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Sayan Mukherjee, John Steenbergen
In this paper, we introduce a class of random walks with absorbing states on simplicial complexes. Given a simplicial complex of dimension d, a random walk with an absorbing state is defined which relates to the spectrum of the k-dimensional Laplacian for 1 ≤ k ≤ d. We study an example of random walks on simplicial complexes in the context of a semi-supervised learning problem. Specifically, we consider a label propagation algorithm on oriented edges, which applies to a generalization of the partially labelled classification problem on graphs...
September 2016: Random Struct Algorithms
Dunke Zhang, Feng Wang, Yi Pang, Erhu Zhao, Sunqin Zhu, Fei Chen, Hongjuan Cui
Apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), also known as programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6), has recently been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various tumors and required for tumor cell viability. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ALG-2 plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity. In this study, we examined the expression of PDCD6 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that ALG-2 was generally expressed in glioblastoma cell lines. We also performed an analysis of an online database and found that high expression of ALG-2 was associated with poor prognosis (p = 0...
March 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Farinaz Ketabat, Akbar Karkhaneh, Rouhollah Mehdinavaz Aghdam, Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
Recently, Injectable Conducting Hydrogel (ICH) systems have gained much attention for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These systems can promote the regeneration of tissues responding to electrical responses. In this study, a novel ICH system was introduced. To achieve this system, firstly, a soluble non-toxic polypyrrole (PPy) synthesized by grafting pyrrole on alginate (Alg) backbone (Alg-graft-PPy), and then, ICH systems were prepared by the given ratios of Alg-graft-PPy, Alg, and collagen (Col)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Chuangnian Zhang, Gaona Shi, Ju Zhang, Jinfeng Niu, Pingsheng Huang, Zhihong Wang, Yanming Wang, Weiwei Wang, Chen Li, Deling Kong
Nanoparticles have been extensively explored as effective means to deliver chemotherapeutic agents or photosensitizers for chemotherapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer. In the present work, pheophorbide A (PheoA), a hydrophobic photosensitizer, was conjugated via a redox-sensitive disulfide linkage to alginate (PheoA-ALG). Anticancer agent, doxorubicin (DOX), was also loaded within the PheoA-ALG nanoparticles (DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs) and used as drug carriers for combinational antitumor treatment. The DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs were spherical in shape with a uniform diameter of approximately 210 nm...
February 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Taira Sato, Masanori Kikuchi, Mamoru Aizawa
The anti-washout property, viscosity, and cytocompatibility to an osteoblastic cell line, MG-63, of anti-washout pastes were investigated. Mixing a hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite (HAp/Col), an aqueous solution of sodium alginate (Na-Alg), which is a paste hardening and lubricant agent, and supplementation of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (Ca-Cit) as a calcium resource for the hardening reaction realized an injectable bone paste. Adding Ca-Cit at a concentration greater than eight times the Ca(2+) ion concentration to Na-Alg improved the anti-washout property...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ø Arlov, M Steinwachs, G Skjåk-Bræk, M Zenobi-Wong
Loss of articular cartilage from ageing, injury or degenerative disease is commonly associated with inflammation, causing pain and accelerating degradation of the cartilage matrix. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are involved in the regulation of immune responses in vivo, and analogous polysaccharides are currently being evaluated for tissue engineering matrices to form a biomimetic environment promoting tissue growth while suppressing inflammatory and catabolic activities. Here, we characterise physical properties of sulphated alginate (S-Alg) gels for use in cartilage engineering scaffolds, and study their anti-inflammatory effects on encapsulated chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β...
February 7, 2017: European Cells & Materials
Y Swarnalatha, Bhaswti Saha
AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study is aimed to isolate and study the efficacy of the anticancer activity of endophytic bacteria from adhatoda beddomei leaves. Endophytic bacteria, microorganisms can found in the plant tissues, like leaves, branches and roots and able to produce various novel secondary metabolites for the medicinal applications. METHODOLOGY: Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of the adhatoda beddomei leaves. The extract from the culture was tested for the cytotoxicity in A549 cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay, dual staining and nuclear staining...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Hao Yu, Ghislaine Cauchois, Jean-François Schmitt, Nicolas Louvet, Jean-Luc Six, Yun Chen, Rachid Rahouadj, Céline Huselstein
Alginate-based hydrogel scaffolds are widely used in the field of cartilage regeneration and repair. If the effect of autoclaving on the alginate powder is well known, it is not the same for the possible effects of the sterilization UV treatment on the properties of the hydrogel after polymerization. To select an effective sterilization treatment of alginate-based materials, one must find what are inter-relationship between the characteristics (chemical, physical and mechanical) of alginate-based hydrogel during sterilization, and what consequences have affected on cell behavior...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rui Henriques, Francisco L Ferreira, Sara C Madeira
BACKGROUND: Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters...
