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Matthew A Lemay, Patrick T Martone, Patrick Keeling, Jenn M Burt, Kira A Krumhansl, Rhea D Sanders, Laura Wegener Parfrey
Kelp forest ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots, providing habitat for dense assemblages of marine organisms and nutrients for marine and terrestrial food webs. The surfaces of kelps support diverse microbial communities that facilitate the transfer of carbon from algal primary production to higher trophic levels. We quantified the diversity of bacteria on the surfaces of eight sympatric kelp species from four sites in British Columbia. Kelp-associated bacterial communities are significantly different from their environment, even though 86% of their bacterial taxa are shared with seawater and 97% are shared with rocky substrate...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Kyung-Min Poo, Eun-Bi Son, Jae-Soo Chang, Xianghao Ren, Yun-Jung Choi, Kyu-Jung Chae
For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Thomas Lamy, Daniel C Reed, Andrew Rassweiler, David A Siegel, Li Kui, Tom W Bell, Rachel D Simons, Robert J Miller
Identifying spatial scales of variation in natural communities and the processes driving them is critical for obtaining a predictive understanding of biodiversity. In this study, we focused on diverse communities inhabiting productive kelp forests on shallow subtidal rocky reefs in southern California, USA. We combined long-term community surveys from 86 sites with detailed environmental data to determine what structures assemblages of fishes, invertebrates and algae at multiple spatial scales. We identified the spatial scales of variation in species composition using a hierarchical analysis based on eigenfunctions, and assessed how sea surface temperature (SST), water column chlorophyll, giant kelp biomass, wave exposure and potential propagule delivery strength contributed to community variation at each scale...
November 3, 2017: Oecologia
Arie J P Spyksma, Nick T Shears, Richard B Taylor
Many prey species induce defences in direct response to predation cues. However, prey defences could also be enhanced by predators indirectly via mechanisms that increase resource availability to prey, e.g. trophic cascades. We evaluated the relative impacts of these direct and indirect effects on the mechanical strength of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus We measured crush-resistance of sea urchin tests (skeletons) in (i) two marine reserves, where predators of sea urchins are relatively common and have initiated a trophic cascade resulting in abundant food for surviving urchins in the form of kelp, and (ii) two adjacent fished areas where predators and kelps are rare...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Graham Epstein, Dan A Smale
Marine invasion ecology and management have progressed significantly over the last 30 years although many knowledge gaps and challenges remain. The kelp Undaria pinnatifida, or "Wakame," has a global non-native range and is considered one of the world's "worst" invasive species. Since its first recorded introduction in 1971, numerous studies have been conducted on its ecology, invasive characteristics, and impacts, yet a general consensus on the best approach to its management has not yet been reached. Here, we synthesize current understanding of this highly invasive species and adopt Undaria as a case study to highlight challenges in wider marine invasion ecology and management...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Melinda A Coleman, Thomas Wernberg
Kelp forests dominated by species of Laminariales are globally recognized as key habitats on subtidal temperate rocky reefs. Forests characterized by fucalean seaweed, in contrast, receive relatively less attention despite being abundant, ubiquitous, and ecologically important. Here, we review information on subtidal fucalean taxa of Australia's Great Southern Reef, with a focus on the three most abundant and widely distributed genera (Phyllospora, Scytothalia, and Sargassum) to reveal the functionally unique role of fucoids in temperate reef ecology...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Catherine A Pfister, Samuel P Betcher
Primary producers respond to climate directly and indirectly due to effects on their consumers. In the temperate coastal ocean, the highly productive brown algae known as kelp have both strong climate and grazer linkages. We analyzed the demographic response of the kelp Pleurophycus gardneri over a 25-year span to determine the interaction between ocean climate indicators and invertebrate infestation rates. Pleurophycus hosts amphipod species that burrow in the stipe, increasing mortality. Although kelp performance is generally greater with more negative values of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and colder seawater temperatures, Pleurophycus showed the opposite pattern...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Erina Joo, Shunsuke Yamane, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, the effect of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito, dashi, on glucose metabolism and digestion has rarely been studied. Based on the component analysis of three actual broths served in traditional restaurants, a chemically synthesized broth with three free amino acids (histidine, glutamate, aspartate) and salt was prepared to investigate their effect on glucose metabolism, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, and digestion...
August 10, 2017: Nutrition
Lee L Yu, Rachel C Stanoyevitch, Rolf Zeisler
A dietary supplement, kelp contains a significant amount of arsenic that is mostly arsenosugars. The determination of arsenosugars is difficult due to a lack of arsenosugar calibration standard, because arsenosugar compounds are not commercially available. This work reports the determination of arsenicals in a kelp extract with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The hydrophilic fraction of arsenicals was reproducibly extracted from a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3232 Kelp Powder (Thallus Laminariae) in development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)...
