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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609971/what-is-i-pseudopotamilla-i-i-reniformis-i-sabellidae-comparisons-of-populations-from-britain-iceland-and-canada-with-comments-on-i-eudistylia-i-and-i-schizobranchia-i
#1
Phyllis Knight-Jones, Teresa Darbyshire, Mary E Petersen, María Ana Tovar-Hernández
A neotype of Amphitrite Müller (1771) is established and re-described, using material collected in 2001 from near the type locality on the southwest coast of Iceland. We examined material from Iceland, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, identified as Pseudopotamilla reniformis, showing scissiparity and commonly found in aggregations within kelp holdfasts or amongst encrusting fauna. By contrast, scissiparity has not been seen in a population recorded as P. reniformis from Wales (broadcast spawning is presumed, Chughtai & Knight-Jones 1988), which bores into limestone and that the present analysis shows to belong to a different species from P...
April 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586684/herbivory-in-the-marine-realm
#2
Robert S Steneck, David R Bellwood, Mark E Hay
Herbivory occurs when animals consume plants; but the term hides two fundamentally different processes. One relates to the animal's nutrition, the other to the plant's survival and abundance. Both are central to the ecological process called herbivory. Evolutionary innovations in herbivore function have shaped shallow marine ecosystems from kelp forests to coral reefs.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581670/interactive-effects-of-predator-and-prey-harvest-on-ecological-resilience-of-rocky-reefs
#3
Robert P Dunn, Marissa L Baskett, Kevin A Hovel
A major goal of ecosystem-based fisheries management is to prevent fishery-induced shifts in community states. This requires an understanding of ecological resilience: the ability of an ecosystem to return to the same state following a perturbation, which can strongly depend on species interactions across trophic levels. We use a structured model of a temperate rocky reef to explore how multi-trophic level fisheries impact ecological resilience. Increasing fishing mortality of prey (urchins) has a minor effect on equilibrium biomass of kelp, urchins, and spiny lobster predators, but increases resilience by reducing the range of predator harvest rates at which alternative stable states are possible...
June 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572689/a-field-deployable-method-for-a-rapid-screening-analysis-of-inorganic-arsenic-in-seaweed
#4
Edi Bralatei, Karolina Nekrosiute, Jenny Ronan, Andrea Raab, Evin McGovern, Dagmar B Stengel, Eva M Krupp, Joerg Feldmann
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in 13 store-bought edible seaweed samples and 34 dried kelp (Laminaria digitata) samples was determined by a newly developed, field-deployable method (FDM) with the aid of a field test kit for arsenic in water. Results from the FDM were compared to results from speciation analysis achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The FDM consisted of a simple extraction method using diluted HNO3 to quantitatively extract iAs without decomposing the organoarsenicals to iAs followed by the selective volatilisation of iAs as arsine (AsH3) and subsequent chemo-trapping on a filter paper soaked in mercury bromide (HgBr2) solution...
2017: Mikrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560113/the-role-of-kelp-crabs-as-consumers-in-bull-kelp-forests-evidence-from-laboratory-feeding-trials-and-field-enclosures
#5
Katie Dobkowski
The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta) and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis) are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific). In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds) tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options) is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1) feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2) feeding electivity on aged vs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549285/environmental-response-to-long-term-mariculture-activities-in-the-weihai-coastal-area-china
#6
Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Ying Liu, Jide Song, Yongyu Zhang
The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542268/consistent-multi-level-trophic-effects-of-marine-reserve-protection-across-northern-new-zealand
#7
Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Russell J Thomson, Debbie J Freeman
Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501152/determination-of-inorganic-arsenic-in-algae-using-bromine-halogenation-and-on-line-nonpolar-solid-phase-extraction-followed-by-hydride-generation-atomic-fluorescence-spectrometry
#8
Weihong Zhang, Yuehan Qi, Deyuan Qin, Jixin Liu, Xuefei Mao, Guoying Chen, Chao Wei, Yongzhong Qian
Accurate, stable and fast analysis of toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) in complicated and arsenosugar-rich algae matrix is always a challenge. Herein, a novel analytical method for iAs in algae was reported, using bromine halogenation and on-line nonpolar solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The separation of iAs from algae was first performed by nonpolar SPE sorbent using Br(-) for arsenic halogenation. Algae samples were extracted with 1% perchloric acid...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498102/chimeric-origins-of-ochrophytes-and-haptophytes-revealed-through-an-ancient-plastid-proteome
#9
Richard G Dorrell, Gillian Gile, Giselle McCallum, Raphaël Méheust, Eric P Bapteste, Christen M Klinger, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Katalina D Freeman, Daniel J Richter, Chris Bowler
Plastids are supported by a wide range of proteins encoded within the nucleus and imported from the cytoplasm. These plastid-targeted proteins may originate from the endosymbiont, the host, or other sources entirely. Here, we identify and characterise 770 plastid-targeted proteins that are conserved across the ochrophytes, a major group of algae including diatoms, pelagophytes and kelps, that possess plastids derived from red algae. We show that the ancestral ochrophyte plastid proteome was an evolutionary chimera, with 25% of its phylogenetically tractable nucleus-encoded proteins deriving from green algae...
