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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176848/effect-of-domestication-on-the-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-saccharina-japonica-populations-in-china
#1
Jie Zhang, Xiuliang Wang, Jianting Yao, Qiuying Li, Fuli Liu, Norishige Yotsukura, Tatiana N Krupnova, Delin Duan
Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164308/ocean-acidification-and-kelp-development-reduced-ph-has-no-negative-effects-on-meiospore-germination-and-gametophyte-development-of-macrocystis-pyrifera-and-undaria-pinnatifida
#2
Pablo P Leal, Catriona L Hurd, Pamela A Fernández, Michael Y Roleda
The absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164155/historical-ecology-and-the-conservation-of-large-hermaphroditic-fishes-in-pacific-coast-kelp-forest-ecosystems
#3
Todd J Braje, Torben C Rick, Paul Szpak, Seth D Newsome, Joseph M McCain, Emma A Elliott Smith, Michael Glassow, Scott L Hamilton
The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123088/fluctuations-in-population-fecundity-drive-variation-in-demographic-connectivity-and-metapopulation-dynamics
#4
Max C N Castorani, Daniel C Reed, Peter T Raimondi, Filipe Alberto, Tom W Bell, Kyle C Cavanaugh, David A Siegel, Rachel D Simons
Demographic connectivity is vital to sustaining metapopulations yet often changes dramatically through time due to variation in the production and dispersal of offspring. However, the relative importance of variation in fecundity and dispersal in determining the connectivity and dynamics of metapopulations is poorly understood due to the paucity of comprehensive spatio-temporal data on these processes for most species. We quantified connectivity in metapopulations of a marine foundation species (giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera) across 11 years and approximately 900 km of coastline by estimating population fecundity with satellite imagery and propagule dispersal using a high-resolution ocean circulation model...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123086/protection-of-large-predators-in-a-marine-reserve-alters-size-dependent-prey-mortality
#5
Rebecca L Selden, Steven D Gaines, Scott L Hamilton, Robert R Warner
Where predator-prey interactions are size-dependent, reductions in predator size owing to fishing has the potential to disrupt the ecological role of top predators in marine ecosystems. In southern California kelp forests, we investigated the size-dependence of the interaction between herbivorous sea urchins and one of their predators, California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). Empirical tests examined how differences in predator size structure between reserve and fished areas affected size-specific urchin mortality...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122402/anticipating-changes-to-future-connectivity-within-a-network-of-marine-protected-areas
#6
M A Coleman, P Cetina-Heredia, M Roughan, M Feng, E van Sebille, B P Kelaher
Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity is required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122036/temporal-and-spatial-variations-of-bacterial-and-faunal-communities-associated-with-deep-sea-wood-falls
#7
Petra Pop Ristova, Christina Bienhold, Frank Wenzhöfer, Pamela E Rossel, Antje Boetius
Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112173/metasort-untangles-metagenome-assembly-by-reducing-microbial-community-complexity
#8
Peifeng Ji, Yanming Zhang, Jinfeng Wang, Fangqing Zhao
Most current approaches to analyse metagenomic data rely on reference genomes. Novel microbial communities extend far beyond the coverage of reference databases and de novo metagenome assembly from complex microbial communities remains a great challenge. Here we present a novel experimental and bioinformatic framework, metaSort, for effective construction of bacterial genomes from metagenomic samples. MetaSort provides a sorted mini-metagenome approach based on flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing methodologies, and employs new computational algorithms to efficiently recover high-quality genomes from the sorted mini-metagenome by the complementary of the original metagenome...
January 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#9
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091726/predation-cues-rather-than-resource-availability-promote-cryptic-behaviour-in-a-habitat-forming-sea-urchin
#10
Arie J P Spyksma, Richard B Taylor, Nick T Shears
It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances...
January 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075025/warmer-temperatures-reduce-the-influence-of-an-important-keystone-predator
#11
Chiara Bonaviri, Michael Graham, Paola Gianguzza, Nick T Shears
Predator-prey interactions may be strongly influenced by temperature variations in marine ecosystems. Consequently, climate change may alter the importance of predators with repercussions for ecosystem functioning and structure. In North-eastern Pacific kelp forests, the starfish Pycnopodia helianthoides is known to be an important predator of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Here we investigated the influence of water temperature on this predator-prey interaction by: (1) assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of both species across a temperature gradient in the northern Channel Islands, California, and (2) investigating how the feeding rate of P...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063828/genome-wide-computational-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-brown-algae-phaeophyceae
#12
Makoto Terauchi, Takahiro Yamagishi, Takeaki Hanyuda, Hiroshi Kawai
Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules...
