Read by QxMD icon Read


A M S Tocts, D W Johnson, A J R Carter
Theoretical links between fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and fitness have led many to use FA as a proxy for average fitness. However, studies examining whether asymmetry actually correlates with individual fitness in wild populations are relatively rare and often use simple measures of association (e.g., correlation coefficients). Consequently, the pattern of selection on asymmetry in the wild is seldom clear. We examined selection on FA of pectoral fin morphology in two wild populations of a marine fish (the kelp perch; Brachyistius frenatus)...
October 19, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Boris A López, Erasmo C Macaya, Fadia Tala, Florence Tellier, Martin Thiel
Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Chris Jackson, Eric D Salomaki, Christopher E Lane, Gary W Saunders
If ever there were "charismatic megaflora" of the sea, the Laminariales (kelp) would undoubtedly meet that designation. From the Northeast Pacific kelp forests, to the less diverse but nonetheless dense kelp beds ranging from the Arctic to the cold temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere, kelp provide habitat structure and food for a variety of productive marine systems. Consequently, kelp are well represented in the literature, however, understanding their evolution has proven challenging. We used a 152-gene phylogenomics approach to better resolve the phylogeny of the "derived" kelp families (viz...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Phycology
S M Rodríguez, G D'Elía, N Valdivia
Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Sang Gu Lim, Min Hwan Jeong, Bong Seok Kim, Tae Ho Lee, Hyun Woo Gil, In-Seok Park
The landmark-based morphometric and meristic analysis of the kelp grouper (Epinephelus bruneus), red spotted grouper (E. akaara) and seven-banded grouper (E. septemfasciatus) were performed to compare the differentiation of overall body shape and structure. The measurements of the morphometric dimensions were observed in 25 parts (truss dimension: 16 parts; head part dimension: 9 parts) of 38 morphometric dimensions and also meristic differences observed in 3 parts (dorsal fin, anal fin and caudal fin) of 6 meristic counts (P < 0...
June 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Claudio A González-Wevar, Sebastián Rosenfeld, Nicolás I Segovia, Mathias Hüne, Karin Gérard, Jaime Ojeda, Andrés Mansilla, Paul Brickle, Angie Díaz, Elie Poulin
Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion...
2016: PloS One
Carla D Fiorito, Adriana Bentancor, Daniel Lombardo, Marcelo Bertellotti
Southern right whales Eubalaena australis from Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, show wounds produced by kelp gulls Larus dominicanus that feed on the whales' dorsal skin and blubber. During the 2013 whale season, several calves were reported showing kelp gull injuries with a swollen area surrounded by rhomboid-shaped raised edges. Samples from 9 calves were taken in order to establish the etiology of these rhomboid-shaped wounds; 2 calves (one living, one dead) showed gull-inflicted injuries with rhomboid-shaped edges...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Olga Jeske, Frank Surup, Marcel Ketteniß, Patrick Rast, Birthe Förster, Mareike Jogler, Joachim Wink, Christian Jogler
Planctomycetes are conspicuous, ubiquitous, environmentally important bacteria. They can attach to various surfaces in aquatic habitats and form biofilms. Their unique FtsZ-independent budding cell division mechanism is associated with slow growth and doubling times from 6 h up to 1 month. Despite this putative disadvantage in the struggle to colonize surfaces, Planctomycetes are frequently associated with aquatic phototrophic organisms such as diatoms, cyanobacteria or kelp, whereby Planctomycetes can account for up to 50% of the biofilm-forming bacterial population...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert G Evans
Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species...
August 2016: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Mario Klünder, Bastian Amend, Oliver Sawodny, Arnulf Stenzl, Michael Ederer, Alexandra Kelp, Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Ronny Feuer
INTRODUCTION: Recently, a new urodynamic method for the assessment of stress urinary incontinence called high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) has been introduced. This method combines a novel microtip catheter with advanced signal processing to enable spatial data location and the reconstruction of a pressure image inside the urethra. In order to assess the reproducibility of HD-UPP data, we statistically evaluate HD-UPP datasets and compare them to data from a double balloon air-charged system...
August 30, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Joseph S Pechsiri, Jean-Baptiste E Thomas, Emma Risén, Mauricio S Ribeiro, Maria E Malmström, Göran M Nylund, Anette Jansson, Ulrika Welander, Henrik Pavia, Fredrik Gröndahl
The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0...
August 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Apostolos Liakopoulos, Björn Olsen, Yvon Geurts, Karin Artursson, Charlotte Berg, Dik J Mevius, Jonas Bonnedahl
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health concern due to limited treatment options. Here, we report on the occurrence and the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from wild birds (Kelp gulls). Our results revealed Kelp gulls as a reservoir of various extended-spectrum cephalosporinase genes associated with different genetic platforms. In addition, we report for the first time the presence of a known epidemic clone of Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg (JF6X01...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Samuel Starko, Patrick T Martone
Biomass allocation patterns have received substantial consideration, leading to the recognition of several 'universal' interspecific trends. Despite efforts to understand biomass partitioning among embryophytes, few studies have examined macroalgae that evolved independently, yet function ecologically in much the same ways as plants. Kelps allocate photosynthate among three organs (the blade(s), stipe(s) and holdfast) that are superficially convergent with organs of land plants, providing a unique opportunity to test the limits of 'universal' trends...
