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Mengxue Xu, Chao Feng, Juan Wang, Xuqian Lang, Guixue Xia, Xiaoping Yu, Qiuxia Ji, Xiaojie Cheng, Ming Kong, Ya Liu, Xiguang Chen
In the present work, sodium alginate (ALG) was degraded by heterogeneous phase acid degradation. The molecular weight distribution of ALG after degradation was close to homogenization. Then the blood bio-compatibility of ALG with different molecular weights (ALG-0h 50,075, ALG-0.5h 20,680, ALG-2h 13,170 and ALG-96h 1170 kDa) was evaluated in vitro and vivo. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assess the cytotoxicity of ALGs, ALG-0.5h and ALG-2h exhibited greater increment in percentage of cell viability comparing with ALG-0h and ALG-96h...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Victor Bapst, Amin Coja-Oghlan
A wide class of problems in combinatorics, computer science and physics can be described along the following lines. There are a large number of variables ranging over a finite domain that interact through constraints that each bind a few variables and either encourage or discourage certain value combinations. Examples include the k-SAT problem or the Ising model. Such models naturally induce a Gibbs measure on the set of assignments, which is characterised by its partition function. The present paper deals with the partition function of problems where the interactions between variables and constraints are induced by a sparse random (hyper)graph...
December 2016: Random Struct Algorithms
Kasper S Wang, Greg Tiao, Lee M Bass, Paula M Hertel, Douglas Mogul, Nanda Kerkar, Matthew Clifton, Colleen Azen, Laura Bull, Philip Rosenthal, Dylan Stewart, Riccardo Superina, Ronen Arnon, Molly Bozic, Mary L Brandt, Patrick A Dillon, Annie Fecteau, Kishore Iyer, Binita Kamath, Saul Karpen, Frederick Karrer, Kathleen M Loomes, Cara Mack, Peter Mattei, Alexander Miethke, Kyle Soltys, Yumirle P Turmelle, Karen West, Jessica Zagory, Cat Goodhue, Benjamin L Shneider
: To evaluate the efficacy of non-transplant surgery for pediatric cholestasis, 58 clinically diagnosed children, including 20 Alagille syndrome (ALGS), 16 Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis-1 (FIC1), 18 Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) disease, & 4 others with low γ-glutamyl transpeptidase disease (levels <100 U/L), were identified across 14 Childhood Liver Disease Research Network (ChiLDReN) centers. Data were collected retrospectively from individuals who collectively had 39 partial external biliary diversions (PEBD), 11 ileal exclusions (IE) and 7 gallbladder-to-colon diversion (GBC)...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Juan Qin, Yang Yang, Siqi Gao, Yang Liu, Fan Yu, Yunqiang Zhou, Rui Lyu, Min Liu, Xinqi Liu, Dengwen Li, Jun Zhou
Cancer cells are characterized by genomic instability, resulting in the accumulation of mutations that promote cancer progression. One way that genomic instability can arise is through improper regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton that impacts the function of the mitotic spindle. In this study, we have identified a critical role for the interaction between apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) and heme-binding protein 2 (HEBP2) in the above processes. Our data show that the gene copy numbers and mRNA levels for both ALG-2 and HEBP2 are significantly upregulated in breast and lung cancer...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
L Song, G X Peng, Z J Wu, L Zhang, L P Jing, K Zhou, Y Li, Y Li, L Ye, J P Li, H H Fan, X Zhao, W R Yang, Y Yang, F K Zhang
Objective: To determine whether cyclosporine A (CsA) plus androgens was as effective as the current standard immunosuppressive therapy (IST) for transfusion-dependent nonsevere aplastic anemia (TD-NSAA). Methods: The records of 125 consecutive TD-NSAA patients who were treated between Aug. 2007 and Sept. 2014, with either CsA plus androgen or ALG/ATG plus CsA regimen were reviewed. The 3-month and 6-month hematologic responses and survival were evaluated. Results: There were 125 TD-NSAA patients (70 were male and 55 female, 1...
