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Membrane fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#1
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221907/coupling-of-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-at-the-presynaptic-active-zone
#2
REVIEW
Tanja Maritzen, Volker Haucke
Brain function depends on the ability of neurons to communicate with each other via the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones (AZs). The presynaptic AZ comprises an assembly of large multidomain proteins that link the machinery for vesicle fusion to sites of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. Following SV fusion at AZ release sites SV membranes are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis, and SVs are reformed. Recent data suggest that Ca2+-triggered SV exocytosis at AZs and endocytic retrieval of SVs may be functionally and physically linked...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221804/the-impact-of-the-cd9-tetraspanin-on-lentivirus-infectivity-and-exosome-secretion
#3
Kai O Böker, Nicolas Lemus-Diaz, Rafael Rinaldi Ferreira, Lara Schiller, Stefan Schneider, Jens Gruber
Efficient transduction tools are a hallmark for both research and therapy development. Here, we introduce new insights into the generation of lentiviral vectors with improved performance by utilizing producer cells with increased production rates of extracellular vesicles through CD9 overexpression. Most human cells secrete small vesicles from their surface (microvesicles) or intraluminal endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). In particular, enhanced levels of the tetraspanin CD9 result in significantly increased numbers of extracellular vesicles with exosome-like features that were secreted from four different human cell lines...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220568/aniline-based-inhibitors-of-influenza-h1n1-virus-acting-on-hemagglutinin-mediated-fusion
#4
Rosana Leiva, Marta Barniol-Xicota, Sandra Codony, Tiziana Ginex, Evelien Vanderlinden, Marta Montes, Michael Caffrey, F Javier Luque, Lieve Naesens, Santiago Vazquez
Two series of easily accessible anilines were identified as inhibitors of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and extensive chemical synthesis and analysis of the structure-activity relationship were performed. The compounds were shown to interfere with low pH-induced membrane fusion mediated by the H1 and H5 (group 1) hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. A combination of virus resistance, HA interaction and molecular dynamics simulation studies elucidated the binding site of these aniline-based influenza fusion inhibitors, which significantly overlaps with the pocket occupied by some H3 HA-specific inhibitors, indicating the high relevance of this cavity for drug design...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219180/laminar-shear-stress-promotes-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-endothelial-cells
#5
Li-Hong Wu, Hao-Chun Chang, Pei-Ching Ting, Danny Ling Wang
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress that is crucial for endothelial functions. Laminar shear stress (LSS) exerts atheroprotection to ECs. Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for cellular survival. However, the effects of LSS on mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs remain unclear. Mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs exposed to LSS was examined. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were subjected to LSS (12 dynes/cm2 ) generated by a parallel-plate flow chamber system...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218530/tracking-glut2-translocation-by-live-cell-imaging
#6
Sabina Tsytkin-Kirschenzweig, Merav Cohen, Yaakov Nahmias
The facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis, controlling the absorption rates and rapid response to changing carbohydrate levels. The facilitative GLUT2 transporter is uniquely expressed in metabolic epithelial cells of the intestine, pancreas, liver, and kidney. GLUT2 dysfunction is associated with several pathologies, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a glycogen storage disease, characterized by growth retardation and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, GLUT2 activity is modulated by its cellular localization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218515/screening-and-scale-up-of-glut-transporter-constructs-suitable-for-biochemical-and-structural-studies
#7
Grégory Verdon, Hae Joo Kang, David Drew
Identifying membrane proteins that can be produced and isolated in homogenous form in detergent is a lengthy trial-and-error process that can be facilitated by fluorescence-based screening approaches. We describe (1) the strategy and protocol of cloning by homologous recombination, (2) whole-cell and in-gel fluorescence measurements to estimate GLUT-GFP fusion protein yields, (3) use of size-exclusion chromatography monitored by fluorescence (FSEC) for assessing the homogeneity of the GLUT-GFP fusion proteins, and (4) the protocol for large-scale production and purification of the Bos taurus GLUT5 construct that enabled its crystal structure determination...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217761/aptamer-conjugated-extracellular-nanovesicles-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#8
