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Antti P Aalto, Ian A Nicastro, James P Broughton, Laura B Chipman, William P Schreiner, Jerry S Chen, Amy E Pasquinelli
Argonaute (AGO) proteins partner with microRNAs (miRNAs) to target specific genes for post-transcriptional regulation. During larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Argonaute-Like Gene 1 (ALG-1) is the primary mediator of the miRNA pathway, while the related ALG-2 protein is largely dispensable. Here we show that in adult C. elegans these AGOs are differentially expressed and, surprisingly, work in opposition to each other; alg-1 promotes longevity, whereas alg-2 restricts lifespan. Transcriptional profiling of adult animals revealed that distinct miRNAs and largely non-overlapping sets of protein-coding genes are misregulated in alg-1 and alg-2 mutants...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
Sundar Pandey, Camila Delgado, Hansi Kumari, Laura Florez, Kalai Mathee
PURPOSE: The presence of alginate-overproducing (Alg+ ) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is indicative of chronic infection. The Alg+ phenotype is generally due to a mutation in the mucA gene, encoding an innermembrane protein that sequesters AlgT/U, the alginate-specific sigma factor. AlgT/U release from the anti-sigma factor MucA is orchestrated via a complex cascade called regulated intramembrane proteolysis. The goal of this study is to identify new players involved in the regulation of alginate production...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Craig A Shoemaker, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Eric Peatman, Benjamin H Beck
Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to (a) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, (b) determine the growth of F. columnare in formulated water (FW)-containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) or hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus X Ictalurus furcatus) mucus and (c) examine extracellular protease activity of two F...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Zhenqiang Dong, Yang Kang, Qijuan Yuan, Manli Luo, Zhipeng Gu
Designing stimuli responsive, controllable and biocompatible multifunctional nanoparticles is an important progress in the current quest for drug delivery systems. Herein, we devoted to developing a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based drug delivery nanoparticles (NPs) that release Bovine serum albumin (BSA) via glucose-responsive gate. The design involves synthesis of sodium alginate with β-CD modified (Alg-β-CD) and methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG-Fc) containing ferrocene (Fc) uncharged end-capping. When α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was added with these two segments, the stable non-covalent supramolecular structure of Alg-β-CD/mPEG-Fc/α-CD can be self-assembled into NPs in aqueous solution...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Devidas Chaturbhuj, Ajit Patil, Raman Gangakhedkar
ALG-2 interacting protein X (ALIX) links HIV-1 Gag to the components of ESCRT-III. HIV-1 engages the ALIX via its nucleocapsid and LYPXnL motif in p6. Overexpression of ALIX corrects the release defect of PTAP deleted HIV-1 via LYPXnL/ALIX pathway. However, HIV-1 subtype C lacks the LYPXnL motif and hence cannot employ LYPXnL/ALIX mechanism. Though the preferential occurrences of PYXE insertion in HIV-1 C p6 is predicted to restore the ALIX binding site there is no functional proof to support these observations...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tao Chen, Si Wang, Fan He, Zhijun Guo, Pei Hu, Rui Zhao, Yuanding Huang, Qianming Chen, Ping Ji, Liangyin Chu, Shujuan Zou
A bioactive paradigm is required to promote osseointegration of implant materials. Here, a protamine/alginate/bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) biofunctionalized composite coating was created on nanopolymorphic titanium (Ti) surfaces to promote the osseointegration of Ti implants. Alkali and heat (AH) treatment was used to make porous Ti implants (TiAH) with a superhydrophilic and negatively charged surface, which facilitates the adsorption of a positively charged protamine/alginate/protamine (TiAH-Pro/Alg/Pro) coating...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Bing Liu, Xiaolu Ma, Qianqian Liu, Yang Xiao, Shimeng Pan, Li Jia
Drug-resistance is a major problem in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy. Aberrant changes in specific N-glycans have been observed in leukemia multidrug resistance (MDR). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as key players in the development of AML resistance to chemotherapy. In the present study, the N-glycan profiles of membrane proteins were analyzed from adriamycin (ADR)-resistant U937/ADR cells and sensitive line U937 cells using mass spectrometry (MS). The composition profiling of high-mannose N-glycans differed in U937/ADR and U937 cell lines...
June 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lene Malerød, Roland Le Borgne, Anette Lie-Jensen, Åsmund Husabø Eikenes, Andreas Brech, Knut Liestøl, Harald Stenmark, Kaisa Haglund
The orientation of the mitotic spindle (MS) is tightly regulated, but the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we report a novel role for the multifunctional adaptor protein ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX) in regulating MS orientation in addition to its well-established role in cytokinesis. We show that ALIX is recruited to the pericentriolar material (PCM) of the centrosomes and promotes correct orientation of the MS in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila stem cells and epithelial cells , and symmetrically dividing Drosophila and human epithelial cells...
June 1, 2018: EMBO Journal
Maria P Sousa, Ana I Neto, Tiago R Correia, Sónia P Miguel, Michiya Matsusaki, Ilídio J Correia, João F Mano
Bioinspired and adhesive multilayer membranes are produced using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of chitosan (CHT), alginate (ALG) and hyaluronic acid modified with dopamine (HA-DN). Freestanding multilayer membranes without DN are also produced as a control. The success of the synthesis of HA-DN was confirmed using UV-visible spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the surface of the DN-containing membranes is more porous than the control ones; they also present a higher average thickness value for the same number of CHT/ALG/CHT/HA(-DN) tetralayers (n = 100)...
