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Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Frithjof C Küpper, Eric P Miller, Stephen J Andrews, Claire Hughes, Lucy J Carpenter, Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke, Chiaki Toyama, Yasuyuki Muramatsu, Martin C Feiters, Carl J Carrano
This study explores key features of bromine and iodine metabolism in the filamentous brown alga and genomics model Ectocarpus siliculosus. Both elements are accumulated in Ectocarpus, albeit at much lower concentration factors (2-3 orders of magnitude for iodine, and < 1 order of magnitude for bromine) than e.g. in the kelp Laminaria digitata. Iodide competitively reduces the accumulation of bromide. Both iodide and bromide are accumulated in the cell wall (apoplast) of Ectocarpus, with minor amounts of bromine also detectable in the cytosol...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
S E Lester, J M Stevens, R R Gentry, C V Kappel, T W Bell, C J Costello, S D Gaines, D A Kiefer, C C Maue, J E Rensel, R D Simons, L Washburn, C White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeremiah J Minich, Megan M Morris, Matt Brown, Michael Doane, Matthew S Edwards, Todd P Michael, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors...
2018: PloS One
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Michael P Russell, Victoria K Gibbs, Emily Duwan
Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these "pits." However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone) and one metamorphic (granite)...
2018: PloS One
Kang Wook Lee, Jae Min Shim, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
Kimchi was prepared with a starter, Lactobacillus zymae GU240 producing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and one precursor of GABA (glutamic acid, glutamic acid mono sodium salt (MSG), or kelp extract). L. zymae GU240, an isolate from kimchi, can grow at 7% NaCl and low temperature. Five different kimchi samples were fermented for 20 weeks at -1°C. Kimchi with starter alone could not produce GABA. GABA content was highest in kimchi with co-inoculation of starter and MSG (1%, w/w). Kimchi co-inoculated with a starter and kelp extract powder (3%, w/w) had the second highest GABA content...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Daniel A Varela, Luis A Hernríquez, Pamela A Fernández, Pablo Leal, María Carmen Hernández-González, Félix L Figueroa, Alejandro H Buschmann
Finfish aquaculture is an activity that has experienced an explosive global development, but presents several environmental risks, such as high nitrogen outputs with potential eutrophication consequences. Therefore, the integration of seaweed aquaculture with the aim of decreasing nitrogen emissions associated with intensive salmon farming has been proposed as a bioremediation solution. Ecophysiological knowledge about seaweeds cultured close to farming cages is, however, still rudimentary. We experimentally studied the growth and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C...
February 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Thomas Wernberg, Melinda A Coleman, Scott Bennett, Mads S Thomsen, Fernando Tuya, Brendan P Kelaher
Genetic diversity confers adaptive capacity to populations under changing conditions but its role in mediating impacts of climate change remains unresolved for most ecosystems. This lack of knowledge is particularly acute for foundation species, where impacts may cascade throughout entire ecosystems. We combined population genetics with eco-physiological and ecological field experiments to explore relationships among latitudinal patterns in genetic diversity, physiology and resilience of a kelp ecosystem to climate stress...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ezequiel M Marzinelli, Zhiguang Qiu, Katherine A Dafforn, Emma L Johnston, Peter D Steinberg, Mariana Mayer-Pinto
Host-associated microbial communities play a fundamental role in the life of eukaryotic hosts. It is increasingly argued that hosts and their microbiota must be studied together as 'holobionts' to better understand the effects of environmental stressors on host functioning. Disruptions of host-microbiota interactions by environmental stressors can negatively affect host performance and survival. Substantial ecological impacts are likely when the affected hosts are habitat-forming species (e.g., trees, kelps) that underpin local biodiversity...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom W Bell, Jonatha Giddens, Brad Henning, Mathias Hüne, Alex Muñoz, Pelayo Salinas-de-León, Enric Sala
The vast and complex coast of the Magellan Region of extreme southern Chile possesses a diversity of habitats including fjords, deep channels, and extensive kelp forests, with a unique mix of temperate and sub-Antarctic species. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos are the most southerly locations in the Americas, with the southernmost kelp forests, and some of the least explored places on earth. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera plays a key role in structuring the ecological communities of the entire region, with the large brown seaweed Lessonia spp...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca L Morris, Teresa M Konlechner, Marco Ghisalberti, Stephen E Swearer
Climate change is increasing the threat of erosion and flooding along coastlines globally. Engineering solutions (e.g. seawalls and breakwaters) in response to protecting coastal communities and associated infrastructure are increasingly becoming economically and ecologically unsustainable. This has led to recommendations to create or restore natural habitats, such as sand dunes, saltmarsh, mangroves, seagrass and kelp beds, and coral and shellfish reefs, to provide coastal protection in place of (or to complement) artificial structures...
