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Membrane fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646649/two-single-mutations-in-the-fusion-protein-of-newcastle-disease-virus-confer-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-independent-fusion-promotion-and-attenuate-the-pathogenicity-in-chickens
#1
Yanhong Ji, Tao Liu, Yane Jia, Bin Liu, Qingzhong Yu, Xiaole Cui, Fengfeng Guo, Huiyun Chang, Qiyun Zhu
The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) affects viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion. Previously, we found NDV with increased fusogenic activity in which contained T458D or G459D mutation in the F protein. Here, we investigated the effects of these two mutations on viral infection, fusogenicity and pathogenicity. Syncytium formation assays indicated that T458D or G459D increased the F protein cleavage activity and enhanced cell fusion with or without the presence of HN protein...
June 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646092/deletion-analysis-of-agd1-reveals-domains-crucial-for-its-plasma-membrane-recruitment-and-function-in-root-hair-polarity
#2
Cheol-Min Yoo, Satoshi Naramoto, J Alan Sparks, Bibi Rafeiza Khan, Jin Nakashima, Hiroo Fukuda, Elison B Blancaflor
AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645896/nucleotide-dependent-farnesyl-switch-orchestrates-polymerization-and-membrane-binding-of-human-guanylate-binding-protein-1
#3
Sergii Shydlovskyi, Anke Y Zienert, Semra Ince, Christine Dovengerds, Annika Hohendahl, Julia M Dargazanli, Ailisa Blum, Saskia D Günther, Nikolay Kladt, Michael Stürzl, Astrid C Schauss, Miriam Kutsch, Aurélien Roux, Gerrit J K Praefcke, Christian Herrmann
Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) mediate various membrane fusion and fission processes within the cell, which often require the polymerization of DLPs. An IFN-inducible family of DLPs, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), is involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses within the cell. Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1), the founding member of GBPs, is also engaged in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Here, we show how the GTPase cycle of farnesylated hGBP1 (hGBP1F) regulates its self-assembly and membrane interaction...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644472/placing-and-shaping-liposomes-with-reconfigurable-dna-nanocages
#4
Zhao Zhang, Yang Yang, Frederic Pincet, Marc C Llaguno, Chenxiang Lin
The diverse structure and regulated deformation of lipid bilayer membranes are among a cell's most fascinating features. Artificial membrane-bound vesicles, known as liposomes, are versatile tools for modelling biological membranes and delivering foreign objects to cells. To fully mimic the complexity of cell membranes and optimize the efficiency of delivery vesicles, controlling liposome shape (both statically and dynamically) is of utmost importance. Here we report the assembly, arrangement and remodelling of liposomes with designer geometry: all of which are exquisitely controlled by a set of modular, reconfigurable DNA nanocages...
June 23, 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643238/characterization-of-the-complex-involved-in-regulating-v-atpase-activity-of-the-vacuolar-and-endosomal-membrane
#5
REVIEW
Zhenyu Zhang, Xiaojiao Wang, Tangjie Gao, Chunyin Gu, Fubao Sun, Lin Yu, Jinguang Hu
Regulator of the H(+)-ATPase of the vacuolar and endosomal membranes (RAVE) is essential for the reversible assembly of H(+)-ATPase. RAVE primarily consists of three subunits: Rav1p, Rav2p and Skp1p. To characterize these subunits, in this study, four strains derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 were constructed with a FLAG tag on the Rav1p and Rav2p subunits. Then, the corresponding RAVE containing complex was isolated by affinity purification. Western blot and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses showed that the RAVE complex contains not only the known V1-ATPase subunits (Vma1p and Vma2p) but also a newly found Leu1p that interacts with the RAVE subunit...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638320/membrane-fusion-involved-in-neurotransmission-glimpse-from-electron-microscope-and-molecular-simulation
#6
REVIEW
Zhiwei Yang, Lu Gou, Shuyu Chen, Na Li, Shengli Zhang, Lei Zhang
Membrane fusion is one of the most fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotes for triggering the fusion of lipid and content, as well as the neurotransmission. However, the architecture features of neurotransmitter release machinery and interdependent mechanism of synaptic membrane fusion have not been extensively studied. This review article expounds the neuronal membrane fusion processes, discusses the fundamental steps in all fusion reactions (membrane aggregation, membrane association, lipid rearrangement and lipid and content mixing) and the probable mechanism coupling to the delivery of neurotransmitters...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637784/tnfr2-stimulation-promotes-mitochondrial-fusion-via-stat3-and-nf-kb-dependent-activation-of-opa1-expression
#7
Jinliang Nan, Hengxun Hu, Yong Sun, Lianlian Zhu, Yingchao Wang, Zhiwei Zhong, Jing Zhao, Na Zhang, Ya Wang, Yaping Wang, Jian Ye, Ling Zhang, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Jian'an Wang
Rationale: Mitochondria are important cellular organelles and play essential roles in maintaining cell structure and function. Emerging evidence indicates that in addition to having pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) can, under certain circumstances, promote improvements in mitochondrial integrity and function, phenomena that can be ascribed to the existence of TNFα receptor 2 (TNFR2). Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether and how TNFR2 activation mediates the effects of TNFα on mitochondria...
