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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913980/complete-nucleotide-sequences-and-construction-of-full-length-infectious-cdna-clones-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-cgmmv-in-a-versatile-newly-developed-binary-vector-including-both-35s-and-t7-promoters
#1
Chan-Hwan Park, Hye-Kyoung Ju, Jae-Yeong Han, Jong-Seo Park, Ik-Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Jung-Kyu Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome...
December 2, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913890/performance-improvement-of-raw-water-pretreatment-process-with-pre-inoculation-biofilm-feasibility-and-limiting-factors
#2
Guang-Feng Yang, Li-Juan Feng, Cai-Rong Guo, Tian Xia, Xiang-Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
The initial formation of biofilm and the removal performance of pollutants in biological pretreatment process for polluted raw water were limited due to the oligotrophic niche in raw water. In this study, the feasibility of using pre-inoculation biofilm formed under nutrients enhanced condition for polluted raw water treatment was analyzed in nine batch reactors. Results showed that the pollutants removal performance of biofilm was improved under nutrients enhanced conditions. Ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) was exponentially increased with the increasing in NH4(+)-N levels, and organic matter removal rate (ORR) was positively related to the initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#3
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904458/identification-of-novel-source-of-resistance-and-differential-response-of-allium-genotypes-to-purple-blotch-pathogen-alternaria-porri-ellis-ciferri
#4
Satyabrata Nanda, Subodh Kumar Chand, Purander Mandal, Pradyumna Tripathy, Raj Kumar Joshi
Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession 'CBT-Ac77' and cultivar 'Arka Kalyan' were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891120/two-major-clades-of-bradyrhizobia-dominate-symbiotic-interactions-with-pigeonpea-in-fields-of-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#5
Romain K Fossou, Dominik Ziegler, Adolphe Zézé, François Barja, Xavier Perret
In smallholder farms of Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in the northeast of the country, Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) has become an important crop because of its multiple beneficial facets. Pigeonpea seeds provide food to make ends meet, are sold on local markets, and aerial parts serve as forage for animals. Since it fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria collectively known as rhizobia, C. cajan also improves soil fertility and reduces fallow time. Yet, seed yields remain low mostly because farmers cannot afford chemical fertilizers...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886583/bioaugmentation-and-rhizosphere-assisted-biodegradation-as-strategies-for-optimization-of-the-dissipation-capacity-of-biobeds
#6
M Campos, C Perruchon, P A Karas, D Karavasilis, M C Diez, D G Karpouzas
Biobeds are on-farm biodepuration systems whose efficiency rely on their high pesticide biodegradation capacity. We evaluated two optimization strategies, bioaugmentation and/or rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, to maximize the dissipation capacity of biobeds. Iprodione was used as a model pesticide. Its dissipation and metabolism was determined in a biobed packing material inoculated with an iprodione-degrading Arthrobacter strain C1 (bioaugmentation, treatments B+C1) and/or seeded with ryegrass (rhizosphere-assisted biodegradation, treatments B+P)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886343/resistance-of-soybean-genotypes-to-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-isolates-in-different-incubation-environments
#7
L H S Castro, A A Figueiró, A P O Nogueira, S J Clough, F C Juliatti
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important soybean pathogen. The objectives of this study were to evaluate levels of resistance of soybean genotypes to the fungus, and to determine the effects of different incubation environments on host resistance and pathogen aggressiveness. Two experiments were conducted using 103 genotypes from the seed collection of Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Germoplasma, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (LAGER-UFU). The first experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and the second in a growth chamber...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880822/isolation-of-a-defective-prion-mutant-from-natural-scrapie
#8
Ilaria Vanni, Sergio Migliore, Gian Mario Cosseddu, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Laura Pirisinu, Claudia D'Agostino, Geraldina Riccardi, Umberto Agrimi, Romolo Nonno
It is widely known that prion strains can mutate in response to modification of the replication environment and we have recently reported that prion mutations can occur in vitro during amplification of vole-adapted prions by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification on bank vole substrate (bvPMCA). Here we exploited the high efficiency of prion replication by bvPMCA to study the in vitro propagation of natural scrapie isolates. Although in vitro vole-adapted PrPSc conformers were usually similar to the sheep counterpart, we repeatedly isolated a PrPSc mutant exclusively when starting from extremely diluted seeds of a single sheep isolate...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876169/-bacillus-isolates-from-rhizosphere-of-cacti-improve-germination-and-bloom-in-mammillaria-spp-cactaceae
#9
Lluvia A Chávez-Ambriz, Alejandro Hernández-Morales, José A Cabrera-Luna, Laura Luna-Martínez, Juan R Pacheco-Aguilar
Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M...