Yuan Wan, Lixue Wang, Chuandong Zhu, Qin Zheng, Guoxiang Wang, Jinlong Tong, Yuan Fang, Yiqiu Xia, Gong Cheng, Xia He, Si-Yang Zheng
Extracellular nanovesicles (ENV) released by many cells contain lipids, proteins and nucleic acids that contribute to intercellular communication. ENV have emerged as biomarkers and therapeutic targets but they have also been explored as drug delivery vehicles. However, for the latter application clinical translation has been limited by low yield and inadequate targeting effects. ENV vectors with desired targeting properties can be produced from parental cells engineered to express membrane-bound targeting ligands, or they can be generated by fusion with targeting liposomes, however, neither approach has met clinical requirements...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217280/photosome-membranes-merge-and-organize-tending-towards-rhombohedral-symmetry-when-light-is-emitted
#9
Malika Ouldali, Virginie Maury, Gisèle Nicolas, Jean Lepault
Polynoid worm elytra emit light when mechanically or electrically stimulated. Specialized cells, the photocytes, contain light emitting machineries, the photosomes. Successive stimulations induce light intensity variations and show a coupling within and between photosomes. Here, we describe, using electron tomography of cryo-substituted elytra and freeze-fracturing, the structural transition associated to light emission: undulating tubules come closer, organize and their number forming photosomes increases...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215888/flow-cytometric-analysis-to-evaluate-morphological-changes-in-giant-liposomes-as-observed-in-electrofusion-experiments
#10
Takeshi Sunami, Kunihiro Shimada, Gakushi Tsuji, Satoshi Fujii
Liposome fusion is a way of supplying additional components for in-liposome biochemical reactions. Electrofusion is a method that does not require the addition of fusogens, which often alter the liposome dispersion, and is therefore useful for repetitive liposome fusion. However, the details of electrofusion have not been elucidated because of the limitations surrounding observing liposomes using a microscope. Therefore, we introduced fluorescent markers and high-throughput flow cytometry to analyze the morphological changes that occur in liposome electrofusion...
December 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215601/analysis-of-the-comprehensive-tensile-relationship-in-electrospun-silk-fibroin-polycaprolactone-nanofiber-membranes
#11
Yunlei Yin, Dandan Pu, Jie Xiong
The mechanical properties of electrospun nanofiber membranes are critical for their applications. A clear understanding of the mechanical properties that result from the characteristics of the individual fiber and membrane microstructure is vital in the design of fiber composites. In this reported study, silk fibroin (SF)/polycaprolactone (PCL) composite nanofiber membranes were preparedusing an electrostatic spinning technology. The nanofiber orientation distribution (FOD) of the membrane was analyzed using multi-layer image fusion technology, and the results indicated the presence of an approximately uniform distribution of fibers in the electrospun membranes...
December 7, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213101/modulation-of-the-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-drug-efflux-conduit-mtre
#12
Giulia Tamburrino, Salomé Llabrés, Owen N Vickery, Samantha J Pitt, Ulrich Zachariae
Widespread antibiotic resistance, especially of Gram-negative bacteria, has become a severe concern for human health. Tripartite efflux pumps are one of the major contributors to resistance in Gram-negative pathogens, by efficiently expelling a broad spectrum of antibiotics from the organism. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, one of the first bacteria for which pan-resistance has been reported, the most expressed efflux complex is MtrCDE. Here we present the electrophysiological characterisation of the outer membrane component MtrE and the membrane fusion protein MtrC, obtained by a combination of planar lipid bilayer recordings and in silico techniques...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212939/the-heptad-repeat-c-domain-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-plays-a-key-role-in-membrane-fusion
#13
Imogen M Bermingham, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Paul R Young
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediates host cell entry through the fusion (F) protein, which undergoes a conformational change to facilitate the merger of viral and host lipid membrane envelopes. RSV F comprises a trimer of disulfide bonded F1 and F2 subunits that is present on the virion surface in a 'metastable' pre-fusion state. This pre-fusion form is readily triggered to undergo refolding to bring two heptad repeats (HRA and HRB) into close proximity to form a six-helix bundle that stabilizes the post-fusion form and provides the free energy required for membrane fusion...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212658/a-new-mitofusin-topology-places-the-redox-regulated-c-terminus-in-the-mitochondrial-intermembrane-space
#14
Sevan Mattie, Jan Riemer, Jeremy G Wideman, Heidi M McBride
