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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#1
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759736/phylloplane-bacteria-of-jatropha-curcas-diversity-metabolic-characteristics-and-growth-promoting-attributes-towards-vigor-of-maize-seedling
#2
Garima Dubey, Bharati Kollah, Usha Ahirwar, Asit Mandal, Jyoti Kumar Thakur, Ashok Kumar Patra, Santosh Ranjan Mohanty
The complex role of phylloplane microorganisms is less understood than the rhizospheric ones in lieu of their pivotal role in plant's sustainability. This experiment aims to study diversity of culturable phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas and evaluate their growth promoting activities towards vigour of maize seedling. Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phylloplane of J. curcas and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Sequence of 16S rRNA gene were closely similar to species belonging to the class Bacillales (50%) Gammaproteobacteria (21...
July 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748085/fermentation-induced-changes-in-volatile-components-of-african-oil-bean-pentaclethra-macrophylla-benth-seeds
#3
Reginald C Ohiri, Essien E Bassey
Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed also referred to as "Ugba" is a known delicacy, mainly consumed by Africans. Human migration has also led to the introduction of this delicacy into most European and American countries. This study shows the changes in volatile components of African oil bean (P. macrophylla Benth) seed at different stages of fermentation. A quantity of 0.3 kg each of dehulled and sliced raw sample and cooked unfermented sample were separately ground, while 2 and 4 days fermented samples obtained by inoculating 0...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724262/phytohormones-and-induction-of-plant-stress-tolerance-and-defense-genes-by-seed-and-foliar-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense-cells-and-metabolites-promote-maize-growth
#4
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716413/belowground-microbes-mitigate-plant-plant-competition
#5
Márcia Bacelar Fonseca, Teresa Dias, Maria Manuela Carolino, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Cristina Cruz
Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Cerrado endemic Fabaceae tree, is threatened by land-use changes. The few remaining individuals occur in areas dominated by alien grasses like Urochloa decumbens. We tested the impact of nitrogen (N) availability and symbionts' presence on mitigating the effects of competition from U. decumbens. Dimorphandra wilsonii seedlings were 50-week pot-cultivated under limiting (3mM) or non-limiting (10mM) N, with or without U. decumbens, and inoculated or not with a N-fixer (Bradyrhizobium sp...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713416/the-detection-and-characterization-of-qoi-resistant-didymella-rabiei-causing-ascochyta-blight-of-chickpea-in-montana
#6
Ayodeji S Owati, Bright Agindotan, Julie S Pasche, Mary Burrows
Ascochyta blight (AB) of pulse crops (chickpea, field pea, and lentils) causes yield loss in Montana, where 1.2 million acres was planted to pulses in 2016. Pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, have been the choice of farmers for the management of AB in pulses. However, a G143A mutation in the cytochrome b gene has been reported to confer resistance to QoI fungicides. A total of 990 isolates of AB-causing fungi were isolated and screened for QoI resistance. Out of these, 10% were isolated from chickpea, 81% were isolated from field peas, and 9% isolated from lentil...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704974/genotypic-regulation-of-aflatoxin-accumulation-but-not-aspergillus-fungal-growth-upon-post-harvest-infection-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-seeds
#7
Walid Ahmed Korani, Ye Chu, Corley Holbrook, Josh Clevenger, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses...
July 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704563/self-propagating-protease-resistant-recombinant-prion-protein-conformers-with-or-without-in-vivo-pathogenicity
#8
Fei Wang, Xinhe Wang, Christina D Orrú, Bradley R Groveman, Krystyna Surewicz, Romany Abskharon, Morikazu Imamura, Takashi Yokoyama, Yong-Sun Kim, Kayla J Vander Stel, Kumar Sinniah, Suzette A Priola, Witold K Surewicz, Byron Caughey, Jiyan Ma
Prions, characterized by self-propagating protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) conformations, are agents causing prion disease. Recent studies generated several such self-propagating protease-resistant recombinant PrP (rPrP-res) conformers. While some cause prion disease, others fail to induce any pathology. Here we showed that although distinctly different, the pathogenic and non-pathogenic rPrP-res conformers were similarly recognized by a group of conformational antibodies against prions and shared a similar guanidine hydrochloride denaturation profile, suggesting a similar overall architecture...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701887/quality-and-characteristics-of-fermented-ginseng-seed-oil-based-on-bacterial-strain-and-extraction-method
#9
Myung-Hee Lee, Young-Kyoung Rhee, Sang-Yoon Choi, Chang-Won Cho, Hee-Do Hong, Kyung-Tack Kim
BACKGROUND: In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. METHODS: The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701326/a%C3%AE-seeding-potency-peaks-in-the-early-stages-of-cerebral-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#10
Lan Ye, Jay Rasmussen, Stephan A Kaeser, Anne-Marie Marzesco, Ulrike Obermüller, Jasmin Mahler, Juliane Schelle, Jörg Odenthal, Christian Krüger, Sarah K Fritschi, Lary C Walker, Matthias Staufenbiel, Frank Baumann, Mathias Jucker
Little is known about the extent to which pathogenic factors drive the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at different stages of the long preclinical and clinical phases. Given that the aggregation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is an important factor in AD pathogenesis, we asked whether Aβ seeds from brain extracts of mice at different stages of amyloid deposition differ in their biological activity. Specifically, we assessed the effect of age on Aβ seeding activity in two mouse models of cerebral Aβ amyloidosis (APPPS1 and APP23) with different ages of onset and rates of progression of Aβ deposition...
