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HUMAN METABOLOM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714878/integrated-metabolomics-assessment-of-human-dried-blood-spots-and-urine-strips
#1
Jeremy Drolet, Vladimir Tolstikov, Brian A Williams, Bennett P Greenwood, Collin Hill, Vivek K Vishnudas, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish
(1) Background: Interest in the application of metabolomics toward clinical diagnostics development and population health monitoring has grown significantly in recent years. In spite of several advances in analytical and computational tools, obtaining a sufficient number of samples from patients remains an obstacle. The dried blood spot (DBS) and dried urine strip (DUS) methodologies are a minimally invasive sample collection method allowing for the relative simplicity of sample collection and minimal cost...
July 15, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714074/altered-metabolomic-genomic-signature-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#2
Helen C Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A Stanley, Matthew P Galloway, Jeffrey A Loeb
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711782/the-human-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Hubert E Blum
Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710041/create-run-share-publish-and-reference-your-lc-ms-fia-ms-gc-ms-and-nmr-data-analysis-workflows-with-workflow4metabolomics-3-0-the-galaxy-online-infrastructure-for-metabolomics
#4
Yann Guitton, Marie Tremblay-Franco, Gildas Le Corguillé, Jean-François Martin, Mélanie Pétéra, Pierrick Roger-Mele, Alexis Delabrière, Sophie Goulitquer, Misharl Monsoor, Christophe Duperier, Cécile Canlet, Rémi Servien, Patrick Tardivel, Christophe Caron, Franck Giacomoni, Etienne A Thévenot
Metabolomics is a key approach in modern functional genomics and systems biology. Due to the complexity of metabolomics data, the variety of experimental designs, and the variety of existing bioinformatics tools, providing experimenters with a simple and efficient resource to conduct comprehensive and rigorous analysis of their data is of utmost importance. In 2014, we launched the Workflow4Metabolomics (W4M; http://workflow4metabolomics.org) online infrastructure for metabolomics built on the Galaxy environment, which offers user-friendly features to build and run data analysis workflows including preprocessing, statistical analysis, and annotation steps...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704842/analysis-of-metabolomic-profile-of-fermented-orostachys-japonicus-a-berger-by-capillary-electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Sun-Young Lee, Changgeon Kim, Jae Gyu Park, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Microbial cell performance in food biotechnological processes has become an important concern for improving human health worldwide. Lactobacillus plantarum, which is widely distributed in nature, is a lactic acid bacterium with many industrial applications for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). In the present study, using capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry, the metabolomic profile of dried Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, a perennial medicinal herb with L. plantarum was compared with that of O...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701756/seed-metabolome-analysis-of-a-transgenic-rice-line-expressing-cholera-toxin-b-subunit
#6
Takumi Ogawa, Koji Kashima, Yoshikazu Yuki, Mio Mejima, Shiho Kurokawa, Masaharu Kuroda, Atsushi Okazawa, Hiroshi Kiyono, Daisaku Ohta
Plant-based human vaccines have been actively developed in recent years, and rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the best candidate crops for their production and delivery. By expressing a modified cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit, we previously developed MucoRice-CTB, a rice-based vaccine against cholera, which is caused by infection of the intestine with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. MucoRice-CTB lines have been extensively characterized by whole-genome sequencing and proteome analyses to evaluate the mutation profiles and proteome status, respectively...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701354/pleiotropic-effects-of-apolipoprotein-c3-on-hdl-functionality-and-adipose-tissue-metabolic-activity
#7
Evangelia Zvintzou, Marie Lhomme, Stella Chasapi, Serafoula Filou, Vassilis Theodoropoulos, Eva Xepapadaki, Anatol Kontush, George Spyroulias, Constantinos C Tellis, Alexandros D Tselepis, Caterina Constantinou, Kyriakos E Kypreos
Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) is produced mainly by the liver and intestine and approximately half of plasma APOC3 associates with HDL. Though it was believed that APOC3 associates with HDL by simple binding to pre-existing particles, recent data support that biogenesis of APOC3-containing HDL (APOC3-HDL) requires Abca1. Moreover, APOC3-HDL contributes to plasma triglyceride homeostasis, by preventing APOC3 association with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Interestingly, APOC3-HDL also shows positive correlation with the morbidly obese phenotype...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700670/taurine-does-not-affect-the-composition-diversity-or-metabolism-of-human-colonic-microbiota-simulated-in-a-single-batch-fermentation-system
#8