Mitochondrial fusion occurs in many eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and fungi. It is essential for cellular homeostasis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Comparative analyses and phylogenetic reconstructions revealed that fungal Fzo1 and animal Mitofusin proteins are highly diverged from one another and lack strong sequence similarity. Bioinformatic analysis showed that fungal Fzo1 proteins exhibit two predicted transmembrane domains, whereas metazoan Mitofusins contain only a single transmembrane domain...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212032/targeting-the-conserved-fusion-loop-of-hap2-inhibits-the-transmission-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-falciparum
#15
Fiona Angrisano, Katarzyna A Sala, Dari F Da, Yanjie Liu, Jimin Pei, Nick V Grishin, William J Snell, Andrew M Blagborough
Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is a central strategy in malarial eradication, and the biological process of gamete fusion during fertilization is a proven target for this approach. The lack of a structure or known molecular function of current anti-malarial vaccine targets has previously been a hindrance in the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. Structure/function studies have indicated that the conserved gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 is a class II viral fusion protein. Here, we demonstrate that targeting a function-critical site of the fusion/cd loop with species-specific antibodies reduces Plasmodium berghei transmission in vivo by 58...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212009/snare-mediated-single-vesicle-fusion-events-with-supported-and-freestanding-lipid-membranes
#16
Jan W Kuhlmann, Meike Junius, Ulf Diederichsen, Claudia Steinem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211019/dual-regulation-of-the-small-rna-micc-and-the-quiescent-porin-ompn-in-response-to-antibiotic-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a serious threat for public health. The permeation of antibiotics through their outer membrane is largely dependent on porin, changes in which cause reduced drug uptake and efficacy. Escherichia coli produces two major porins, OmpF and OmpC. MicF and MicC are small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of OmpF and OmpC, respectively. In this work, we investigated factors that lead to increased production of MicC. micC promoter region was fused to lacZ, and the reporter plasmid was transformed into E...
December 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209562/collagen-i-enhances-the-efficiency-and-anti-tumor-activity-of-dendritic-tumor-fusion-cells
#18
Jian He, Rong Zheng, Zhenghua Zhang, Jie Tan, Chaofan Zhou, Guoqing Zhang, Xinglu Jiang, Qianyi Sun, Sufang Zhou, Duo Zheng, Yong Huang, Lige Wu, Zongqiang Lai, Jieping Li, Nuo Yang, Xiaoling Lu, Yongxiang Zhao
Low fusion efficiency and nominal activity of fusion cells (FCs) restrict the clinical application of dendritic cell (DC)/tumor fusion cells. Collagen I (Col I) is an interstitial collagen with a closely-knit structure used to repair damaged cell membranes. This study evaluated whether Col I could improve the fusion efficiency of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induction and enhance the immunogenicity of fusion vaccine. DC/B16 melanoma and controlled DC/H22 hepatoma cell fusions were induced by PEG with or without Col I...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208977/protein-structure-insights-into-the-bilayer-interactions-of-the-saposin-like-domain-of-solanum-tuberosum-aspartic-protease
#19
Brian C Bryksa, Rickey Y Yada
Many plant aspartic proteases contain a saposin-like domain whose principal functions are intracellular sorting and host defence. Its structure is characterised by helical segments cross-linked by three highly conserved cystines. The present study on the saposin-like domain of Solanum tuberosum aspartic protease revealed that acidification from inactive to active conditions causes dimerisation and a strand-to-helix secondary structure transition independent of bilayer interaction. Bilayer fusion was shown to occur under reducing conditions yielding a faster shift to larger vesicle sizes relative to native conditions, implying that a lower level structural motif might be bilayer-active...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208950/x-ray-diffraction-reveals-the-intrinsic-difference-in-the-physical-properties-of-membrane-and-soluble-proteins
#20
Xavier Robert, Josiane Kassis-Sahyoun, Nicoletta Ceres, Juliette Martin, Michael R Sawaya, Randy J Read, Patrice Gouet, Pierre Falson, Vincent Chaptal
Membrane proteins are distinguished from soluble proteins by their insertion into biological membranes. This insertion is achieved via a noticeable arrangement of hydrophobic amino acids that are exposed at the surface of the protein, and renders the interaction with the aliphatic tails of lipids more energetically favorable. This important difference between these two categories of proteins is the source of the need for a specific handling of membrane proteins, which transpired in the creation of new tools for their recombinant expression, purification and even crystallization...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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