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M Mayer-Pinto, K A Dafforn, A B Bugnot, T M Glasby, E L Johnston
Assessments of human impacts on natural habitats often focus on the abundance of component species, yet physiological and/or sub-lethal effects of stressors on functional attributes may be equally important to consider. Here we evaluated how artificial structures, an integral part of urbanisation in the marine environment, affects key functional properties of the habitat-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. Given that stressors rarely occur in isolation, we assessed the effects of infrastructure across an urbanised estuary...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Yiran Zhang, Wei Gao, Faxiang Lin, Bin Han, Changfei He, Qian Li, Xiangxing Gao, Zhisong Cui, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng
This study investigated the immobilizations with of bacteria two kinds of algal materials, Enteromorpha residue and kelp residue. The lipophilicity of them were compared by diesel absorption rates. The immobilization efficiency of Bacillus sp. E3 was measured to evaluate whether these carriers would satisfy the requirement for biodegradation of oil spills. The bacteria were immobilized through adsorption with the sterilized and non-sterilized carriers to compare the differences between the two treatments. Oil degradation rates were determined using gravimetric and GC-MS methods...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Linxin Lan, Qingfen Niu, Tianduo Li
A new simple and efficient oligothiophene-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe has been developed for highly sensitive and fast detection of Hg2+ in water, soil and seafood. The probe 5-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-2,2':5',2″-terthiophene 3 TS can selectively detect Hg2+ via the Hg2+ -promoted deprotection reaction of thioacetals, which caused a remarkable color change from colorless to yellow and a strong fluorescence enhancement with emission color varying from blue to yellow, enabling naked-eye detection of Hg2+ ...
September 6, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Miranda B Haggerty, Todd W Anderson, Jeremy D Long
Although trophic cascades were originally believed to be driven only by predators eating prey, there is mounting evidence that such cascades can be generated in large part via non-consumptive effects. This is especially important in cascades affecting habitat-forming foundation species that in turn, influence associated communities. Here, we use laboratory and field experiments to identify a trait-mediated indirect interaction between predators and an abundant kelp in a marine temperate reef system. Predation risk from a microcarnivorous fish, the señorita, suppressed grazing by the host-specific seaweed limpet, which in turn, influenced frond loss of the habitat-forming feather boa kelp...
May 5, 2018: Ecology
Kang Wook Lee, Jae Min Shim, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
Kimchi (a traditional Korean fermented vegetable) was prepared with a starter, Lactobacillus zymae GU240 producing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and one precursor of GABA (glutamic acid, glutamic acid monosodium salt (MSG), or kelp extract). L. zymae GU240, an isolate from kimchi, can grow at 7% NaCl and low temperature. Five different kimchi samples were fermented for 20 weeks at -1°C. Kimchi with starter alone could not produce GABA. The GABA content was highest in kimchi with co-inoculation of the starter and MSG (1% (w/w))...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Freek H M van den Heuvel, Céline Rebours, Harry J Witte, Judith D L van Bleijswijk, Klaas Timmermans
Kelp aquaculture is globally developing steadily as human food source, along with other applications. One of the newer crop species is Saccharina latissima , a northern hemisphere kelp inhabiting temperate to arctic rocky shores. To protect and document its natural genetic variation at the onset of this novel aquaculture, as well as increase knowledge on its taxonomy and phylogeography, we collected new genetic data, both nuclear and mitochondrial, and combined it with previous knowledge to estimate genetic connectivity and infer colonization history...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Sean D Connell, Zoë A Doubleday, Nicole R Foster, Sarah B Hamlyn, Christopher D G Harley, Brian Helmuth, Brendan P Kelaher, Ivan Nagelkerken, Kirsten L Rodgers, Gianluca Sarà, Bayden D Russell
Ecologically dominant species often define ecosystem states, but as human disturbances intensify, their subordinate counterparts increasingly displace them. We consider the duality of disturbance by examining how environmental drivers can simultaneously act as a stressor to dominant species and as a resource to subordinates. Using a model ecosystem, we demonstrate that CO2 -driven interactions between species can account for such reversals in dominance; i.e., the displacement of dominants (kelp forests) by subordinates (turf algae)...
May 2018: Ecology
D-J Huang, J-Z Huang, Y Yang, Y-C Luo, H-Y He, W-L Song, Y-H Li
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare and analyze the long-term efficacy and safety between kelp micro gelation (KMG) and gelfoam particles in partial splenic embolization (PSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively included 65 liver cirrhosis patients with comorbidity of hypersplenism who were admitted in Nanfang Hospital from July 2008 to May 2012. Among the included patients, 33 patients were in KMG-PSE group, and 32 cases were included in Gelfoam-PSE group...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Karen Filbee-Dexter, Thomas Wernberg, Kjell Magnus Norderhaug, Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Morten Foldager Pedersen
Resource subsidies in the form of allochthonous primary production drive secondary production in many ecosystems, often sustaining diversity and overall productivity. Despite their importance in structuring marine communities, there is little understanding of how subsidies move through juxtaposed habitats and into recipient communities. We investigated the transport of detritus from kelp forests to a deep Arctic fjord (northern Norway). We quantified the seasonal abundance and size structure of kelp detritus in shallow subtidal (0‒12 m), deep subtidal (12‒85 m), and deep fjord (400‒450 m) habitats using a combination of camera surveys, dive observations, and detritus collections over 1 year...