Kengo Sasaki, Daisuke Sasaki, Naoko Okai, Kosei Tanaka, Ryohei Nomoto, Itsuko Fukuda, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Akihiko Kondo, Ro Osawa
Accumulating evidence suggests that dietary taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in the large intestine. In this study, we investigated the possible impact of taurine on human colonic microbiota using our single-batch fermentation system (Kobe University Human Intestinal Microbiota Model; KUHIMM). Fecal samples from eight humans were individually cultivated with and without taurine in the KUHIMM. The results showed that taurine remained largely undegraded after 30 h of culturing in the absence of oxygen, although some 83% of the taurine was degraded after 30 h of culturing under aerobic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698669/metabolomic-similarities-between-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-and-plasma-in-humans-and-mice
#9
Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Roger Powell, Sean Jacobson, Katerina Kechris, Russell P Bowler, Irina Petrache, Nichole Reisdorph
This observational study catalogues the overlap in metabolites between matched bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma, identifies the degree of congruence between these metabolomes in human and mouse, and determines how molecules may change in response to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Matched BALF and plasma was collected from mice (ambient air or CS-exposed) and humans (current or former smokers), and analyzed using mass spectrometry. There were 1155 compounds in common in all 4 sample types; fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids strongly overlapped between groups...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698403/identifying-mitotane-induced-mitochondria-associated-membranes-dysfunctions-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-approaches
#10
Ségolène Hescot, Larbi Amazit, Marie Lhomme, Simon Travers, Anais DuBow, Stéphanie Battini, Geoffrey Boulate, Izzie Jacques Namer, Anne Lombès, Anatol Kontush, Alessio Imperiale, Eric Baudin, Marc Lombès
Mitotane (o,p'DDD), the most effective drug in adrenocortical carcinoma, concentrates into the mitochondria and impacts mitochondrial functions. To address the molecular mechanisms of mitotane action and to identify its potential target, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches as well as imaging analyses were employed in human adrenocortical H295R cells allowing identification of Mitochondria-Associated Membranes dysfunction as a critical impact of mitotane. Study of intracellular energetic metabolites by NMR spectroscopy showed that mitotane significantly decreased aspartate while concomitantly increased glutamate content in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698311/proteomics-and-metabolomics-in-ageing-research-from-biomarkers-to-systems-biology
#11
REVIEW
Jessica M Hoffman, Yang Lyu, Scott D Pletcher, Daniel E L Promislow
Age is the single greatest risk factor for a wide range of diseases, and as the mean age of human populations grows steadily older, the impact of this risk factor grows as well. Laboratory studies on the basic biology of ageing have shed light on numerous genetic pathways that have strong effects on lifespan. However, we still do not know the degree to which the pathways that affect ageing in the lab also influence variation in rates of ageing and age-related disease in human populations. Similarly, despite considerable effort, we have yet to identify reliable and reproducible 'biomarkers', which are predictors of one's biological as opposed to chronological age...
July 15, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694404/-the-role-of-omics-technology-in-the-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Ümit Yaşar Sinan, Serkan Unlu
Although evident improvement has occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is still the most important cause of mortality worldwide. The majority of the CVDs are multifactorial and polygenic. Therefore, it is logical to use genomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics together for diagnosis and effective treatment of CVD. "Genome" is the combination of the words "gene" and "chromosome," and includes all protein-coding genes and intergenic spaces (as well as intragenic regions, or introns, within genes) in an organism...
July 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686599/flux-balance-analysis-predicts-warburg-like-effects-of-mouse-hepatocyte-deficient-in-mir-122a
#13
Hua-Qing Wu, Mei-Ling Cheng, Jin-Mei Lai, Hsuan-Hui Wu, Meng-Chun Chen, Wen-Huan Liu, Wu-Hsiung Wu, Peter Mu-Hsin Chang, Chi-Ying F Huang, Ann-Ping Tsou, Ming-Shi Shiao, Feng-Sheng Wang
The liver is a vital organ involving in various major metabolic functions in human body. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) plays an important role in the regulation of liver metabolism, but its intrinsic physiological functions require further clarification. This study integrated the genome-scale metabolic model of hepatocytes and mouse experimental data with germline deletion of Mir122a (Mir122a-/-) to infer Warburg-like effects. Elevated expression of MiR-122a target genes in Mir122a-/-mice, especially those encoding for metabolic enzymes, was applied to analyze the flux distributions of the genome-scale metabolic model in normal and deficient states...