May 31, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Giuseppe Marcolin, Alex Rizzato, Jessica Zuanon, Gerardo Bosco, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: The specificity of postural balance control in sports as gymnastic where complex motor skills are involved is widely debated in literature. The aim of this study was to investigate in young gymnasts whether the amount of training influenced postural balance control in a simple-task and in a sport-specific task. METHODS: Seven female Basic-Level Gymnasts (BLG) and eight female Advanced-Level Gymnasts (ALG) performed two tests on a dynamometric platform: bipedal standing (B) and single leg back scale (BS) before and after a combination of two gymnastic elements (rondade + flic-flac)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Donghwan Ji, Suji Choi, Jaeyun Kim
The fabrication of mechanically superior polymer composite films with controllable shapes on various scales is difficult. Despite recent research on polymer composites consisting of organic matrices and inorganic materials with layered structures, these films suffer from complex preparations and limited mechanical properties that do not have even integration of high strength, stiffness, and toughness. Herein, a hydrogel-film casting approach to achieve fabrication of simultaneously strong, stiff, and tough polymer composite films with well-defined microstructure, inspired from a layer-by-layer structure of nacre is reported...
May 28, 2018: Small
M Monier, Amira L Shafik, D A Abdel-Latif
A surface molecular imprinting technique was utilized in the fabrication of an enantio-selective adsorbent based on amino-functionalized alginate microspheres for chiral resolution of ascorbic acid. Alginate microspheres were first strengthened via epichlorohydrin (ECH) covalent cross-linking then functionalized with amino groups through graft copolymerization of polyacrylamide (PAm) followed by Hofmann degradation. Surface molecular imprinting was then performed under mild conditions by ionic interaction between the surface incorporated amine groups and the template l-ascorbic acid enantiomers followed by cross-linking with glyoxal...
September 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Joseph L Alge, Scott E Wenderfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Zhao Li, Sha Huang, Yufan Liu, Bin Yao, Tian Hu, Haigang Shi, Jiangfan Xie, Xiaobing Fu
Bioink optimization is considered as one of main challenges in cell-laden 3D bioprinting. Alginate-Gelatin (Alg-Gel) hydrogel have been extensively used as bioink. However, its properties could be influenced by various parameters, and little is known about the evidence featuring the impact of solvent. Here we investigated four Alg-Gel bioink by varying solvent ionic strength (named B-1, B-2, B-3 and B-4). Mechanical properties and printability of bioink samples and their impacts on behaviors of encapsulated epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were tested...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Duangkamol Dechojarassri, Sahori Omote, Kensuke Nishida, Takehisa Omura, Hisashi Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Furuike, Hiroshi Tamura
The adsorption behavior of Sr2+ over alginate (Alg) fibers prepared by wet spinning was investigated. Different grades of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) were chosen. The Alg fibers were obtained by coagulation of 1% H2 SO4 (Alg-acid) or 5% CaCl2 (Alg-Ca) solutions. In addition, the Sr2+ adsorption percentages of the spherical Alg-Ca beads with a 0.672-mm-diameter was 70.64% which was significantly lower than that Alg-Ca fibers (79.49%). These results suggested that the fibrous shape is more suitable than the spheres as an adsorbent from sea water...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
François Noverraz, Elisa Montanari, Joël Pimenta, Luca Szabo, Daniel Ortiz, Carmen Gonelle-Gispert, Léo Bühler, Sandrine Gerber-Lemaire
The controlled release of small molecular modulators of the immune response from hydrogel microspheres (MS) used for cell immobilization is an attractive approach to reduce pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO) after transplantation. Ketoprofen is a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug involved in the early stage inflammation cascade. PEGylated derivatives of ketoprofen, presenting either ester or amide linkage to the drug, were synthesized and conjugated to the hydroxyl groups of sodium alginate (Na-alg)...
May 22, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Anuradha Lele Mookerjee, Bradford D Fischer, Susan Cavanaugh, Vijay Rajput
Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix...
May 20, 2018: Medical Teacher
Xiaoxiang Ren, Zhe Sun, Xiaomin Ma, Yanming Wang, Xinxing Cui, Zeng Yi, Xiaoyu Sun, Bo Guo, Xudong Li
The good bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) makes it become a popular biomaterial, so the synthesis of HA has attracted much attention. However, a simple method to prepare well-dispersive and ultra-fine HA nanoparticles (NPs) still need to be explored. Here, needle-like hybrid HA NPs were synthesized in the presence of alginate (ALG) and the mechanism of ALG regulation on forming HA/ALG hybrid NPs was investigated. The size and crystallinity of HA/ALG NPs could be controlled simply by varying the amount of ALG...
May 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hye Ri Lee, Tae Ho Kim, Se Heang Oh, Jin Ho Lee
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting pruritic, erythema, edema, excoriation, and thickening of the skin, and thus leads to significant impairment in the patient's life. The objective of this study is to develop a steroid drug [prednisolone (PS)]-loaded coatable hydrogel for the treatment of AD. PS-loaded hydrogel was composed of PVA entrapped in mildly crosslinked alginate (PS-loaded PVA/ALG hydrogel). The PS concentration to be loaded in the hydrogel that takes AD efficacy without cell necrosis was determined from the cytotoxicity test using human dermal fibroblasts...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Michael T Henzl
ALG-2 dimerization was studied using Förster resonance-energy-transfer. D162C variants of ALG-2des23 were covalently modified with Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 647. When samples of the two labeled protein-preparations are combined, the sensitized emission from AF647 serves as a sensitive probe of dimer formation. At 25 °C, in the absence of divalent ions, the wild-type homodimer, ΔGF122 homodimer, and heterodimer display dissociation constants of 7.1, 26, and 4.5 nM, respectively. At 35 °C, subunit interaction is weaker, indicating that dimer formation is exothermic...
May 5, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
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