January 4, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056071/species-specific-responses-of-juvenile-rockfish-to-elevated-pco2-from-behavior-to-genomics
#13
Scott L Hamilton, Cheryl A Logan, Hamilton W Fennie, Susan M Sogard, James P Barry, April D Makukhov, Lauren R Tobosa, Kirsten Boyer, Christopher F Lovera, Giacomo Bernardi
In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification-which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean-is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life. In a coastal upwelling system, we compared the effects of chronic exposure to low pH (elevated pCO2) at four treatment levels (i.e., pCO2 = ambient [500], moderate [750], high [1900], and extreme [2800 μatm]) on behavior, physiology, and patterns of gene expression in white muscle tissue of juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes), integrating responses from the transcriptome to the whole organism level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052391/the-present-is-the-key-to-the-past-linking-regime-shifts-in-kelp-beds-to-the-distribution-of-deep-living-sea-urchins
#14
Karen Filbee-Dexter, Robert E Scheibling
Understanding processes that drive sudden shifts in ecosystem structure and function has become an important research focus for coastal management. In kelp bed ecosystems, regime shifts occur when high densities of sea urchins destructively graze kelp and create coralline algal barrens. While the importance of predation and disease in mediating shifts between kelp beds and barrens on shallow rocky reefs has been well documented, little is known about the role of deep-living urchins in these alternative stable-state dynamics...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038977/determination-of-genetic-diversity-among-saccharina-germplasm-using-issr-and-rapd-markers
#15
Cuiju Cui, Yan Li, Yanling Liu, Xiaojie Li, Shiju Luo, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Ruina Wu, Guangjin Liang, Juan Sun, Jie Peng, Pingping Tian
Various species of genus Saccharina are economically important brown macroalgae cultivated in China. The genetic background of the conserved Saccharina germplasm was not clear. In this report, DNA-based molecular markers such as inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 48 Saccharina germplasms. A total of 50 ISSR and 50 RAPD primers were tested, of which only 33 polymorphic primers (17 ISSR and 16 RAPD) had an amplified clear and reproducible profile, and could be used...
December 27, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030596/phase-shift-dynamics-of-sea-urchin-overgrazing-on-nutrified-reefs
#16
Nina Kriegisch, Simon Reeves, Craig R Johnson, Scott D Ling
Shifts from productive kelp beds to impoverished sea urchin barrens occur globally and represent a wholesale change to the ecology of sub-tidal temperate reefs. Although the theory of shifts between alternative stable states is well advanced, there are few field studies detailing the dynamics of these kinds of transitions. In this study, sea urchin herbivory (a 'top-down' driver of ecosystems) was manipulated over 12 months to estimate (1) the sea urchin density at which kelp beds collapse to sea urchin barrens, and (2) the minimum sea urchin density required to maintain urchin barrens on experimental reefs in the urbanised Port Phillip Bay, Australia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017856/a-morphological-and-phylogenetic-investigation-into-divergence-among-sympatric-australian-southern-bull-kelps-durvillaea-potatorum-and-d-amatheiae-sp-nov
#17
Xénia A Weber, Graham J Edgar, Sam C Banks, Jonathan M Waters, Ceridwen I Fraser
Genetic analyses can reveal a wealth of hitherto undiscovered cryptic biodiversity. For co-occurring and morphologically similar species, the combination of molecular, ecological and morphological analyses provides an excellent opportunity for understanding some of the processes that can lead to divergence and speciation. The Australian endemic brown macroalga Durvillaea potatorum (Phaeophyceae) was examined with a combination of genetic and morphological approaches to confirm the presence of two separate species and to infer the processes that led to their divergence...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992578/environmental-predictors-of-seabird-wrecks-in-a-tropical-coastal-area
#18
Davi Castro Tavares, Jailson Fulgencio de Moura, Salvatore Siciliano
Beached bird surveys have been widely used to monitor the impact of oil pollution in the oceans. However, separating the combined effects of oil pollution, environmental variables and methodological aspects of beach monitoring on seabird stranding patterns is a challenging task. The effects of a comprehensive set of oceanographic and climatic variables and oil pollution on seabird strandings in a tropical area of Brazil were investigated herein, using two robust and innovative methods: Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Structural Equation Modeling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990490/long-photoperiods-sustain-high-ph-in-arctic-kelp-forests
#19
Dorte Krause-Jensen, Núria Marbà, Marina Sanz-Martin, Iris E Hendriks, Jakob Thyrring, Jacob Carstensen, Mikael Kristian Sejr, Carlos M Duarte
Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in pH with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up-regulate pH...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984678/assessing-the-ecosystem-level-consequences-of-a-small-scale-artisanal-kelp-fishery-within-the-context-of-climate-change
#20
K A Krumhansl, J N Bergman, A K Salomon
Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp fishery (Macrocystis pyrifera), finding minimal impacts of small-scale harvest on kelp recovery rates, survival, and biomass dynamics, and abundances of associated commercial and culturally important fish species...
December 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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