July 7, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684688/gene-dairy-food-interactions-and-health-outcomes-a-review-of-nutrigenetic-studies
#14
REVIEW
Kevin B Comerford, Gonca Pasin
Each person differs from the next by an average of over 3 million genetic variations in their DNA. This genetic diversity is responsible for many of the interindividual differences in food preferences, nutritional needs, and dietary responses between humans. The field of nutrigenetics aims to utilize this type of genetic information in order to personalize diets for optimal health. One of the most well-studied genetic variants affecting human dietary patterns and health is the lactase persistence mutation, which enables an individual to digest milk sugar into adulthood...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681595/assessment-of-the-therapeutic-potential-of-persimmon-leaf-extract-on-prediabetic-subjects
#15
Mohd M Khan, Bao Quoc Tran, Yoon-Jin Jang, Soo-Hyun Park, William E Fondrie, Khadiza Chowdhury, Sung Hwan Yoon, David R Goodlett, Soo-Wan Chae, Han-Jung Chae, Seung-Young Seo, Young Ah Goo
Dietary supplements have exhibited myriads of positive health effects on human health conditions and with the advent of new technological advances, including in the fields of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics, biological and pharmacological activities of dietary supplements are being evaluated for their ameliorative effects in human ailments. Recent interests in understanding and discovering the molecular targets of phytochemical-gene-protein-metabolite dynamics resulted in discovery of a few protein signature candidates that could potentially be used to assess the effects of dietary supplements on human health...
July 6, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681389/untargeted-metabolomics-of-neuronal-cell-culture-a-model-system-for-the-toxicity-testing-of-insecticide-chemical-exposure
#16
Sarah Hayton, Garth L Maker, Ian Mullaney, Robert D Trengove
Toxicity testing is essential for the protection of human health from exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. As traditional toxicity testing is carried out using animal models, mammalian cell culture models are becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to animal testing. Combining the use of mammalian cell culture models with screening-style molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics, can uncover previously unknown biochemical bases of toxicity. We have used a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize for the first time the changes in the metabolome of the B50 cell line, an immortalised rat neuronal cell line, following acute exposure to two known neurotoxic chemicals that are common environmental contaminants; the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the organophosphate insecticide malathion...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679039/non-occlusive-sweat-collection-combined-with-chemical-isotope-labeling-lc-ms-for-human-sweat-metabolomics-and-mapping-the-sweat-metabolomes-at-different-skin-locations
#17
Kevin Hooton, Liang Li
Human sweat is an excellent biofluid candidate for metabolomics due to its non-invasive sample collection and relatively simple matrix. We report a simple and inexpensive method for sweat collection over a defined period (e.g., 24 hr) based on the use of a non-occlusive style sweat patch adhered to a skin. This method was combined with differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS for mapping the metabolome profiles of sweat samples collected from skins of left forearm, lower back, and neck of 20 healthy volunteers...
July 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678528/21st-century-toolkit-for-optimizing-population-health-through-precision-nutrition
#18
Aifric O'Sullivan, Bethany Henrick, Bonnie Dixon, Daniela Barile, Angela Zivkovic, Jennifer Smilowitz, Danielle Lemay, William Martin, J Bruce German, Sara Elizabeth Schaefer
Scientific, technological, and economic progress over the last 100 years all but eradicated problems of widespread food shortage and nutrient deficiency in developed nations. But now society is faced with a new set of nutrition problems related to energy imbalance and metabolic disease, which require new kinds of solutions. Recent developments in the area of new analytical tools enable us to systematically study large quantities of detailed and multidimensional metabolic and health data, providing the opportunity to address current nutrition problems through an approach called Precision Nutrition...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677625/cytotoxic-effects-of-sarcophyton-sp-soft-corals-is-there-a-correlation-to-their-nmr-fingerprints
#19
Mohamed A Farag, Mostafa I Fekry, Montasser A Al-Hammady, Mohamed N Khalil, Hesham R El-Seedi, Achim Meyer, Andrea Porzel, Hildegard Westphal, Ludger A Wessjohann
Sarcophyton sp. soft corals are rich in cembranoid diterpenes, which represent the main chemical defense of corals against their natural predators in addition to their myriad biological effects in humans. Quantitative NMR (qNMR) was applied for assessing the diterpene variation in 16 soft coral specimens in the context of their genotype, origin, and growing habitat. qNMR revealed high diterpene levels in Sarcophyton sp. compared to Sinularia and Lobophyton, with (ent)sarcophines as major components (17-100 µg/mg) of the coral tissues...
July 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675423/poly-pharmacokinetic-study-of-a-multicomponent-herbal-medicine-in-healthy-chinese-volunteers
#20
Guoxiang Xie, Shouli Wang, Hua Zhang, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Yueming Ma, Ke Lan, Yan Ni, Changxiao Liu, Ping Liu, Tianlu Chen, Wei Jia
The advent of mass spectrometry based analytical technologies coupled with multivariate statistical methods offers tremendous new opportunities for understanding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of multicomponent herbal medicines (HMs). We recently proposed a Poly-PK strategy to characterize the concentration-time profile and the metabolic response profile of multicomponent HMs, using an integrated phytochemical and metabolomics approach. Here, we provided the first example of the Poly-PK strategy, where we simultaneously characterized the PK as well as the metabolic response profiles of a Chinese herbal medicine, Huangqi decoction (HQD, consisting of Radix Astragali and Radix Glycyrrhizae), in healthy Chinese volunteers...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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