May 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458465/undaria-marching-on-late-arrival-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#10
Stefan Kraan
The Asian invasive brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was found for the first time in the Republic of Ireland in Kilmore Quay in Co. Wexford in July 2016. As this brown kelp is of considerable economic importance and is cultivated in Asia as well as in Europe, it opens up the discussion if this invasive species is socially acceptable to be cultivated in the Republic of Ireland for food and other purposes. This paper briefly examines the global economic importance, cultivation aspects compared to the European native equivalents such as Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima, cultivation yield, economic considerations and the ecological impact of the spread of Undaria into non-native areas...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434206/a-phylogeographic-investigation-of-the-kelp-genus-laminaria-laminariales-phaeophyceae-with-emphasis-on-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#11
Mark D Rothman, Lydiane Mattio, Robert J Anderson, John J Bolton
The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship to the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424662/untangling-genomes-of-novel-planctomycetal-and-verrucomicrobial-species-from-monterey-bay-kelp-forest-metagenomes-by-refined-binning
#12
John Vollmers, Martinique Frentrup, Patrick Rast, Christian Jogler, Anne-Kristin Kaster
The kelp forest of the Pacific temperate rocky marine coastline of Monterey Bay in California is a dominant habitat for large brown macro-algae in the order of Laminariales. It is probably one of the most species-rich, structurally complex and productive ecosystems in temperate waters and well-studied in terms of trophic ecology. However, still little is known about the microorganisms thriving in this habitat. A growing body of evidence suggests that bacteria associated with macro-algae represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400614/tropicalization-strengthens-consumer-pressure-on-habitat-forming-seaweeds
#13
Salvador Zarco-Perello, Thomas Wernberg, Tim J Langlois, Mathew A Vanderklift
Ocean warming is driving species poleward, causing a 'tropicalization' of temperate ecosystems around the world. Increasing abundances of tropical herbivores on temperate reefs could accelerate declines in habitat-forming seaweeds with devastating consequences for these important marine ecosystems. Here we document an expansion of rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a tropical herbivore, on temperate reefs in Western Australia following a marine heatwave and demonstrate their impact on local kelp forests (Ecklonia radiata)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341155/anthropogenic-debris-in-the-nests-of-kelp-gulls-in-south-africa
#14
Minke Witteveen, Mark Brown, Peter G Ryan
Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338896/rapid-evolution-of-microrna-loci-in-the-brown-algae
#15
J Mark Cock, Fuli Liu, Delin Duan, Simon Bourdareau, Agnieszka P Lipinska, Susana M Coelho, James E Tarver
Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298353/simultaneous-assay-of-cortisol-and-dexamethasone-improved-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-dexamethasone-suppression-test
#16
Grethe Å Ueland, Paal Methlie, Ralf Kellmann, Marit Bjørgaas, Bjørn O Åsvold, Ketil Thorstensen, Oskar Kelp, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Gunnar Mellgren, Kristian Løvås, Eystein S Husebye
OBJECTIVES: The overnight dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test (DST) has high sensitivity, but moderate specificity, for diagnosing hypercortisolism. We have evaluated if simultaneous measurement of S-DXM may correct for variable DXM bioavailability and increase the diagnostic performance of DST, and if saliva (sa) is a feasible adjunct or alternative to serum. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study of DST was carried out in patients with suspected Cushing's syndrome (CS) (n = 49), incidentaloma (n = 152) and healthy controls (n = 101)...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288186/diet-and-biliary-tract-cancer-risk-in-shanghai-china
#17
Shakira M Nelson, Yu-Tang Gao, Leticia M Nogueira, Ming-Chang Shen, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Ann W Hsing, Jill Koshiol
Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276501/major-shifts-at-the-range-edge-of-marine-forests-the-combined-effects-of-climate-changes-and-limited-dispersal
#18
J Assis, E Berecibar, B Claro, F Alberto, D Reed, P Raimondi, E A Serrão
Global climate change is likely to constrain low latitude range edges across many taxa and habitats. Such is the case for NE Atlantic marine macroalgal forests, important ecosystems whose main structuring species is the annual kelp Saccorhiza polyschides. We coupled ecological niche modelling with simulations of potential dispersal and delayed development stages to infer the major forces shaping range edges and to predict their dynamics. Models indicated that the southern limit is set by high winter temperatures above the physiological tolerance of overwintering microscopic stages and reduced upwelling during recruitment...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253346/herbivore-induced-chemical-and-molecular-responses-of-the-kelps-laminaria-digitata-and-lessonia-spicata
#19
Andrés Ritter, Léa Cabioch, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Erwan Corre, Audrey Cosse, Laurence Dartevelle, Harold Duruflé, Carina Fasshauer, Sophie Goulitquer, François Thomas, Juan A Correa, Philippe Potin, Sylvain Faugeron, Catherine Leblanc
Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237800/an-extract-of-the-marine-alga-alaria-esculenta-modulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-folding-and-amyloid-formation
#20
James C Giffin, Robert C Richards, Cheryl Craft, Nusrat Jahan, Cindy Leggiadro, Thierry Chopin, Michael Szemerda, Shawna L MacKinnon, K Vanya Ewart
The conversion of α-synuclein from its natively unfolded and α-helical tetrameric forms to an amyloid conformation is central to the emergence of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, prevention of this conversion may offer an effective way of avoiding the onset of this disease or delaying its progress. At different concentrations, an aqueous extract from the edible winged kelp (Alaria esculenta), was shown to lower and to raise the melting point of α-synuclein. Size fractionation of the extract resulted in the separation of these distinct activities...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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