November 18, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872564/effect-of-28-homobrassinolide-on-the-performance-of-sensitive-and-resistant-varieties-of-vigna-radiata
#10
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Sarah Mohammed Al-Quwaiz
A study was undertaken to examine the morpho-physiological alterations under different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) in two contrasting varieties of Vigna radiata. Sterilized seeds of V. radiata (T-44 and PDM-139) were inoculated with specific Rhizobium and allowed to grow and then 14 day old seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 10(-10), 10(-8), or 10(-6) M) of HBL and allowed to grow under natural environmental conditions. At the 15 and 21 day stage, plants were harvested to evaluate various parameters...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868479/mapping-resistance-to-alternaria-cucumerina-in-cucumis-melo
#11
James Daley, Sandra E Branham, Amnon Levi, Richard Hassell, William Patrick Wechter
Infection with Alternaria cucumerina causes Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), a disease characterized by lesion formation on leaves, leading to substantial yield and quality losses in Cucumis melo (melon). While fungicides are effective against ALB, reduction in the frequency of application would be economically and environmentally beneficial. Resistant melon lines have been identified but the genetic basis of this resistance has not been determined. A saturated melon genetic map was constructed with markers developed through genotyping-by sequencing of an MR-1 (resistant) by Ananas Yokneum (susceptible Israeli cultivar) a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (F6-F10; N=82) derived from single seed descent of a F2 population from a cross between the ALB resistant parent MR-1 and the ALB susceptible parent Ananas Yokneum...
November 21, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866000/effectiveness-of-final-decontamination-protocols-against-enterococcus-faecalis-and-its-influence-on-bond-strength-of-filling-material-to-root-canal-dentin
#12
Matheus Albino Souza, Daniel Dalla Lana, Ezequiel Gabrielli, Marlos Barbosa Ribeiro, Daniela Cristina Miyagaki, Doglas Cecchin
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of final decontamination protocols against Enterococcus faecalis and their influence on bond strength of filling material to root canal dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety root canals were enlarged with ProTaper system and inoculated with E. faecalis for 15 days. Sixty samples were randomly divided into six groups (n=10) and subjected to following protocols: G1-distilled water(control), G2-2% chlorhexidine, G3-QMix, G4-6...
November 16, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864224/infection-by-rhodococcus-fascians-maintains-cotyledons-as-a-sink-tissue-for-the-pathogen
#13
Pragatheswari Dhandapani, Jiancheng Song, Ondrej Novak, Paula E Jameson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pisum sativum L. (pea) seed is a source of carbohydrate and protein for the developing plant. By studying pea seeds inoculated by the cytokinin-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus fascians, we sought to determine the impact of both an epiphytic (avirulent) strain and a pathogenic strain on source-sink activity within the cotyledons during and following germination. METHODS: Bacterial spread was monitored microscopically, and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, degradation and response regulator gene family members, along with expression of family members of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP genes - gene families identified initially in pea by transcriptomic analysis...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859958/phylogeny-and-variability-of-colletotrichum-truncatum-associated-soybean-anthracnose-in-brazil
#14
Flávia Rogério, Maisa Ciampi-Guillardi, Marina Coan Goldoni Barbieri, Carlos Augusto Dórea Bragança, Claudine Dinali Santos Seixas, Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida, Nelson Sidnei Massola
AIMS: Fungal diseases are among the main factors limiting high yields of soybean crop. Colletotrichum isolates from soybean plants with anthracnose symptoms were studied from different regions and time periods in Brazil using molecular, morphological and pathogenic analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bayesian phylogenetic inference of GAPDH, HIS3 and ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences, the morphologies of colony and conidia and inoculation tests on seeds and seedlings were performed...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849581/amyloid-fibrils-from-the-n-terminal-prion-protein-fragment-are-infectious
#15
Jin-Kyu Choi, Ignazio Cali, Krystyna Surewicz, Qingzhong Kong, Pierluigi Gambetti, Witold K Surewicz