November 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Qiushui Chen, Dong Chen, Jing Wu, Jin-Ming Lin
Designing cell-compatible, bio-degradable, and stimuli-responsive hydrogels is very important for biomedical applications in cellular delivery and micro-scale tissue engineering. Here, we report achieving flexible control of cellular microencapsulation, permeability, and release by rationally designing a diblock copolymer, alginate-conjugated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Alg-co-PNiPAM). We use the microfluidic technique to fabricate the bifunctional copolymers into thousands of mono-disperse droplet-templated hydrogel microparticles for controlled encapsulation and triggered release of mammalian cells...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Jisun Park, Sang Jin Lee, Solchan Chung, Jun Hee Lee, Wan Doo Kim, Jae Young Lee, Su A Park
Cell-printing techniques that can construct three-dimensional (3D) structures with biocompatible materials and cells are of great interest for various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering and drug-screening studies. For successful cell-printing with cells, bioinks are critical for both the processability of printing and the viability of printed cells. However, the influence of composition on 3D bio-printing with cells has not been well explored. In this study, we investigated different compositions of alginate bioinks by varying the concentrations of high molecular weight alginate (High Alg) and low molecular weight alginate (Low Alg)...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ma Emilia Brassesco, Nadia Woitovich Valetti, Guillermo Picó
The equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetics of lysozyme (LZ) on epichlorohydrin (Epi) cross-linked alginate-guar gum (Alg-GG) matrix were studied. Adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model while the equilibrium isotherm could be represented by the Freundlich equation. The maximal amount of LZ adsorbed onto this matrix was around 2.4mg per g of hydrated matrix at pH 7.00. The adsorption mechanism was associated to a simple diffusion process with a weak columbic interaction between LZ and the matrix...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Miryam Criado, Esther Rebollar, Aurora Nogales, Tiberio A Ezquerra, Fouzia Boulmedais, Carmen Mijangos, Rebeca Hernández
Nanomechanical properties of alginate/chitosan (Alg/Chi) multilayer films, obtained through spray assisted layer-by-layer assembly, were studied by means of PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy (PF-QNM AFM). Prepared at two different alginate concentrations (1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL) and a fixed chitosan concentration (1.0 mg/mL), Alg/Chi films have an exponential growth in thickness with a transition to a linear growth toward a plateau by increasing the number of deposited bilayers...
December 15, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Guillaume Jannot, Pascale Michaud, Miguel Quévillon Huberdeau, Louis Morel-Berryman, James A Brackbill, Sandra Piquet, Katherine McJunkin, Kotaro Nakanishi, Martin J Simard
MicroRNAs and Argonaute form the microRNA induced silencing complex or miRISC that recruits GW182, causing mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. Despite the clear conservation and molecular significance, it is unknown if miRISC-GW182 interaction is essential for gene silencing during animal development. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore this question, we examined the relationship and effect on gene silencing between the GW182 orthologs, AIN-1 and AIN-2, and the microRNA-specific Argonaute, ALG-1...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
Juan Qin, Dengwen Li, Yunqiang Zhou, Songbo Xie, Xin Du, Ziwei Hao, Ruming Liu, Xinqi Liu, Min Liu, Jun Zhou
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. Although it begins as local disease, breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed for the management of this disease. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a calcium-binding protein crucial for diverse physiological processes and has recently been implicated in cancer development. However, it remains unclear whether this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of ALG-2 is significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and is correlated with clinicopathological characteristics indicative of tumor malignancy...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Anderson Espirito Santo Pereira, Paula Mayara Silva, Jhones Luis Oliveira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work concerns the development of nanocarriers composed of alginate/chitosan (ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3). ALG/CS nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 450±10nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.3, zeta potential of -29±0.5mV, concentrations of 1.52×10(11) and 1.92×10(11) nanoparticles mL(-1), respectively, and 100% encapsulation efficiency. CS/TPP nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 195±1nm, PDI of 0...
November 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
M Courtade-Saïdi, J Aziza, D d'Aure, E Bérard, S Evrard, C Basset, L Lacoste-Collin
OBJECTIVE: The presence of atypical cells in urine cytology is unsatisfactory for both cytologists and clinicians. The objective of this study was to test whether p53 and Ki-67 immunostaining could improve urothelial carcinoma (UC) detection on urinary cytology. METHODS: A total of 196 urine samples were analysed, 142 from the bladder, 41 from the upper tract and 13 from ileal bladder replacement. Cytology results were expressed as normal (N) (n = 81), atypia cannot exclude low-grade UC (ALG) (n = 25), suspicious for high-grade UC (SHG) (n = 39) and high-grade UC (HG) (n = 51)...