June 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637767/a-short-region-upstream-of-the-yeast-vacuolar-qa-snare-heptad-repeats-promotes-membrane-fusion-through-enhanced-snare-complex-assembly
#8
Hongki Song, William Wickner
While SNARE heptad-repeats are well studied, SNAREs also have upstream N-domains of indeterminate function. The assembly of yeast vacuolar SNAREs into complexes for fusion can be studied in chemically-defined reactions. Complementary proteoliposomes bearing a Rab:GTP and either the vacuolar R-SNARE or one of the 3 integrally-anchored Q-SNAREs were incubated with the tethering/SM protein complex HOPS and the two other soluble SNAREs (lacking a trans-membrane anchor) or their SNARE heptad-repeat domains. Fusion required a trans-membrane anchored R-SNARE on one membrane and an anchored Q-SNARE on the other...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637688/fus-ddit3-fusion-protein-driven-igf-ir-signaling-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-myxoid-liposarcoma
#9
Marcel Trautmann, Jasmin Menzel, Christian Bertling, Magdalene Cyra, Ilka Isfort, Konrad Steinestel, Sandra Elges, Inga Grünewald, Bianca Altvater, Claudia Rossig, Stefan Fröhling, Susanne Hafner, Thomas Simmet, Pierre Åman, Eva Wardelmann, Sebastian Huss, Wolfgang Hartmann
Purpose: Myxoid liposarcoma is an aggressive disease with particular propensity to develop hematogenic metastases. Over 90% of myxoid liposarcoma are characterized by a reciprocal t(12;16)(q13;p11) translocation. The resulting chimeric FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein plays a crucial role in myxoid liposarcoma pathogenesis; however, its specific impact on oncogenic signaling pathways remains to be substantiated. We here investigate the functional role of FUS‑DDIT3 in IGF-IR/PI3K/Akt signaling driving myxoid liposarcoma pathogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636907/epr-spectroscopy-targets-structural-changes-in-the-e-%C3%A2-coli-membrane-fusion-cusb-upon-cu-i-binding
#10
Aviv Meir, Ahmad Abdelhai, Yoni Moskovitz, Sharon Ruthstein
Bacterial cells have developed sophisticated systems to deal with the toxicity of metal ions. Escherichia coli CusCFBA is a complex efflux system, responsible for transferring Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions; this system, located in the periplasm, involves four proteins, CusA, CusB, CusC, and CusF. CusA, CusB, and CusC are connected to one another in an oligomerization ratio of 3:6:3 CusA/CusB/CusC to form the CusCBA periplasm membrane transporter. CusB is an adaptor protein that connects the two membrane proteins CusA (inner membrane) and CusC (outer membrane)...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636010/engineering-multi-functional-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-modular-nanodevices-for-biosensing-and-bioimaging
#11
Qi Chen, Sharon Rozovsky, Wilfred Chen
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposomes derived from the outer membrane and periplasmic space of many Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli as part of their natural growth cycle. Inspired by the natural ability of E. coli to sort proteins to both the exterior and interior of OMVs, we reported here a one-pot synthesis approach to engineer multi-functionalized OMV-based sensors for both antigen binding and signal generation. SlyB, a native lipoprotein, was used a fusion partner to package nanoluciferase (Nluc) within OMVs, while a previously developed INP-Scaf3 surface scaffold was fused to the Z-domain for antibody recruiting...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634853/chloroplast-aggregation-during-the-cold-positioning-response-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#12
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Mayuko Sato, Yuka Ogasawara, Noriko Hamashima, Othmar Buchner, Andreas Holzinger, Kiminori Toyooka, Yutaka Kodama
Under low-light conditions, chloroplasts localize along periclinal cell walls at temperatures near 20 °C, but they localize along anticlinal cell walls near 5 °C. This phenomenon is known as the cold-positioning response. We previously showed that chloroplasts move as aggregates rather than individually during the cold-positioning response in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. This observation suggested that chloroplasts physically interact with each other during the cold-positioning response. However, the physiological processes underlying chloroplast aggregation are unclear...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634303/structural-characterization-of-the-rabphilin-3a-snap25-interaction
#13
Cristina Ferrer-Orta, María Dolores Pérez-Sánchez, Teresa Coronado-Parra, Cristina Silva, David López-Martínez, Jesús Baltanás-Copado, Juan Carmelo Gómez-Fernández, Senena Corbalán-García, Núria Verdaguer
Membrane fusion is essential in a myriad of eukaryotic cell biological processes, including the synaptic transmission. Rabphilin-3A is a membrane trafficking protein involved in the calcium-dependent regulation of secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structures and biochemical analyses of Rabphilin-3A C2B-SNAP25 and C2B-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) complexes, revealing how Rabphilin-3A C2 domains operate in cooperation with PIP2/Ca(2+) and SNAP25 to bind the plasma membrane, adopting a conformation compatible to interact with the complete SNARE complex...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632757/molecular-mechanism-of-drp1-assembly-studied-in-vitro-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#14
Kaustuv Basu, Driss Lajoie, Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong, Jin Chen, Roman I Koning, Blaise Bossy, Mihnea Bostina, Attila Sik, Ella Bossy-Wetzel, Isabelle Rouiller
