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Shangjing Xin, Omar M Wyman, Daniel L Alge
The assembly of microgel building blocks into 3D scaffolds is an emerging strategy for tissue engineering. A key advantage is that the inherent microporosity of these scaffolds provides cells with a more permissive environment than conventional nanoporous hydrogels. Here, norbornene-bearing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based microgels are assembled into 3D cell-instructive scaffolds using a PEG-dithiol linker and thiol-ene click photopolymerization. The bulk modulus of these materials depends primarily on the crosslink density of the microgel building blocks...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Mario Brameshuber, Florian Kellner, Benedikt K Rossboth, Haisen Ta, Kevin Alge, Eva Sevcsik, Janett Göhring, Markus Axmann, Florian Baumgart, Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Simon J Davis, Hannes Stockinger, Gerhard J Schütz, Johannes B Huppa
T cell antigen recognition requires T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) engaging MHC-embedded antigenic peptides (pMHCs) within the contact region of a T cell with its conjugated antigen-presenting cell. Despite micromolar TCR:pMHC affinities, T cells respond to even a single antigenic pMHC, and higher-order TCRs have been postulated to maintain high antigen sensitivity and trigger signaling. We interrogated the stoichiometry of TCRs and their associated CD3 subunits on the surface of living T cells through single-molecule brightness and single-molecule coincidence analysis, photon-antibunching-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer measurements...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
D Kołodyńska, M Gęca, E Skwarek, O Goncharuk
The novel organic-inorganic biohybrid composite adsorbent was synthesized based on nanosized silica-titania modified with alginate within the development of effective adsorbent for heavy metal ions. Effects of metal species Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II); concentrations; pH; temperature; and adsorption onto titania-coated silica (ST20) initial or modified by sodium alginate (ST20-ALG) were studied. The equilibrium and kinetic data of metal ions adsorption were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and kinetic models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order, intraparticle kinetic model, and Elovich...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Lin Shao, Yang Cao, Zhanying Li, Wenbin Hu, Shize Li, Lingbin Lu
In this paper, we designed a novel intelligent polysaccharide aerogel made from the graft copolymer ALG-g-P(NIPAM-co-NHMAM) with thermo/pH sensitive properties for drug controlled release. LCST of the copolymer covered a wide temperature range, including the human body temperature. The intelligent aerogel was three-dimensional network structure with high porosity. As a drug controlled release system, the aerogel responded to both temperature and pH. The drug release profiles were well fitted with both the Higuchi model and the first-order model...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
P J Molino, L Garcia, E M Stewart, M Lamaze, B Zhang, A R Harris, P Winberg, G G Wallace
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films were electrochemically polymerised with several synthetic (dodecylbenzosulfonic acid (DBSA)) and biological (dextran sulphate (DS), chondroitin sulphate (CS), alginic acid (ALG) and ulvan (ULV)) dopant anions, and their physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties characterised. PEDOT films incorporating the biological dopants ALG and ULV produced films of the greatest surface roughness (46 ± 5.1 and 31 ± 1.9 nm, respectively), and demonstrated significantly lower shear modulus values relative to all other PEDOT films (2...
March 28, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Qinglei Dai, Xia Zhou, Kejing Wu, Ruimin Long, Shibin Wang, Haiwang Huang, Yanhua Xia, Yuangang Liu
To improve the efficacy and reduce the systemic toxicity of the diabetes mellitus, herewith, we developed a novel microparticles-embedded microcapsules (MEMs) system, synthesized from calcium alginate/chitosan (Ca-Alg/CS), by emulsion gelation using a high voltage electrostatic droplet generator. In our study, we selected two antidiabetic drugs insulin (INS) and metformin (MET) as model drugs to investigate different spatial distribution appropriate of MEMs system. Characterization based on particle size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading, as well as drug delivery properties were carried out on the MEMs system...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Fatemeh Hosseini, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Hamed Mohammadi, Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Hussaini Alhassan Mohammed, Ali Anissian, Parviz Kokhaei, Abbas Mirshafiey, Hadi Hassannia
Cancer-related inflammation (CRI) is associated with the malignant progression of several cancer types. Targeting these pathways is a novel promising strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. In this present study, we evaluated the efficacy of ?-l-guluronic acid (ALG), a potent anti-inflammatory agent on breast cancer-related inflammation both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Our results indicated that ALG can effectively inhibit the CRI and tumor-promoting mediators (COX-2, MMP2, MMP9, VEGF and proinflammatory cytokines) without direct toxic effects on the cells...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
M Chen, J L Zhuang, M H Duan, W Zhang, J Li, T N Zhu, H C Cai, X X Cao, J Feng, C Yang, Y Zhang, L Zhang, D B Zhou, B Han
Objective: To Evaluate the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as primary prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) treated with anti-thymus/lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG/ALG) combined with cyclosporine intensive immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 58 SAA patients who received IST of anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin combining cyclosporine and antifungal prophylaxis during April 2013 to May 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital was performed...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Mako Funada, Takeshi Nakano, Hiroshi Moriwaki
A novel clean-up technology to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from solid samples by magnetic separation using a composite containing iron powder as a magnetic material and activated carbon as an adsorbent in the freeze-dried calcium alginate matrix (Fe-AC-alg) has been developed. The Fe-AC-alg powder (50 mg), mixed with 1.0 g of glass beads having 12 kinds of adsorbed PAHs, was shaken without adding solvents at 300 rpm. After shaking, the Fe-AC-alg powder was separated using a permanent magnet...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
B M Kamath, A Baker, R Houwen, L Todorova, N Kerkar
