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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434206/a-phylogeographic-investigation-of-the-kelp-genus-laminaria-laminariales-phaeophyceae-with-emphasis-on-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#1
Mark D Rothman, Lydiane Mattio, Robert J Anderson, John J Bolton
The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship to the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424662/untangling-genomes-of-novel-planctomycetal-and-verrucomicrobial-species-from-monterey-bay-kelp-forest-metagenomes-by-refined-binning
#2
John Vollmers, Martinique Frentrup, Patrick Rast, Christian Jogler, Anne-Kristin Kaster
The kelp forest of the Pacific temperate rocky marine coastline of Monterey Bay in California is a dominant habitat for large brown macro-algae in the order of Laminariales. It is probably one of the most species-rich, structurally complex and productive ecosystems in temperate waters and well-studied in terms of trophic ecology. However, still little is known about the microorganisms thriving in this habitat. A growing body of evidence suggests that bacteria associated with macro-algae represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400614/tropicalization-strengthens-consumer-pressure-on-habitat-forming-seaweeds
#3
Salvador Zarco-Perello, Thomas Wernberg, Tim J Langlois, Mathew A Vanderklift
Ocean warming is driving species poleward, causing a 'tropicalization' of temperate ecosystems around the world. Increasing abundances of tropical herbivores on temperate reefs could accelerate declines in habitat-forming seaweeds with devastating consequences for these important marine ecosystems. Here we document an expansion of rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a tropical herbivore, on temperate reefs in Western Australia following a marine heatwave and demonstrate their impact on local kelp forests (Ecklonia radiata)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341155/anthropogenic-debris-in-the-nests-of-kelp-gulls-in-south-africa
#4
Minke Witteveen, Mark Brown, Peter G Ryan
Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338896/rapid-evolution-of-microrna-loci-in-the-brown-algae
#5
J Mark Cock, Fuli Liu, Delin Duan, Simon Bourdareau, Agnieszka P Lipinska, Susana M Coelho, James E Tarver
Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298353/simultaneous-assay-of-cortisol-and-dexamethasone-improved-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-dexamethasone-suppression-test
#6
Grethe Å Ueland, Paal Methlie, Ralf Kellmann, Marit Bjørgaas, Bjørn O Åsvold, Ketil Thorstensen, Oskar Kelp, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Gunnar Mellgren, Kristian Løvås, Eystein S Husebye
OBJECTIVES: The overnight dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test (DST) has high sensitivity, but moderate specificity, for diagnosing hypercortisolism. We have evaluated if simultaneous measurement of S-DXM may correct for variable DXM bioavailability and increase the diagnostic performance of DST, and if saliva (sa) is a feasible adjunct or alternative to serum. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study of DST was carried out in patients with suspected Cushing's syndrome (CS) (n = 49), incidentaloma (n = 152) and healthy controls (n = 101)...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288186/diet-and-biliary-tract-cancer-risk-in-shanghai-china
#7
Shakira M Nelson, Yu-Tang Gao, Leticia M Nogueira, Ming-Chang Shen, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Ann W Hsing, Jill Koshiol
Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276501/major-shifts-at-the-range-edge-of-marine-forests-the-combined-effects-of-climate-changes-and-limited-dispersal
#8
J Assis, E Berecibar, B Claro, F Alberto, D Reed, P Raimondi, E A Serrão
Global climate change is likely to constrain low latitude range edges across many taxa and habitats. Such is the case for NE Atlantic marine macroalgal forests, important ecosystems whose main structuring species is the annual kelp Saccorhiza polyschides. We coupled ecological niche modelling with simulations of potential dispersal and delayed development stages to infer the major forces shaping range edges and to predict their dynamics. Models indicated that the southern limit is set by high winter temperatures above the physiological tolerance of overwintering microscopic stages and reduced upwelling during recruitment...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253346/herbivore-induced-chemical-and-molecular-responses-of-the-kelps-laminaria-digitata-and-lessonia-spicata
#9
Andrés Ritter, Léa Cabioch, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Erwan Corre, Audrey Cosse, Laurence Dartevelle, Harold Duruflé, Carina Fasshauer, Sophie Goulitquer, François Thomas, Juan A Correa, Philippe Potin, Sylvain Faugeron, Catherine Leblanc
Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237800/an-extract-of-the-marine-alga-alaria-esculenta-modulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-folding-and-amyloid-formation
#10
James C Giffin, Robert C Richards, Cheryl Craft, Nusrat Jahan, Cindy Leggiadro, Thierry Chopin, Michael Szemerda, Shawna L MacKinnon, K Vanya Ewart
The conversion of α-synuclein from its natively unfolded and α-helical tetrameric forms to an amyloid conformation is central to the emergence of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, prevention of this conversion may offer an effective way of avoiding the onset of this disease or delaying its progress. At different concentrations, an aqueous extract from the edible winged kelp (Alaria esculenta), was shown to lower and to raise the melting point of α-synuclein. Size fractionation of the extract resulted in the separation of these distinct activities...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237626/effects-of-cryopreservation-at-various-temperatures-on-the-survival-of-kelp-grouper-epinephelus-moara-embryos-from-fertilization-with-cryopreserved-sperm
#11
Yongsheng Tian, Zhangfan Chen, Jiang Tang, Huimin Duan, Jieming Zhai, Bo Li, Wenhui Ma, Jiangchun Liu, Yunxia Hou, Zhengxiang Sun
Fish embryo cryopreservation is highly important for the long-term preservation of genomic and genetic information; however, few successful cases of fish embryo cryopreservation have been reported over the past 60 years. This is the first study to use Epinephelus moara embryos from fertilization with cryopreserved sperm as experimental material. Embryos that developed to the 16-22 somite stage and tail-bud stage were treated with the vitrification solution PMG3T according to a five-step equilibration method and cryopreserved at various temperatures and storage duration...