July 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700827/compatible-rhizosphere-competent-microbial-consortium-adds-value-to-the-nutritional-quality-in-edible-parts-of-chickpea
#11
Sudheer K Yadav, Surendra Singh, Harikesh B Singh, Birinchi K Sarma
Chickpea is used as a high-energy and protein source in diets of humans and livestock. Moreover, chickpea straw can be used as alternative of forage in ruminant diets. The present study evaluates the effect of beneficial microbial inoculation on enhancing the nutritional values in edible parts of chickpea. Two rhizosphere-competent compatible microbes (Pseudomonas fluorescens OKC and Trichoderma asperellum T42) were selected and applied to seeds either individually or in consortium before sowing. Chickpea seeds treated with the microbes showed enhanced plant growth [88...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699022/colonization-of-plant-roots-and-enhanced-atrazine-degradation-by-a-strain-of-arthrobacter-ureafaciens
#12
Dmitry P Bazhanov, Kai Yang, Hongmei Li, Chengyun Li, Jishun Li, Xiangfeng Chen, Hetong Yang
Our previous research found that culturable atrazine degraders associated with maize roots were dominated by genetically similar strains of Arthrobacter ureafaciens, suggesting their rhizosphere competence. The present study aimed to assess the root-colonizing capacity of strain A. ureafaciens DnL1-1 and to evaluate consequent root-associated degradation of atrazine. A soil-sand assay and pot experiments provided evidence that A. ureafaciens DnL1-1 competitively colonized roots of maize, wheat, and alfalfa following seed inoculation...
July 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678949/human-plasma-fibronectin-promotes-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-odontoblast
#13
Jia Tang, Takashi Saito
Objective: To assess the effect of fibronectin (Fn) and porcine type I collagen (PCOL) on odontoblast-like cells in vitro. Material and Methods: Rat odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23 cells) were inoculated and cultured on Fn-coated or type I collagen-coated substrates. Proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP activity), mRNA expression of hard tissue-forming markers, and Alizarin red staining were investigated over a period of 10 days. Results: Cells maintained a high proliferation activity on Fn and PCOL even at a low seeding concentration (0...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666897/sequential-acquisition-of-potato-virus-y-strains-by-myzus-persicae-favors-the-transmission-of-the-emerging-recombinant-strains
#14
Shaonpius Mondal, Stewart M Gray
In the past decade recombinant strains of potato virus Y (PVY) have overtaken the ordinary strain, PVY°, as the predominant viruses affecting the US seed potato crop. Aphids may be a contributing factor in the emergence of the recombinant strains, but studies indicate that differences in transmission efficiency of individual PVY strains either from single or mixed infections, although variable, are not generally significant. Multiple strains of PVY are present in all potato production areas and common in many potato fields...
June 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664370/total-crude-protein-extract-of-trichoderma-spp-induces-systemic-resistance-in-pearl-millet-against-the-downy-mildew-pathogen
#15
Boregowda Nandini, Puttaswamy Hariprasad, Harohalli Nanjegowda Shankara, Harischandra Sripathy Prakash, Nagaraja Geetha
Several proteins and peptides of microbial origin are reported for their elicitor properties, which play a vital role in the development of local and systemic resistances in plants. In this study, the efficacy of total crude proteins (TCP) extracted from six different Trichoderma spp. (T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. virens, T. longibrachiatum, and T. brevicompactum) was evaluated for their ability to elicit defense responses in pearl millet against downy mildew disease. Priming of pearl millet seeds (with or without mannitol) with different concentrations of TCP from Trichoderma spp...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649348/no-evidence-for-adaptation-to-local-rhizobial-mutualists-in-the-legume-medicago-lupulina
#16
Tia L Harrison, Corlett W Wood, Isabela L Borges, John R Stinchcombe
Local adaptation is a common but not ubiquitous feature of species interactions, and understanding the circumstances under which it evolves illuminates the factors that influence adaptive population divergence. Antagonistic species interactions dominate the local adaptation literature relative to mutualistic ones, preventing an overall assessment of adaptation within interspecific interactions. Here, we tested whether the legume Medicago lupulina is adapted to the locally abundant species of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that vary in frequency across its eastern North American range...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644743/sarcocystis-jamaicensis-n-sp-from-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis-definitive-host-and-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-host
#17
Shiv Verma, Alexa Rosypal Von Dohlen, J Mowery, D Scott, B Rosenthal, J P Dubey, David Lindsay
Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 x 9.9 m sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW) (Mus musculus) and also to KO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638622/the-synergistic-use-of-plant-and-isolated-bacteria-to-clean-up-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-contaminated-soil
#18
S Eskandary, A Tahmourespour, M Hoodaji, A Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Biological methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination elimination typically involve the transformation of contaminants to non-toxic materials by microorganisms and plants and appear to be the most effective methods available. METHODS: In this study, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus mojavensis isolated from oil-contaminated soils were inoculated onto Festuca arundinacea seeds before planting in the pot and 3 weeks after planting by syringe injection into the rhizospheric zone in order to study the elimination of PAHs from Festuca's rhizosphere in the greenhouse...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626450/microbial-phosphorus-solubilization-and-its-potential-for-use-in-sustainable-agriculture
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Alori, Bernard R Glick, Olubukola O Babalola
The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P) fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se), arsenic (As) in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622646/enhanced-degradation-of-chlorpyrifos-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-by-five-strains-of-endophytic-bacteria-and-their-plant-growth-promotional-ability
#20
Fayun Feng, Jing Ge, Yisong Li, Shuang He, Jianfeng Zhong, Xianjing Liu, Xiangyang Yu
Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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