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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649348/no-evidence-for-adaptation-to-local-rhizobial-mutualists-in-the-legume-medicago-lupulina
#1
Tia L Harrison, Corlett W Wood, Isabela L Borges, John R Stinchcombe
Local adaptation is a common but not ubiquitous feature of species interactions, and understanding the circumstances under which it evolves illuminates the factors that influence adaptive population divergence. Antagonistic species interactions dominate the local adaptation literature relative to mutualistic ones, preventing an overall assessment of adaptation within interspecific interactions. Here, we tested whether the legume Medicago lupulina is adapted to the locally abundant species of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that vary in frequency across its eastern North American range...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644743/sarcocystis-jamaicensis-n-sp-from-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis-definitive-host-and-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-host
#2
Shiv Verma, Alexa Rosypal Von Dohlen, J Mowery, D Scott, B Rosenthal, J P Dubey, David Lindsay
Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 x 9.9 m sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW) (Mus musculus) and also to KO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638622/the-synergistic-use-of-plant-and-isolated-bacteria-to-clean-up-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-contaminated-soil
#3
S Eskandary, A Tahmourespour, M Hoodaji, A Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Biological methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination elimination typically involve the transformation of contaminants to non-toxic materials by microorganisms and plants and appear to be the most effective methods available. METHODS: In this study, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus mojavensis isolated from oil-contaminated soils were inoculated onto Festuca arundinacea seeds before planting in the pot and 3 weeks after planting by syringe injection into the rhizospheric zone in order to study the elimination of PAHs from Festuca's rhizosphere in the greenhouse...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626450/microbial-phosphorus-solubilization-and-its-potential-for-use-in-sustainable-agriculture
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Alori, Bernard R Glick, Olubukola O Babalola
The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P) fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se), arsenic (As) in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622646/enhanced-degradation-of-chlorpyrifos-in-rice-oryzasativa-l-by-five-strains-of-endophytic-bacteria-and-their-plant-growth-promotional-ability
#5
Fayun Feng, Jing Ge, Yisong Li, Shuang He, Jianfeng Zhong, Xianjing Liu, Xiangyang Yu
Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny...
June 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613872/detection-of-a-toxic-methylated-derivative-of-phomopsin-a-produced-by-the-legume-infesting-fungus-diaporthe-toxica
#6
Svenja Schloß, Thomas Hackl, Corinna Herz, Evelyn Lamy, Matthias Koch, Sascha Rohn, Ronald Maul
Phomopsin A (PHO-A), produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, is a mycotoxin known to be responsible for fatal liver disease of lupin-fed sheep. The full spectrum of the toxic secondary metabolites produced by D. toxica is still unknown. PHO-A and the naturally occurring derivatives B-E have been subject to several studies to reveal their structures as well as chemical and toxicological properties. In this work, a methylated derivative (1) of PHO-A isolated from lupin seeds inoculated with D. toxica is described...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606352/applications-of-volatile-compounds-acquired-from-muscodor-heveae-against-white-root-rot-disease-in-rubber-trees-hevea-brasiliensis-m%C3%A3-ll-arg-and-relevant-allelopathy-effects
#7
Sakuntala Siri-Udom, Nakarin Suwannarach, Saisamorn Lumyong
The bioactive compounds of the volatile metabolite-producing endophytic fungus, Muscodor heveae, were examined by the process of biofumigation for the purposes of controlling white root rot disease in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of M. heveae possess antimicrobial activity against Rigidoporus microporus in vitro with 100 % growth inhibition. The synthetic volatile compounds test confirmed that the major component, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, and the minor compounds, 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-methylpropanoic acid, inhibited root and shoot growth in the tested plants 3-methylbutan-1-ol showed ED50 value and MIQ value on seed germination of ruzi grass, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and tomato at 10, 5 and 5 μL(-1) airspace, respectively...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587664/characterization-of-tau-prion-seeding-activity-and-strains-from-formaldehyde-fixed-tissue
#8
Sarah K Kaufman, Talitha L Thomas, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Marc I Diamond
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) feature progressive intraneuronal deposition of aggregated tau protein. The cause is unknown, but in experimental systems trans-cellular propagation of tau pathology resembles prion pathogenesis. Tau aggregate inoculation into mice produces transmissible pathology, and tau forms distinct strains, i.e. conformers that faithfully replicate and create predictable patterns of pathology in vivo. The prion model predicts that tau seed formation will anticipate neurofibrillary tau pathology...
June 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578205/salicylic-acid-seed-priming-instigates-defense-mechanism-by-inducing-pr-proteins-in-solanum-melongena-l-upon-infection-with-verticillium-dahliae-kleb
#9
H M Mahesh, M Murali, M Anup Chandra Pal, Prasad Melvin, M S Sharada
Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone connected with various cellular functions including the fight against invading pathogens. Priming of seeds pre-sowing is a very simple method to the farmers' to produce better growth, yield and manage the pathogens. The present study was aimed to determine the growth and disease resistance ability in brinjal seeds primed with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mM) of SA under greenhouse conditions. Priming of seeds with SA significantly increased seed germination and seedling vigor with a maximum of 84% and 859...