April 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176848/effect-of-domestication-on-the-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-saccharina-japonica-populations-in-china
#12
Jie Zhang, Xiuliang Wang, Jianting Yao, Qiuying Li, Fuli Liu, Norishige Yotsukura, Tatiana N Krupnova, Delin Duan
Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164308/ocean-acidification-and-kelp-development-reduced-ph-has-no-negative-effects-on-meiospore-germination-and-gametophyte-development-of-macrocystis-pyrifera-and-undaria-pinnatifida
#13
Pablo P Leal, Catriona L Hurd, Pamela A Fernández, Michael Y Roleda
The absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164155/historical-ecology-and-the-conservation-of-large-hermaphroditic-fishes-in-pacific-coast-kelp-forest-ecosystems
#14
Todd J Braje, Torben C Rick, Paul Szpak, Seth D Newsome, Joseph M McCain, Emma A Elliott Smith, Michael Glassow, Scott L Hamilton
The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123088/fluctuations-in-population-fecundity-drive-variation-in-demographic-connectivity-and-metapopulation-dynamics
#15
Max C N Castorani, Daniel C Reed, Peter T Raimondi, Filipe Alberto, Tom W Bell, Kyle C Cavanaugh, David A Siegel, Rachel D Simons
Demographic connectivity is vital to sustaining metapopulations yet often changes dramatically through time due to variation in the production and dispersal of offspring. However, the relative importance of variation in fecundity and dispersal in determining the connectivity and dynamics of metapopulations is poorly understood due to the paucity of comprehensive spatio-temporal data on these processes for most species. We quantified connectivity in metapopulations of a marine foundation species (giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera) across 11 years and approximately 900 km of coastline by estimating population fecundity with satellite imagery and propagule dispersal using a high-resolution ocean circulation model...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123086/protection-of-large-predators-in-a-marine-reserve-alters-size-dependent-prey-mortality
#16
Rebecca L Selden, Steven D Gaines, Scott L Hamilton, Robert R Warner
Where predator-prey interactions are size-dependent, reductions in predator size owing to fishing has the potential to disrupt the ecological role of top predators in marine ecosystems. In southern California kelp forests, we investigated the size-dependence of the interaction between herbivorous sea urchins and one of their predators, California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). Empirical tests examined how differences in predator size structure between reserve and fished areas affected size-specific urchin mortality...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122402/anticipating-changes-to-future-connectivity-within-a-network-of-marine-protected-areas
#17
M A Coleman, P Cetina-Heredia, M Roughan, M Feng, E van Sebille, B P Kelaher
Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity is required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122036/temporal-and-spatial-variations-of-bacterial-and-faunal-communities-associated-with-deep-sea-wood-falls
#18
Petra Pop Ristova, Christina Bienhold, Frank Wenzhöfer, Pamela E Rossel, Antje Boetius
Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112173/metasort-untangles-metagenome-assembly-by-reducing-microbial-community-complexity
#19
Peifeng Ji, Yanming Zhang, Jinfeng Wang, Fangqing Zhao
Most current approaches to analyse metagenomic data rely on reference genomes. Novel microbial communities extend far beyond the coverage of reference databases and de novo metagenome assembly from complex microbial communities remains a great challenge. Here we present a novel experimental and bioinformatic framework, metaSort, for effective construction of bacterial genomes from metagenomic samples. MetaSort provides a sorted mini-metagenome approach based on flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing methodologies, and employs new computational algorithms to efficiently recover high-quality genomes from the sorted mini-metagenome by the complementary of the original metagenome...
January 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#20
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
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