August 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
Eun-Bi Son, Kyung-Min Poo, Jae-Soo Chang, Kyu-Jung Chae
Despite the excellent sorption ability of biochar for heavy metals, it is difficult to separate and reuse after adsorption when applied to wastewater treatment process. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an engineered magnetic biochar by pyrolyzing waste marine macro-algae as a feedstock, and we doped iron oxide particles (e.g., magnetite, maghemite) to impart magnetism. The physicochemical characteristics and adsorption properties of the biochar were evaluated. When compared to conventional pinewood sawdust biochar, the waste marine algae-based magnetic biochar exhibited a greater potential to remove heavy metals despite having a lower surface area (0...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paul M South, Oliver Floerl, Barrie M Forrest, Mads S Thomsen
Marine invasive macroalgae can have severe local-scale impacts on ecological communities. The kelp Undaria pinnatifida is one of the most successful marine invasive species worldwide, and is widely regarded as one of the worst. Here, we review research on Undaria in Australasia, where the kelp is established throughout much of New Zealand and south-eastern Australia. The presence of Undaria for at least three decades in these locations makes Australasia one of the longest-invaded bioregions globally, and a valuable case study for considering Undaria's invasion success and associated impacts...
October 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Jean-Baptiste E Thomas, Jonas Nordström, Emma Risén, Maria E Malmström, Fredrik Gröndahl
Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses...
September 22, 2017: Ambio
Alexandra Kelp, Anika Albrecht, Bastian Amend, Mario Klünder, Philipp Rapp, Oliver Sawodny, Arnulf Stenzl, Wilhelm K Aicher
BACKGROUND: Different methods for induction and monitoring of urethral sphincter deficiency were explored in a large animal model. METHODS: Sphincter deficiency was established in female pigs by dilatation and cauterization, and amount and frequencies of voiding were monitored and explored by pad test. Sphincteric closure pressures were recorded prior to and immediately after treatment of each animal, and on day 21 by two techniques: standard urethral pressure profilometry (s-UPP) and high-definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP)...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Urology
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Divine Damertey Sewu, Patrick Boakye, Hwansoo Jung, Seung Han Woo
The potential of activating terrestrial biomass (spent mushroom substrate, SMS) with ash-laden marine biomass [kelp seaweed, KE] via co-pyrolysis in the field of adsorption was first investigated. KE biochar (KBC), SMS biochar (SMSBC), biochar (SK10BC) from 10%-KE added SMS, and biochar (ESBC) from KE-extract added SMS were used for the adsorption of cationic dye crystal violet (CV). ESBC had highest fixed carbon content (70.60%) and biochar yield (31.6%). SK10BC exhibited high ash content, abundant functional groups, coarser surface morphology and Langmuir maximum adsorptive capacity (610...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Linhong Teng, Xiao Fan, Dong Xu, Xiaowen Zhang, Thomas Mock, Naihao Ye
Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS). About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Prashamsa Koirala, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
The genus Ecklonia (Lessoniaceae, Phaeophyceae), commonly called kelp (brown algae), is abundant on the coasts of Japan and Korea. During the past few decades, Ecklonia species have received tremendous attention for their wide range of therapeutic properties and multiple health benefits, such as great nutritional value and being rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, and polysaccharides. Several novel functional ingredients with diversified biological activities have been isolated and possess antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant therapeutic properties...
August 24, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Pedro Murúa, Franz Goecke, Renato Westermeier, Pieter van West, Frithjof C Küpper, Sigrid Neuhauser
Phytomyxea are obligate endoparasites of angiosperm plants and Stramenopiles characterised by a complex life cycle. Here Maullinia braseltonii sp. nov., an obligate parasite infecting the bull kelp Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from the South-Eastern Pacific (Central Chile and Chiloe Island) and South-Western Atlantic (Falkland Islands, UK) is described. M. braseltonii causes distinct hypertrophies (galls) on the host thalli making it easily identifiable in the field. Sequence comparisons based on the partial 18S and the partial 18S-5...
August 2017: Protist
Cheng-Han Gao, Jin-Qiao Qu, Xi-Yu Zhou, Tian-Shu Gao
Iodine-rich herbs such as seaweed, kelp, and sea tangle were widely used to treat various types of goiter with good effect and without any adverse side effects in China. When compared with potassium iodate (PI), iodine-rich herbs had a positive effect on the recovery of goiter resulting from iodine deficiency without any obvious harmful effects. In NOD.H-2(h4) mice, an autoimmune thyroiditis-prone model, iodine excess can increase infiltration of lymphocytes and structural damage of the thyroid follicles, hence resulting in thyroiditis...
August 12, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Jennifer Gonzales, Teresa Tymon, Frithjof C Küpper, Matthew S Edwards, Carl J Carrano
Kelps have a major role in marine and atmospheric iodine cycling in the coastal zone of temperate regions, with potential wide-ranging impacts on ozone destruction in the coastal marine boundary layer. However, little is known about the impact of kelp forests on iodine speciation in coastal sea water. To address this, we examined iodide and iodate concentrations in seawater in and around a giant kelp forest near San Diego, CA, USA, and a nearby site that was not influenced by kelp biology. Our data shows that while both iodide and iodate concentrations remained unchanged during the year at the nearby site, these concentrations changed significantly in and around the kelp forest, and were strongly related to changes in kelp canopy biomass...
2017: PloS One
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