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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915339/a-vapor-phase-assay-for-evaluating-the-antimicrobial-activities-of-essential-oils-against-bovine-respiratory-bacterial-pathogens
#1
S Amat, D Baines, T W Alexander
The objectives of this study were to develop a new assay for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) in vapor-phase and to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of commercial EOs against BRPs. To achieve the first objective, a microtube cap containing 100 μl of EO was embedded in an agar plate. An agar plug (diameter 13 mm) inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing10(8) CFU ml(-1) was then placed over the cap and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Subsequently, bacteria were recovered from the agar plug by immersion in 5 ml of broth for 10 min, followed by vortexing for 30 s, and the broths were then plated for enumeration...
September 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910420/role-of-the-central-lysine-cluster-and-scrapie-templating-in-the-transmissibility-of-synthetic-prion-protein-aggregates
#2
Bradley R Groveman, Gregory J Raymond, Katrina J Campbell, Brent Race, Lynne D Raymond, Andrew G Hughson, Christina D Orrú, Allison Kraus, Katie Phillips, Byron Caughey
Mammalian prion structures and replication mechanisms are poorly understood. Most synthetic recombinant prion protein (rPrP) amyloids prepared without cofactors are non-infectious or much less infectious than bona fide tissue-derived PrPSc. This effect has been associated with differences in folding of the aggregates, manifested in part by reduced solvent exclusion and protease-resistance in rPrP amyloids, especially within residues ~90-160. Substitution of 4 lysines within residues 101-110 of rPrP (central lysine cluster) with alanines (K4A) or asparagines (K4N) allows formation of aggregates with extended proteinase K (PK) resistant cores reminiscent of PrPSc, particularly when seeded with PrPSc...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903982/mapping-loci-that-control-tuber-and-foliar-symptoms-caused-by-pvy-in-autotetraploid-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#3
Washington da Silva, Jason Ingram, Christine A Hackett, Joseph J Coombs, David Douches, Glenn Bryan, Walter De Jong, Stewart Gray
Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY(NTN)). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY(NTN) symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY(NTN) isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 Potato SNPs...
September 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894090/seed-induced-acceleration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-vivo
#4
Ramona F Sowade, Thomas R Jahn
Seeded propagation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology is suggested to contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Local overproduction of aggregation-prone Aβ variants could explain the focal initiation of a seeding cascade that subsequently triggers widespread pathology. Several animal models support this seeding concept by demonstrating accelerated Aβ deposition following inoculation with Aβ-containing homogenates, however its role in progressive neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here, we present a non-invasive approach to study Aβ seeding processes in vivo using Drosophila models...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888828/contribution-of-dark-septate-fungi-to-the-nutrient-uptake-and-growth-of-rice-plants
#5
Carlos Vergara, Karla Emanuelle Campos Araujo, Luiziene Soares Alves, Sônia Regina de Souza, Leandro Azevedo Santos, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Krisle da Silva, Gilmara Maria Duarte Pereira, Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier, Jerri Édson Zilli
The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution...
August 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880938/prpc-expression-and-prion-seeding-activity-in-the-alimentary-tract-and-lymphoid-tissue-of-deer
#6
Kristen A Davenport, Clare E Hoover, Jifeng Bian, Glenn C Telling, Candace K Mathiason, Edward A Hoover
The agent responsible for prion diseases is a misfolded form of a normal protein (PrPC). The prion hypothesis stipulates that PrPC must be present for the disease to manifest. Cervid populations across the world are infected with chronic wasting disease, a horizontally-transmissible prion disease that is likely spread via oral exposure to infectious prions (PrPCWD). Though PrPCWD has been identified in many tissues, there has been little effort to characterize the overall PrPC expression in cervids and its relationship to PrPCWD accumulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864227/azotobacter-chroococcum-as-a-potentially-useful-bacterial-biofertilizer-for-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-effect-in-reducing-n-fertilization
#7
Felipe Romero-Perdomo, Jorge Abril, Mauricio Camelo, Andrés Moreno-Galván, Iván Pastrana, Daniel Rojas-Tapias, Ruth Bonilla
The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton...