January 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
João Neiva, Cristina Paulino, Mette M Nielsen, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Gary W Saunders, Jorge Assis, Ignacio Bárbara, Éric Tamigneaux, Licínia Gouveia, Tânia Aires, Núria Marbà, Annette Bruhn, Gareth A Pearson, Ester A Serrão
Glacial vicariance is regarded as one of the most prevalent drivers of phylogeographic structure and speciation among high-latitude organisms, but direct links between ice advances and range fragmentation have been more difficult to establish in marine than in terrestrial systems. Here we investigate the evolution of largely disjunct (and potentially reproductively isolated) phylogeographic lineages within the amphi-boreal kelp Saccharina latissima s. l. Using molecular data (COI, microsatellites) we confirm that S...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
X F Liu, Y H Wu, S N Wei, N Wang, Y Z Li, N W Zhang, P F Li, Q W Qin, S L Chen
A new brain-cell line, EMB, was developed from kelp grouper Epinephelus moara, a cultured marine fish. The EMB cells were subcultured for more than 60 passages. The cells were cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 medium (L15) supplemented with antibiotics, foetal bovine serum (FBS), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cells could grow at 18-30° C, with the maximum growth between 24 and 30° C. The optimum FBS concentration for the cells growth ranged between 15 and 20%. Chromosome analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number was 48 in the cells at passage 45...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Pol Capdevila, Cristina Linares, Eneko Aspillaga, Joan Lluís Riera, Bernat Hereu
Dispersal and recruitment are fundamental processes for population recovery following disturbances in sessile species. While both processes are well understood for many terrestrial species, they still remain poorly resolved for some macroalgal species. Here we experimentally investigated the effective dispersal and recruit survival of a mesophotic Mediterranean fucoid, Cystoseira zosteroides. In three isolated populations, four sets of settlement collectors were placed at increasing distances (from 0 to 10 m) and different orientations (North, South, East and West)...
2018: PloS One
Yashuang Hei, Xiqian Li, Xiao Zhou, Jingju Liu, Mimi Sun, Tianze Sha, Cuixing Xu, Wanyi Xue, Xiangjie Bo, Ming Zhou
In this paper, kelp (Laminaria japonica), as a kind of abundant biomass, is used as the precursor for the preparation of kelp-derived hierarchical meso-macroporous carbons (K-dHMMCs) through the carbonization under nitrogen (N2) atmosphere at high temperature. The K-dHMMCs exhibits the unique structure with high specific surface area of 416.02 m2 g-1, large pore volume of 0.24 cm3 g-1, the hierarchical meso-macroporous size distribution centered at 2, 12 and 82 nm and high density of defective sites, enabling K-dHMMCs attractive for the electrocatalysis...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Natalia S Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W Lamb, Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common microcarnivorous cryptic reef fish species, the triplefin Helcogrammoides cunninghami...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jon D Witman, Robert W Lamb
Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43...
2018: PloS One
Thomas A Ebert, Louis M Barr, James L Bodkin, Dirk Burcham, Dominique Bureau, Henry S Carson, Nancy L Caruso, Jennifer E Caselle, Jeremy T Claisse, Sabrina Clemente, Kathryn Davis, Paul M Detwiler, John D Dixon, David O Duggins, John M Engle, James A Estes, Scott D Groth, Benjamin M Grupe, Peter Halmay, Kyle P Hebert, José C Hernández, Laura J Jurgens, Peter E Kalvass, Michael C Kenner, Brenda Kenner, David J Kushner, Lynn C Lee, David L Leighton, Gabriela Montaño-Moctezuma, J Eric Munk, Irma Olguin, Julio S Palleiro, David O Parker, John S Pearse, Daniel J Pondella, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Stephen C Schroeter, A Ole Shelton, Jorge Sonnenholzner, Ian K Taniguchi, Glenn R VanBlaricom, Jane C Watson, Benjamin P Weitzman, Jonathan P Williams, Jennifer Yakimishyn, Zane Zhang
Size, growth, and density have been studied for North American Pacific coast sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, S. droebachiensis, S. polyacanthus, Mesocentrotus (Strongylocentrotus) franciscanus, Lytechinus pictus, Centrostephanus coronatus, and Arbacia stellata by various workers at diverse sites and for varying lengths of time from 1956 to present. Numerous peer-reviewed publications have used some of these data but some data have appeared only in graduate theses or the gray literature. There also are data that have never appeared outside original data sheets...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
Linhong Teng, Wentao Han, Xiao Fan, Dong Xu, Xiaowen Zhang, Simon M Dittami, Naihao Ye
Lipoxygenase (LOX) plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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