March 31, 2018: Oecologia
Taruna Schuelke, Tiago José Pereira, Sarah M Hardy, Holly M Bik
Studies of host-associated microbes are critical for advancing our understanding of ecology and evolution across diverse taxa and ecosystems. Nematode worms are ubiquitous across most habitats on earth, yet little is known about host-associated microbial assemblages within the phylum. Free-living nematodes are globally abundant and diverse in marine sediments, with species exhibiting distinct buccal cavity (mouth) morphologies that are thought to play an important role in feeding ecology and life history strategies...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jennifer E Caselle, Scott L Hamilton, Kathryn Davis, Christopher D H Thompson, Alan Turchik, Ryan Jenkinson, Doug Simpson, Enric Sala
Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder...
2018: PloS One
Eun-Bi Son, Kyung-Min Poo, Hend Omar Mohamed, Yun-Jeong Choi, Wan-Cheol Cho, Kyu-Jung Chae
Chitosan modified magnetic kelp biochar (Chi-KBm ) was successfully synthesized for efficient removal of heavy metals (Cu2+ ) from wastewater. Interestingly, the characterization results indicated that Chi-KBm showed 6 times higher surface area (6.17 m2 /g) than the pristine magnetic kelp biochar KBm (0.97 m2 /g). In addition, new functional groups, such as NH and CN group, have been created on the surface of biochar as a result of chitosan modification process, which in turns led to improve the Cu2+ adsorption capacity...
March 17, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nathan G King, David C Wilcockson, Richard Webster, Dan A Smale, Laura S Hoelters, Pippa J Moore
Climate change is driving range contractions and local population extinctions across the globe. When this affects ecosystem engineers the vacant niches left behind are likely to alter the wider ecosystem unless a similar species can fulfil them.Here, we explore the stress physiology of two coexisting kelps undergoing opposing range shifts in the Northeast Atlantic and discuss what differences in stress physiology may mean for future niche filling.We used chlorophyll florescence ( F v /F m ) and differentiation of the heat shock response (HSR) to determine the capacity of the expanding kelp , Laminaria ochroleuca , to move into the higher shore position of the retreating kelp, Laminaria digitata ...
February 2018: Functional Ecology
Jonathan M Waters, Tania M King, Ceridwen I Fraser, Dave Craw
The subtropical front (STF) generally represents a substantial oceanographic barrier to dispersal between cold-sub-Antarctic and warm-temperate water masses. Recent studies have suggested that storm events can drastically influence marine dispersal and patterns. Here we analyse biological and geological dispersal driven by two major, contrasting storm events in southern New Zealand, 2017. We integrate biological and physical data to show that a severe southerly system in July 2017 disrupted this barrier by promoting movement of substantial numbers of southern sub-Antarctic Durvillaea kelp rafts across the STF, to make landfall in mainland NZ...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Adaobi I Nwaneshiudu, Vesna Petronic-Rosic
We describe two cases of cutaneous eruptions of pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPDs) arising after exposure to medications not previously reported in the literature as causing these reactions. Specifically, two women had biopsy-proven PPDs, one after exposure to an over-the-counter iodine supplement marketed as an extract from "Norwegian kelp," and the other after intraocular injections of pegaptanib, a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. The eruption occurred shortly after beginning the medication and resolved upon discontinuation...
2018: Skinmed
Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Frithjof C Küpper, Eric P Miller, Stephen J Andrews, Claire Hughes, Lucy J Carpenter, Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke, Chiaki Toyama, Yasuyuki Muramatsu, Martin C Feiters, Carl J Carrano
This study explores key features of bromine and iodine metabolism in the filamentous brown alga and genomics model Ectocarpus siliculosus. Both elements are accumulated in Ectocarpus, albeit at much lower concentration factors (2-3 orders of magnitude for iodine, and < 1 order of magnitude for bromine) than e.g. in the kelp Laminaria digitata. Iodide competitively reduces the accumulation of bromide. Both iodide and bromide are accumulated in the cell wall (apoplast) of Ectocarpus, with minor amounts of bromine also detectable in the cytosol...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
S E Lester, J M Stevens, R R Gentry, C V Kappel, T W Bell, C J Costello, S D Gaines, D A Kiefer, C C Maue, J E Rensel, R D Simons, L Washburn, C White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeremiah J Minich, Megan M Morris, Matt Brown, Michael Doane, Matthew S Edwards, Todd P Michael, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors...
2018: PloS One
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
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