August 29, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859671/the-structure-of-the-brassica-napus-seed-microbiome-is-cultivar-dependent-and-affects-the-interactions-of-symbionts-and-pathogens
#8
Daria Rybakova, Riccardo Mancinelli, Mariann Wikström, Ann-Sofie Birch-Jensen, Joeke Postma, Ralf-Udo Ehlers, Simon Goertz, Gabriele Berg
BACKGROUND: Although the plant microbiome is crucial for plant health, little is known about the significance of the seed microbiome. Here, we studied indigenous bacterial communities associated with the seeds in different cultivars of oilseed rape and their interactions with symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. RESULTS: We found a high bacterial diversity expressed by tight bacterial co-occurrence networks within the rape seed microbiome, as identified by llumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing...
September 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851929/aspergillus-flavus-infection-triggered-immune-responses-and-host-pathogen-cross-talks-in-groundnut-during-in-vitro-seed-colonization
#9
Spurthi N Nayak, Gaurav Agarwal, Manish K Pandey, Hari K Sudini, Ashwin S Jayale, Shilp Purohit, Aarthi Desai, Liyun Wan, Baozhu Guo, Boshou Liao, Rajeev K Varshney
Aflatoxin contamination, caused by fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus, is a major quality and health problem delimiting the trade and consumption of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) worldwide. RNA-seq approach was deployed to understand the host-pathogen interaction by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for resistance to in-vitro seed colonization (IVSC) at four critical stages after inoculation in J 11 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible) genotypes of groundnut. About 1,344.04 million sequencing reads have been generated from sixteen libraries representing four stages in control and infected conditions...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840464/different-arabidopsis-thaliana-photosynthetic-and-defense-responses-to-hemibiotrophic-pathogen-induced-by-local-or-distal-inoculation-of-burkholderia-phytofirmans
#10
Fan Su, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Jérôme Crouzet, Christophe Clément, Nathalie Vaillant-Gaveau, Sandrine Dhondt-Cordelier
Pathogen infection of plant results in modification of photosynthesis and defense mechanisms. Beneficial microorganisms are known to improve plant tolerance to stresses. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN (Bp), a beneficial endophytic bacterium, promotes growth of a wide range of plants and induces plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses such as coldness and infection by a necrotrophic pathogen. However, mechanisms underlying its role in plant tolerance towards (hemi)biotrophic invaders is still lacking...
August 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835493/prp-p102l-and-nearby-lysine-mutations-promote-spontaneous-in-vitro-formation-of-transmissible-prions
#11
Allison Kraus, Gregory J Raymond, Brent Race, Katrina J Campbell, Andrew G Hughson, Kelsie J Anson, Lynne D Raymond, Byron Caughey
Accumulation of fibrillar protein aggregates is a hallmark of many diseases. While numerous proteins form fibrils by prion-like seeded polymerization in vitro, only some are transmissible and pathogenic in vivo To probe the structural features that confer transmissibility to prion protein (PrP) fibrils, we have analyzed synthetic PrP amyloids with or without the human prion disease-associated P102L mutation. The formation of infectious prions from PrP molecules in vitro has required cofactors and/or unphysiological denaturing conditions...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825919/the-maternal-infant-microbiome-considerations-for-labor-and-birth
#12
Alexis B Dunn, Sheila Jordan, Brenda J Baker, Nicole S Carlson
The human microbiome plays a role in maintaining health, but is also thought to attenuate and/or exacerbate risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes. The development of the microbiome begins in utero; however, factors related to the labor and birth environment have been shown to influence the initial colonization process of the newborn microbiome. This "seeding" or transfer of microbes from the mother to newborn may serve as an early inoculation process with implications for the long-term health outcomes of newborns...
