no symptoms for years, whereas in others the disease progresses rapidly. The risk factors that influence the development of such oral manifestations include, low CD4+ T cell count, xerostomia and lack of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
May 2012: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
S M Tiffin, M A Noble
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of compliance with Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations for transporting infectious substances in Canada. DESIGN: A three-phase study including observation of packages arriving at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) provincial laboratory; observation of requested samples of either an Escherichia coli culture or serum, not human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or HbsAg positive, from laboratories; and a questionnaire concerning training and certification of packers in laboratories...
May 1999: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses
C E Anyiwo, M Imai, J D Igo, Bo Ogunbanjo, A Iwamoto, D V Babona
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable escalation in the incidence of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea since the first cases have been reported in 1987. OBJECTIVES: The study was to identify the genetic subtype in HIV infected patients in Papua New Guinea. It is believed that the result will not only assist in tracing and tracking the sources of the infection, but will also help to evaluate the impact of the genotypes on the natural history of HIV in Papua New Guinea...
October 2010: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine
Fengwen Zhang, Wilmina N Landford, Melinda Ng, Matthew W McNatt, Paul D Bieniasz, Theodora Hatziioannou
Lentiviral Nef proteins have multiple functions and are important for viral pathogenesis. Recently, Nef proteins from many simian immunodefiency viruses were shown to antagonize a cellular antiviral protein, named Tetherin, that blocks release of viral particles from the cell surface. However, the mechanism by which Nef antagonizes Tetherin is unknown. Here, using related Nef proteins that differ in their ability to antagonize Tetherin, we identify three amino-acids in the C-terminal domain of Nef that are critical specifically for its ability to antagonize Tetherin...
May 2011: PLoS Pathogens
Prem Parkash Gupta, Sanjay Fotedar, Dipti Agarwal, Pradeep Sansanwal
Splenic lesions due to tuberculosis are extremely rare in immunocompetent indi-viduals and delays in diagnosis are frequent. Here, we describe a 49-year-woman presenting with pyrexia-of-unknown origin with no evidence of any immunodefi-ciency. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed an enlarged spleen having multiple small focal hypodense lesions; the later were confirmed to be of tubercu-lous etiology on histopathological examination. She had favorable response with anti-tubercular chemotherapy. We report this case of tuberculosis spleen in an im-munocompetent individual for its rarity and to highlight the fact that these patients can be managed by medical treatment effectively...
January 2008: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Sabrina S Plitt, Jennifer Gratrix, Sharyn Hewitt, Patsy Conroy, Tracy Parnell, Beverly Lucki, Vicki Pilling, Barbara Anderson, Yogesh Choudri, Chris P Archibald, Ameeta E Singh
BACKGROUND: Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for acquiring human immunodefiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) via parenteral and sexual transmission. We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of HIV and HCV for IDUs recruited in Edmonton, Alberta. METHODS: Edmonton was one site of a multi-site, national survey (I-Track Study). From April to June 2005, IDUs were recruited and administered a questionnaire collecting information on demographics, drug use, sexual behaviours, and HIV/HCV testing behaviours...
January 2010: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Jeffery M Klco, Bob Geng, Elizabeth M Brunt, Anjum Hassan, Tu-Dung Nguyen, Friederike H Kreisel, Mauricio Lisker-Melman, John L Frater
Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develop a number of hematologic disorders, with benign and malignant B-cell proliferations being the most common. HCV-infected patients are also prone to developing peripheral cytopenias, the etiologies of which are multifactorial and include hypersplenism and/or antiviral medications. Some of these patients may undergo bone marrow biopsy but no study has systematically recorded the bone marrow findings in this patient group. Here, we report on the range of bone marrow findings in 47 adult HCV-infected patients...
February 2010: American Journal of Hematology
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