May 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576367/factors-influencing-the-salmonella-internalization-into-seedpods-and-whole-plants-of-arachis-hypogaea-l
#10
Jonathan D Rossbach, Ryan C Fink, Michael J Sadowsky, Cindy Tong, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez
Here we investigated whether Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 was capable of internalizing in peanut seedpods and plants when exposed to inoculated soil and the edaphic factors that influenced uptake. Intact dry Virginia (DV) and fresh green Virginia (GV) seedpods were exposed to soil containing 6.5 Log (CFU/g) Salmonella under different soil moisture conditions. Internalization of S. Typhimurium into peanut plants germinated in inoculated soil was also examined with and without Bradyrhizobium (Arachis) sp...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572833/development-of-high-throughput-methods-to-screen-disease-caused-by-rhizoctonia-solani-ag-2-1-in-oilseed-rape
#11
Fryni Drizou, Neil S Graham, Toby J A Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
BACKGROUND: Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is a soil-borne, necrotrophic fungus causing damping off, root rot and stem canker in many cultivated plants worldwide. Oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the primary host for anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 of R. solani causing pre- and post-emergence damping-off resulting in death of seedlings and impaired crop establishment. Presently, there are no known resistant OSR genotypes and the main methods for disease control are fungicide seed treatments and cultural practices...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567631/iron-acquisition-in-maize-zea-mays-l-using-pseudomonas-siderophore
#12
Stuti Sah, Nahar Singh, Rajni Singh
Siderophore facilitates iron availability in soil, but its assistance in iron transportation to different plant parts is not reported till date. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of siderophore produced by Pseudomonas for iron acquisition in the presence and absence of iron. To study these effects, two siderophore-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains RSP5 and RSP8 were selected. RSP5 and RSP8 produced the highest and lowest amounts of siderophore, respectively. Iron (Fe) concentration of stem, leaf, seed, and shoot length, root length, cob length, and number of grains parameters were analysed...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560643/in-vitro-seed-germination-and-biochemical-profiling-of-artemisia-absinthium-exposed-to-various-metallic-nanoparticles
#13
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Muhammad Iqbal, Sidra Sabir, Farhat Yasmeen
In the recent years, nanotechnology has attained much attention in the every field of science. The synthesis, characterisation and applications of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In the current study, MNPs were synthesised through polyols process and applied in vitro to study their effect on medicinally important plant : Artemisia absinthium. The current study strives to check the effect of MNPs, i.e., Ag, Cu and Au on seed germination, root and shoot length, seedling vigour index (SVI) and biochemical profiling in A...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559545/positive-regulatory-role-of-sound-vibration-treatment-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-against-botrytis-cinerea-infection
#14
Bosung Choi, Ritesh Ghosh, Mayank Anand Gururani, Gnanendra Shanmugam, Junhyun Jeon, Jonggeun Kim, Soo-Chul Park, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Kyung-Hwan Han, Dong-Won Bae, Hanhong Bae
Sound vibration (SV), a mechanical stimulus, can trigger various molecular and physiological changes in plants like gene expression, hormonal modulation, induced antioxidant activity and calcium spiking. It also alters the seed germination and growth of plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of SV on the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection. The microarray analysis was performed on infected Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SV of 1000 Hertz with 100 decibels. Broadly, the transcriptomic analysis revealed up-regulation of several defense and SA-responsive and/or signaling genes...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555431/isolation-and-characterization-of-phosphate-solubilizing-bacteria-from-western-indian-himalayan-soils
#15
Supriya Tomer, Deep Chandra Suyal, Anjana Shukla, Jyoti Rajwar, Amit Yadav, Yogesh Shouche, Reeta Goel
Previous studies confirmed the existence of diversified microbial flora in the rhizosphere of Himalayan Red Kidney Bean (RKB) (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Therefore, fifteen different temperate and subtropical regions of Western Indian Himalaya (WIH) were explored for the isolation of RKB rhizosphere-associated Phosphorus (P) solubilizing bacteria. On the basis of qPCR analysis, three soils, i.e., Munsyari, Kandakhal and Nainital soils were selected for the isolation of P solubilizers. Among 133 isolates, three bacteria viz...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551744/endophytic-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-transmitted-from-cotyledons-and-germs-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-sprouts
#16
Yali Huang, Zaoyuan Kuang, Zujun Deng, Ren Zhang, Lixiang Cao
Seed-borne endophytes could be transmitted into sprouts. Whether this happened in peanuts and the difference between microbial taxa in peanut germs and cotyledons remain unknown. In this research, Illumina-based sequencing was employed to investigate the microbial taxa in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was isolated and inoculated into peanut sprouts, and then, the growth of peanut seedlings was measured. The results illustrated that diverse bacteria and fungi were detected in peanut germs, cotyledons, and sprouts...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551211/phenolic-composition-antioxidant-activity-and-mineral-profile-in-two-seed-propagated-artichoke-cultivars-as-affected-by-microbial-inoculants-and-planting-time
#17
Youssef Rouphael, Giuseppe Colla, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Stefania De Pascale
The aim of this study was to assess the mineral composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and target polyphenols of two-seed propagated artichoke cultivars 'Romolo' and 'Istar' in relation to planting time (September and October), and seed coating with a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma atroviride (coated and uncoated seeds during the second planting time). 'Romolo' was found to be richest in K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Planting artichoke in October suppressed the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS) compared to the first planting period...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550063/an-environment-friendly-engineered-azotobacter-can-replace-substantial-amount-of-urea-fertilizer-and-yet-sustain-same-wheat-yield
#18
Umesh K Bageshwar, Madhulika Srivastava, Pedisetty Pardha-Saradhi, Sangeeta Paul, Sellamuthu Gothandapani, Ranjeet S Jaat, Prabha Shankar, Rajbir Yadav, Dipak R Biswas, Polumetla A Kumar, Jasdeep C Padaria, Pranab K Mandal, Kannepalli Annapurna, Hirendra K Das
In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#19
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529515/changes-in-leaf-anatomical-traits-enhanced-photosynthetic-activity-of-soybean-grown-in-hydroponics-with-plant-growth-promoting-microorganisms
#20
Roberta Paradiso, Carmen Arena, Veronica De Micco, Maria Giordano, Giovanna Aronne, Stefania De Pascale
The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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