November 2016: New Phytologist
U S Sorge, M Henriksen, A Bastan, N Cremers, K Olsen, B A Crooker
Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) is rich in iodine and often fed by organic dairy producers as a mineral supplement to support animal health. A commonly held belief is that kelp supplementation decreases susceptibility to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis due to increased iodine concentrations in tears. Whereas serum and milk iodine concentrations are positively correlated and modulated by oral iodine supplementation, nothing is known about the iodine concentration of tears. Therefore, the 3 objectives of this pilot study were to determine (1) the iodine content of tears, milk, and serum of cows after being fed kelp for 30d; (2) the trace mineral and thyroid status of cows before (d 0) and after being fed kelp for 30d; and (3) the in vitro growth rate of bacteria in tears (Moraxella bovis) or milk (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis) collected from cows fed no kelp (d 0) or kelp (d 30)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Johanna B Holm, Karla B Heidelberg
Octocorals are sources of novel but understudied microbial diversity. Conversely, scleractinian or reef-building coral microbiomes have been heavily examined in light of the threats of climate change. Muricea californica and Muricea fruticosa are two co-occurring species of gorgonian octocoral abundantly found in the kelp forests of southern California, and thus provide an excellent basis to determine if octocoral microbiomes are host specific. Using Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing and replicate samples, we evaluated the microbiomes collected from multiple colonies of both species of Muricea to measure both inter- and intra-colony microbiome variabilities...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mingpeng Wang, Lei Chen, Zhengyi Liu, Zhaojie Zhang, Song Qin, Peisheng Yan
Algae have long been used to augment plant productivity through their beneficial effects. Alginate oligosaccharide is believed to be one of the important components to enhance growth and crop yield. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Bacillus litoralis strain, named Bacillus M3, from decayed kelps. We further demonstrated that the M3 strain could secrete alginate lyase to degrade alginate. The crude enzyme exhibited the highest activity (33.74 U/mg) at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The M3 strain was also able to ferment the brown alga Sargassum horneri...
July 20, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Cascade J B Sorte, Victoria E Davidson, Marcus C Franklin, Kylla M Benes, Meredith M Doellman, Ron J Etter, Robyn E Hannigan, Jane Lubchenco, Bruce A Menge
The earth is in the midst of a biodiversity crisis, and projections indicate continuing and accelerating rates of global changes. Future alterations in communities and ecosystems may be precipitated by changes in the abundance of strongly interacting species, whose disappearance can lead to profound changes in abundance of other species, including an increase in extinction rate for some. Nearshore coastal communities are often dependent on the habitat and food resources provided by foundational plant (e.g., kelp) and animal (e...
July 13, 2016: Global Change Biology
Andrew D Mullen, Tali Treibitz, Paul L D Roberts, Emily L A Kelly, Rael Horwitz, Jennifer E Smith, Jules S Jaffe
Microscopic-scale processes significantly influence benthic marine ecosystems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. Due to the ocean's complex and dynamic nature, it is most informative to study these processes in the natural environment yet it is inherently difficult. Here we present a system capable of non-invasively imaging seafloor environments and organisms in situ at nearly micrometre resolution. We overcome the challenges of underwater microscopy through the use of a long working distance microscopic objective, an electrically tunable lens and focused reflectance illumination...
2016: Nature Communications
Euan J Provost, Brendan P Kelaher, Symon A Dworjanyn, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell, Giulia Ghedini, Bronwyn M Gillanders, Will Figueira, Melinda A Coleman
The combination of ocean warming and acidification brings an uncertain future to kelp forests that occupy the warmest parts of their range. These forests are not only subject to the direct negative effects of ocean climate change, but also to a combination of unknown indirect effects associated with changing ecological landscapes. Here, we used mesocosm experiments to test the direct effects of ocean warming and acidification on kelp biomass and photosynthetic health, as well as climate-driven disparities in indirect effects involving key consumers (urchins and rock lobsters) and competitors (algal turf)...
July 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
Thomas Wernberg, Scott Bennett, Russell C Babcock, Thibaut de Bettignies, Katherine Cure, Martial Depczynski, Francois Dufois, Jane Fromont, Christopher J Fulton, Renae K Hovey, Euan S Harvey, Thomas H Holmes, Gary A Kendrick, Ben Radford, Julia Santana-Garcon, Benjamin J Saunders, Dan A Smale, Mads S Thomsen, Chenae A Tuckett, Fernando Tuya, Mathew A Vanderklift, Shaun Wilson
Ecosystem reconfigurations arising from climate-driven changes in species distributions are expected to have profound ecological, social, and economic implications. Here we reveal a rapid climate-driven regime shift of Australian temperate reef communities, which lost their defining kelp forests and became dominated by persistent seaweed turfs. After decades of ocean warming, extreme marine heat waves forced a 100-kilometer range contraction of extensive kelp forests and saw temperate species replaced by seaweeds, invertebrates, corals, and fishes characteristic of subtropical and tropical waters...
July 8, 2016: Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"