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually adapt their morphology by fusion and fission events. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been linked to major neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. A member of the Dynamin superfamily, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a dynamin-related GTPase, is required for mitochondrial membrane fission. Self-assembly of DRP1 into oligomers in a GTP-dependent manner likely drives the division process. We show here that DRP1 self-assembles in two ways: i) in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP analog GMP-PNP into spiral-like structures of ~36 nm diameter; and ii) in the presence of GTP into rings composed of 13-18 monomers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630964/an-insertion-self-fusion-mechanism-for-cell-membrane-immobilization-on-porous-silica-beads-to-fabricate-biomimic-carriers
#15
Xu Wang, Liang Xu, Ruizhi Mao, Xinchao Zhao, Bei Xu, Cheng Tang, Jiahui He, Yanwen Zhang
Immobilization of membrane proteins on solid supports with high stability, favorable reusability and prevention of contamination is of great interest in nanobiology and medicine. Cell membrane coating technology enables the membrane proteins associated with their surrounding membranes to co-immobilize onto the solid matrix, largely enhancing the loading efficiency and conserving the bioactivity of the membrane proteins. Herein, we systematically illustrate the mechanism of cell membrane immobilization on porous silica beads, facilitating the fabricated biomimic carriers applied for chromatography...
June 20, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629987/anti-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-activity-of-houttuynoid-a-a-new-flavonoid-from-houttuynia-cordata-thunb
#16
Ting Li, Libao Liu, Hongling Wu, Shaodan Chen, Qinchang Zhu, Hao Gao, Xiongtao Yu, Yi Wang, Wenhan Su, Xinsheng Yao, Tao Peng
Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection reactivate latent human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). The common use of nucleoside analog medications, such as ACV and pencyclovir, has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains in clinical therapy. Therefore, new antiherpetics that can inhibit early events in HSV-1 infection should be developed. An example of this treatment is Houttuynia cordata Thunb. water extract, which can inhibit HSV-1 infection through multiple mechanisms...
June 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628085/opa1-and-cardiolipin-team-up-for-mitochondrial-fusion
#17
Raymond Liu, David C Chan
Fusion between the inner membranes of two mitochondria requires the GTPase optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. A study now shows that fusion of two liposomes can be performed by OPA1 tethered to just one liposome, through an interaction with the phospholipid cardiolipin on the opposing liposome.
June 19, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628083/molecular-basis-of-selective-mitochondrial-fusion-by-heterotypic-action-between-opa1-and-cardiolipin
#18
Tadato Ban, Takaya Ishihara, Hiroto Kohno, Shotaro Saita, Ayaka Ichimura, Katsumi Maenaka, Toshihiko Oka, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Naotada Ishihara
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo frequent fusion and fission. Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an essential GTPase protein for both mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) fusion and cristae morphology. Under mitochondria-stress conditions, membrane-anchored L-OPA1 is proteolytically cleaved to form peripheral S-OPA1, leading to the selection of damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. However, molecular details of the selective mitochondrial fusion are less well understood. Here, we showed that L-OPA1 and cardiolipin (CL) cooperate in heterotypic mitochondrial IM fusion...
June 19, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627567/dissecting-binding-of-a-%C3%AE-barrel-membrane-protein-by-phage-display
#19
Luz M Meneghini, Sarvind Tripathi, Marcus A Woodworth, Sudipta Majumdar, Thomas L Poulos, Gregory A Weiss
Membrane proteins (MPs) constitute a third of all proteomes, and contribute to a myriad of cellular functions including intercellular communication, nutrient transport and energy generation. For example, TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role transporting iron and other nutrients into the bacterial cell. The inherently hydrophobic surfaces of MPs complicates protein expression, purification, and characterization. Thus, dissecting the functional contributions of individual amino acids or structural features through mutagenesis can be a challenging ordeal...
June 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624468/fish-mass-immunization-against-virus-with-recombinant-spiny-bacterins
#20
Julio Coll
Bacterins obtained from recombinant bacteria displaying heterologous antigens in its surface coded by prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic expression plasmids (here called "spiny" bacterins or spinycterins), have been used to increase fish immunogenicity of recombinant viral protein fragments. To explore their immunogenicity, five bacterial-specific membrane anchor-motifs characterized in the literature (Nmistic, Mistic, NTD, YAIN and YBEL) were genetically fused to the immunorelevant cystein-free 117 amino acid fragment II from the ORF149 of cyprinid herpes virus 3 (frgIICyHV3)...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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