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an inherited multisystem disorder typically manifesting as cholestasis, and potentially leading to end-stage liver disease and death. AIM: To perform the first systematic review of the epidemiology, natural history and burden of ALGS with a focus on the liver component. METHODS: Electronic databases and proceedings from key congresses were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 guidelines...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Carla Ribeiro, João Borges, Ana M S Costa, Vítor M Gaspar, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, João F Mano
Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Reza Naeimi, Fatemeh Safarpour, Mona Hashemian, Hamed Tashakorian, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Curcumin has been introduced as effective anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of several inflammatory disorders. Despite the wide range pharmacological activities, clinical application of curcumin is restricted mainly due to the low water solubility of this substance. More recently, we could remarkably improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin by its encapsulation in chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS-ALG-STPP NPs). In this study, the anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of curcumin-loaded NPs were evaluated in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Shota Hodono, Akihiro Shimokawa, Neil J Stewart, Yukiko Yamauchi, Renya Nishimori, Mami Yamane, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
PURPOSE: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which is one of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules relating to various inflammatory diseases, has gained interest as a therapeutic target because of its involvement in wound healing processes. In the present study, we investigated HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target in a model of lung fibrosis using a preclinical hyperpolarized129 Xe (HPXe) MRI system. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of bleomycin (BLM) in 19 mice...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Elham Ghorbani Gorji, Abdul Waheed, Roland Ludwig, Jose Luis Toca-Herrera, Gerhard Schleining, Sara Ghorbani Gorji
Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) coacervate formation with sodium alginate (ALG) was investigated by turbidimetric analysis, zeta potential, particle size, viscosity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) measurements as a function of pH (1.0-7.0) and, protein:alginate mixing ratio (1:1, 1.5:1 and 2:1, 1:0 and 0:1 w/w). Critical pH values of phase transitions for BSA-ALG complexes (pHC, pHɸ1, and pHɸ2) representing the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of a protein-ALG mixture (2:1) at pH 4...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Andrew G Engel
The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders in which the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. The disease proteins reside in the nerve terminal, the synaptic basal lamina, or in the postsynaptic region, or at multiple sites at the neuromuscular junction as well as in other tissues. Targeted mutation analysis by Sanger or exome sequencing has been facilitated by characteristic phenotypic features of some CMS. No fewer than 20 disease genes have been recognized to date...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Wei Zhang, Terunao Takahara, Takuya Achiha, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki
NFAT is a cytoplasm-localized hyper-phosphorylated transcription factor that is activated through dephosphorylation by calcineurin, a Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. A non-palindromic NFAT-response element (RE) found in the IL2 promoter region has been commonly used for a Ca2+ -response reporter gene system, but requirement of concomitant activation of AP-1 (Fos/Jun) often complicates the interpretation of obtained results. A new nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) reporter gene containing nine-tandem repeats of a pseudo-palindromic NFAT-RE located upstream of the IL8 promoter was designed to monitor Ca2+ -induced transactivation activity of NFAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by measuring luciferase activities of NanoLuc and co-expressed firefly luciferase for normalization...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stalin Kondaveeti, Pedro Vinicius de Assis Bueno, Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro, Fernanda Esposito, Nilton Lincopan, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Denise Freitas Siqueira Petri
Sodium alginate (Alg) reacted with antibiotic gentamicin sulfate (GS) in an aqueous-phase condition mediated by carbodiimide chemistry, in the molar ratios Alg: GS of (1:0.5), (1:1) and (1:2). The Alg-GS conjugated derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis for nitrogen content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and water sorption measurements...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Neha Singh, Abhay Sachdev, P Gopinath
Nanoscale drug delivery systems have emerged as promising alternatives to overcome the problems associated with by conventional chemotherapy for cancer treatment such as poor drug stability and bio-distribution. Herein, we report a single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) based drug delivery system functionalized with polysaccharides such as alginate (ALG) and chitosan (CHI), which can be loaded with an anticancer drug curcumin (CUR). Modification of SWCNTs renders high drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, imperative for drug activity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Terunao Takahara, Yumika Arai, Yuta Kono, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki
MAP1B (microtubule-associated protein 1B) binds to microtubules and regulates microtubule dynamics. Previously, we showed calcium-dependent interaction between MAP1B and a calcium-binding protein ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2), which is involved in regulation of the protein secretion pathway. Although ALG-2 generally binds to proteins through two consensus binding motifs such as ABM-1 and ABM-2, the absence of these motifs in MAP1B suggests a unique binding mode between MAP1B and ALG-2. Here, we identified the region of mouse MAP1B responsible for binding to ALG-2, and found point mutations that abrogated binding of MAP1B to ALG-2...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
P Stagnaro, I Schizzi, R Utzeri, E Marsano, M Castellano
Porous scaffolds based on alginate-polymethacrylate hybrid hydrogels intended for bone and cartilage regeneration were prepared through controlled calcium ions diffusion from an agar mould. The double interconnected network of such materials combines into a single porous structure maintained by both noncovalent crosslinks (calcium ions for alginate) and covalent crosslinks (polymethacrylate crosslinked by the addition of mixtures of mono and bifunctional monomers). The alginate component ensures the appropriate micro-environment to mimic the extra-cellular matrix, whereas the polymethacrylate improves the mechanical performances of the hybrid hydrogels, helping to overcome the mechanical limitations of the alginate component...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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