Recombinant C-terminally truncated prion protein PrP23-144 (which corresponds to the Y145Stop PrP variant associated with a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-like prion disease) spontaneously forms amyloid fibrils with a parallel in-register β-sheet architecture and β-sheet core mapping to residues ∼112-139. Here we report that mice (both tga20 and wild type) inoculated with a murine (moPrP23-144) version of these fibrils develop clinical prion disease with a 100% attack rate. Remarkably, even though fibrils in the inoculum lack the entire C-terminal domain of PrP, brains of clinically sick mice accumulate longer proteinase K-resistant (PrP(res)) fragments of ∼17-32 kDa, similar to those observed in classical scrapie strains...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833841/plant-growth-promotion-and-biofortification-of-chickpea-and-pigeonpea-through-inoculation-of-biocontrol-potential-bacteria-isolated-from-organic-soils
#16
Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Vadlamudi, Srinivasan Samineni, C V Sameer Kumar
Seven strains of bacteria [Pseudomonas plecoglossicida SRI-156, Brevibacterium antiquum SRI-158, Bacillus altitudinis SRI-178, Enterobacter ludwigii SRI-211, E. ludwigii SRI-229, Acinetobacter tandoii SRI-305 and Pseudomonas monteilii SRI-360; demonstrated previously for control of charcoal rot disease in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in rice] were evaluated for their PGP and biofortification traits in chickpea and pigeonpea under field conditions. When treated on seed, the seven selected bacteria significantly enhanced the shoot height and root length of both chickpea and pigeonpea over the un-inoculated control...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829359/selection-of-streptomyces-against-soil-borne-fungal-pathogens-by-a-standardized-dual-culture-assay-and-evaluation-of-their-effects-on-seed-germination-and-plant-growth
#17
Andrea Kunova, Maria Bonaldi, Marco Saracchi, Cristina Pizzatti, Xiaoyulong Chen, Paolo Cortesi
BACKGROUND: In the search for new natural resources for crop protection, streptomycetes are gaining interest in agriculture as plant growth promoting bacteria and/or biological control agents. Because of their peculiar life cycle, in which the production of secondary metabolites is synchronized with the development of aerial hyphae and sporulation, the commonly used methods to screen for bacterial antagonists need to be adapted. RESULTS: The dual culture assay was standardized in terms of inoculation timing of Streptomyces antagonist and pathogen, and growth rate of different fungal pathogens...
November 9, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829062/early-and-non-invasive-detection-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prions-in-elk-feces-by-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion
#18
Yo Ching Cheng, Samia Hannaoui, Theodore R John, Sandor Dudas, Stefanie Czub, Sabine Gilch
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Prions are infectious agents composed of a misfolded version of a host-encoded protein, termed PrPSc. Infected cervids excrete and secrete prions, contributing to lateral transmission. Geographical distribution is expanding and case numbers in wild cervids are increasing. Recently, the first European cases of CWD have been reported in a wild reindeer and two moose from Norway. Therefore, methods to detect the infection early in the incubation time using easily available samples are desirable to facilitate effective disease management...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825481/enterobacter-sp-i-3-a-bio-herbicide-inhibits-gibberellins-biosynthetic-pathway-and-regulates-abscisic-acid-and-amino-acids-synthesis-to-control-plant-growth
#19
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Jae-Man Park, In-Jung Lee
Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810929/unique-pathological-tau-conformers-from-alzheimer-s-brains-transmit-tau-pathology-in-nontransgenic-mice
#20
Jing L Guo, Sneha Narasimhan, Lakshmi Changolkar, Zhuohao He, Anna Stieber, Bin Zhang, Ronald J Gathagan, Michiyo Iba, Jennifer D McBride, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M Y Lee
Filamentous tau aggregates are hallmark lesions in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cell culture and animal studies showed that tau fibrils can undergo cell-to-cell transmission and seed aggregation of soluble tau, but this phenomenon was only robustly demonstrated in models overexpressing tau. In this study, we found that intracerebral inoculation of tau fibrils purified from AD brains (AD-tau), but not synthetic tau fibrils, resulted in the formation of abundant tau inclusions in anatomically connected brain regions in nontransgenic mice...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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