August 18, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822146/-dna-marker-assisted-selection-of-medicinal-plants-%C3%A2-evaluation-of-disease-resistance-of-miaoxiang-kangqi-1-a-new-cultivar-of-panax-notoginseng
#13
Zhong-Jian Chen, Xiao-Han Ma, Lin-Lin Dong, Lian-Juan Zhang, Guang-Fei Wei, Li-Na Xiao, Yong Wang, Fu-Gang Wei, Wei-Lin Liu, Yu-Qi Yu, Shi-Lin Chen
DNA marked-assisted selection of medicinal plants accelerated the breeding and promotion of new cultivars, and guaranteed the healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials industry. The first disease-resistant cultivar of notoginseng, namely "Miaoxiang Kangqi 1", served as the object of study. We evaluated the Kangqi's resistance of seeds, seedlings and root against the pathological bacteria (Fusarum oxysporum) of root rot. Compared to the traditional cultivars, the disease index of notoginseng seeds declined by 52...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811759/seed-transmission-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-in-white-soybean-glycine-max
#14
Eui-Joon Kil, Jungho Park, Hong-Soo Choi, Chang-Seok Kim, Sukchan Lee
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported, but soybean (Glycine max) has not previously been identified as a TYLCV host. Five cultivars of white soybean were agro-inoculated using an infectious TYLCV clone. At 30 days post-inoculation, they showed infection rates of 25% to 100%. Typical TYLCV symptoms were not observed in any inoculated plants. To examine whether TYLCV was transmitted in soybean seeds, DNA was isolated from bundles of five randomly selected seeds from TYLCV-inoculated soybean plants and amplified with a TYLCV-specific primer set...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#15
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759736/phylloplane-bacteria-of-jatropha-curcas-diversity-metabolic-characteristics-and-growth-promoting-attributes-towards-vigor-of-maize-seedling
#16
Garima Dubey, Bharati Kollah, Usha Ahirwar, Asit Mandal, Jyoti Kumar Thakur, Ashok Kumar Patra, Santosh Ranjan Mohanty
The complex role of phylloplane microorganisms is less understood than that of rhizospheric microorganisms in lieu of their pivotal role in plant's sustainability. This experiment aims to study the diversity of the culturable phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas and evaluate their growth-promoting activities towards maize seedling vigor. Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phylloplane of J. curcas and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were very similar to those of species belonging to the classes Bacillales (50%), Gammaproteobacteria (21...
July 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748085/fermentation-induced-changes-in-volatile-components-of-african-oil-bean-pentaclethra-macrophylla-benth-seeds
#17
Reginald C Ohiri, Essien E Bassey
Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed also referred to as "Ugba" is a known delicacy, mainly consumed by Africans. Human migration has also led to the introduction of this delicacy into most European and American countries. This study shows the changes in volatile components of African oil bean (P. macrophylla Benth) seed at different stages of fermentation. A quantity of 0.3 kg each of dehulled and sliced raw sample and cooked unfermented sample were separately ground, while 2 and 4 days fermented samples obtained by inoculating 0...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724262/phytohormones-and-induction-of-plant-stress-tolerance-and-defense-genes-by-seed-and-foliar-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense-cells-and-metabolites-promote-maize-growth
#18
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716413/belowground-microbes-mitigate-plant-plant-competition
#19
Márcia Bacelar Fonseca, Teresa Dias, Maria Manuela Carolino, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Cristina Cruz
Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Cerrado endemic Fabaceae tree, is threatened by land-use changes. The few remaining individuals occur in areas dominated by alien grasses like Urochloa decumbens. We tested the impact of nitrogen (N) availability and symbionts' presence on mitigating the effects of competition from U. decumbens. Dimorphandra wilsonii seedlings were 50-week pot-cultivated under limiting (3mM) or non-limiting (10mM) N, with or without U. decumbens, and inoculated or not with a N-fixer (Bradyrhizobium sp...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713416/the-detection-and-characterization-of-qoi-resistant-didymella-rabiei-causing-ascochyta-blight-of-chickpea-in-montana
#20
Ayodeji S Owati, Bright Agindotan, Julie S Pasche, Mary Burrows
Ascochyta blight (AB) of pulse crops (chickpea, field pea, and lentils) causes yield loss in Montana, where 1.2 million acres was planted to pulses in 2016. Pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, have been the choice of farmers for the management of AB in pulses. However, a G143A mutation in the cytochrome b gene has been reported to confer resistance to QoI fungicides. A total of 990 isolates of AB-causing fungi were isolated and screened for QoI resistance. Out of these, 10% were isolated from chickpea, 81% were isolated from field peas, and 9% isolated from lentil...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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