February 2, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Many bacterial pathogens naturally form cellular inclusions. Here the immunogenicity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) inclusions and their use as particulate vaccines delivering a range of host derived antigens was assessed. Our study showed that PHA inclusions of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa are immunogenic mediating a specific cell-mediated immune response. Protein engineering of the PHA inclusion forming enzyme by translational fusion of epitopes from vaccine candidates outer membrane proteins OprI, OprF, and AlgE mediated self-assembly of PHA inclusions coated by these selected antigens...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ali Mujtaba, Kanchan Kohli
The aim of this study is to develop a simple and applicable HPLC method for the detection of cefpodoxime acid (CFA) in rabbit plasma after oral administration of cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP) loaded chitosan-alginate (CH-ALG) beads formulation. CFP is a prodrug that is deesterified in vivo to its active metabolite CFA to exhibit antibiotic activity. Chromatographic separation of CFA and internal standard (IS) was achieved by a RP18(C18), Phenomenax®100, (250×4.6mm) with the mobile phase consisting of (0.02mol/l (20mM) ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile (92:8, v/v, pH=4...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jorge A M Delezuk, Doris E Ramírez-Herrera, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Joseph Wang
A rapid and efficient micromotor-based bacteria killing strategy is described. The new antibacterial approach couples the attractive antibacterial properties of chitosan with the efficient water-powered propulsion of magnesium (Mg) micromotors. These Janus micromotors consist of Mg microparticles coated with the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), alginate (Alg) and chitosan (Chi), with the latter responsible for the antibacterial properties of the micromotor. The distinct speed and efficiency advantages of the new micromotor-based environmentally friendly antibacterial approach have been demonstrated in various control experiments by treating drinking water contaminated with model Escherichia coli (E...
January 30, 2017: Nanoscale
Bidyut R Mohapatra
In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The Km and Vmax values recorded as 0...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
P Zhang, K Feng, Y Xue, C-X Zhang, Y Wang, X-L Li
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of haploidentical allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and prophylaxis of complications involved. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 8 patients with clinically diagnosed SAA (5 cases of SAA-I and 3 cases of SAA-II) were recruited, with the parents as the donors of hemopoietic stem cells. The conditioning regimen before HSCT included cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, pig anti-human lymphocyte immune globulin (p-ALG) and/or total body irradiation (TBI)...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Charise Dallazem Bertol, Maria Tereza Friedrich, Graciela Carlos, Pedro Eduardo Froehlich
Stability-indicating LC methods using a UV detector and a charged aerosol detector (CAD) simultaneously were validatedfor the assessment of alogliptin (ALG) in tablets. The analysis was performed on a C<sub>8</sub> column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at a flow of 0.8 mL/min, using acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.5; 90 + 10, v/v) as mobile phase and UV detection at 275 nm. Validation followed the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method was linear over the range of 25-200 μg/mL...
December 15, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Hui Li, Jin Yang, Pan Li, Tianqing Lan, Lincai Peng
We proposed a green and facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic paper in this study, which is layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles/sodium alginate (ALG) multilayers on paper surface followed by an adsorption treatment of colloidal carnauba wax. The formation of TiO2/ALG multilayers on paper surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The wetting property of modified paper was investigated by water contact angle (WCA) measurement...
March 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mengxue Xu, Chao Feng, Juan Wang, Xuqian Lang, Guixue Xia, Xiaoping Yu, Qiuxia Ji, Xiaojie Cheng, Ming Kong, Ya Liu, Xiguang Chen
In the present work, sodium alginate (ALG) was degraded by heterogeneous phase acid degradation. The molecular weight distribution of ALG after degradation was close to homogenization. Then the blood bio-compatibility of ALG with different molecular weights (ALG-0h 50,075, ALG-0.5h 20,680, ALG-2h 13,170 and ALG-96h 1170 kDa) was evaluated in vitro and vivo. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to assess the cytotoxicity of ALGs, ALG-0.5h and ALG-2h exhibited greater increment in percentage of cell viability comparing with ALG-0h and ALG-96h...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Victor Bapst, Amin Coja-Oghlan
A wide class of problems in combinatorics, computer science and physics can be described along the following lines. There are a large number of variables ranging over a finite domain that interact through constraints that each bind a few variables and either encourage or discourage certain value combinations. Examples include the k-SAT problem or the Ising model. Such models naturally induce a Gibbs measure on the set of assignments, which is characterised by its partition function. The present paper deals with the partition function of problems where the interactions between variables and constraints are induced by a sparse random (hyper)graph...
December 2016: Random Struct Algorithms
Kasper S Wang, Greg Tiao, Lee M Bass, Paula M Hertel, Douglas Mogul, Nanda Kerkar, Matthew Clifton, Colleen Azen, Laura Bull, Philip Rosenthal, Dylan Stewart, Riccardo Superina, Ronen Arnon, Molly Bozic, Mary L Brandt, Patrick A Dillon, Annie Fecteau, Kishore Iyer, Binita Kamath, Saul Karpen, Frederick Karrer, Kathleen M Loomes, Cara Mack, Peter Mattei, Alexander Miethke, Kyle Soltys, Yumirle P Turmelle, Karen West, Jessica Zagory, Cat Goodhue, Benjamin L Shneider
To evaluate the efficacy of non-transplant surgery for pediatric cholestasis, 58 clinically diagnosed children, including 20 Alagille syndrome (ALGS), 16 Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis-1 (FIC1), 18 Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) disease, & 4 others with low γ-glutamyl transpeptidase disease (levels <100 U/L), were identified across 14 Childhood Liver Disease Research Network (ChiLDReN) centers. Data were collected retrospectively from individuals who collectively had 39 partial external biliary diversions (PEBD), 11 ileal exclusions (IE) and 7 gallbladder-to-colon diversion (GBC)...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Juan Qin, Yang Yang, Siqi Gao, Yang Liu, Fan Yu, Yunqiang Zhou, Rui Lyu, Min Liu, Xinqi Liu, Dengwen Li, Jun Zhou
Cancer cells are characterized by genomic instability, resulting in the accumulation of mutations that promote cancer progression. One way that genomic instability can arise is through improper regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton that impacts the function of the mitotic spindle. In this study, we have identified a critical role for the interaction between apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) and heme-binding protein 2 (HEBP2) in the above processes. Our data show that the gene copy numbers and mRNA levels for both ALG-2 and HEBP2 are significantly upregulated in breast and lung cancer...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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