December 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Diego Cortés-Arriagada
The potential applications of Al, Ti, Mn and Fe-doped graphene for environmental remediation of 1,4-dioxane (a critical pollutant and toxic compound) are analyzed in detail in the framework of density functional theory calculations. 1,4-Dioxane is a highly mobile and soluble pollutant and developing new strategies for its adsorption and subsequent removal becomes an important issue. All the systems were fully optimized and analyzed in their most stable spin states. The results determined that the proposed doped-graphene materials enhance the interaction with 1,4-dioxane compared to intrinsic graphene, with adsorption energies in the range of 1...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ying Cheng, Shu-Tao Zhao, Li Guo, Mei Deng, Qing Zhou, Yuan-Zong Song
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is mainly caused by JAG1 gene mutation and can affect multiple systems including the liver, heart, eyes, skeleton and face. This paper reports the clinical and genetic features of an ALGS patient. A 2-year-and-9-month-old boy was referred to the hospital with the complaint of abnormal liver function and heart murmur discovered over two years. Jaundice of the skin and sclera was not observed. The child had a prominent forehead, left esotropia, depressed nasal bridge and micromandible...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Takashi Kanadome, Hideki Shibata, Keiko Kuwata, Terunao Takahara, Masatoshi Maki
Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2), which is a gene product of PDCD6, is a 22-kDa Ca(2+) -binding protein. Accumulating evidence points to a role for ALG-2 as a Ca(2+) -responsive adaptor protein. On binding to Ca(2+) , ALG-2 undergoes a conformational change that facilitates its interaction with various proteins. It also forms a homodimer and heterodimer with peflin, a paralog of ALG-2. However, the differences in cellular roles for the ALG-2 homodimer and ALG-2/peflin heterodimer are unclear. In the present study, we found that Trk-fused gene (TFG) protein interacted with the ALG-2 homodimer...
November 4, 2016: FEBS Journal
Yoko Idota, Yumi Kogure, Takako Kato, Kentaro Yano, Hiroshi Arakawa, Chihiro Miyajima, Fumiyoshi Kasahara, Takuo Ogihara
We investigated the relationship between the physical parameters of various metal ions, including toxic metal ions, and the binding affinity of these metal ions for alginate (Alg). The binding constant, K, of Sr(2+) was the highest among all tested metal ions. The order of K values was: Sr(2+)>Pb(2+)>Tb(3+)>Dy(3+)>Ca(2+)>Cd(2+)>Mg(2+)>Fe(2+)>Fe(3+)>Co(2+)>Al(3+)>Ni(2+)>Cs(+)>Cu(2+)>Ag(+)>Li(+)>K(+). The metal ions showing the highest K values had ionic radii within the range of about 90-120 pm...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Enas Elmowafy, Rihab Osman, Rania A H Ishak
BACKGROUND: Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. METHODS: Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Dominika Kulig, Anna Zimoch-Korzycka, Andrzej Jarmoluk
The aim of this work was to develop polyelectrolyte material suitable for active beef steaks coatings, by complexation of chitosan (CH) and sodium alginate (ALG) in a broad range of alginate/chitosan ratios (R). The rheological analysis confirmed significant effect of polymers ratios on the physical properties of sodium alginate-chitosan (ACH) hydrosols. The shear thinning non-Newtonian nature, thixotropic behavior and gel-like structure of solutions were displayed. Obtained complexes possess DPPH radical scavenging activity corresponding to 5...
January 2017: Meat Science
Jing Ma, Xianfeng Zhang, Yanbin Feng, Hui Zhang, Xiaojun Wang, Yonghui Zheng, Wentao Qiao, Xinqi Liu
In the HIV-1 replication cycle, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery promotes viral budding and release in the late stages. In this process, the ESCRT proteins, ALIX and TSG101, are recruited through interactions with HIV-1 Gag p6. ALG-2, also known as PDCD6, interacts with both ALIX and TSG101 and bridges ESCRT-III and ESCRT-I. In this study, we show that ALG-2 affects HIV-1 production negatively at both the exogenous and endogenous levels. Through a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified HEBP2 as the binding partner of ALG-2, and we solved the crystal structure of the ALG-2·HEBP2 complex...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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