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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926758/some-aspects-of-the-iodine-metabolism-of-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-phaeophyceae
#1
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869124/synergistic-dye-adsorption-by-biochar-from-co-pyrolysis-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-and-saccharina-japonica
#2
Divine Damertey Sewu, Patrick Boakye, Hwansoo Jung, Seung Han Woo
The potential of activating terrestrial biomass (spent mushroom substrate, SMS) with ash-laden marine biomass [kelp seaweed, KE] via co-pyrolysis in the field of adsorption was first investigated. KE biochar (KBC), SMS biochar (SMSBC), biochar (SK10BC) from 10%-KE added SMS, and biochar (ESBC) from KE-extract added SMS were used for the adsorption of cationic dye crystal violet (CV). ESBC had highest fixed carbon content (70.60%) and biochar yield (31.6%). SK10BC exhibited high ash content, abundant functional groups, coarser surface morphology and Langmuir maximum adsorptive capacity (610...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861104/identification-of-genes-under-positive-selection-reveals-differences-in-evolutionary-adaptation-between-brown-algal-species
#3
Linhong Teng, Xiao Fan, Dong Xu, Xiaowen Zhang, Thomas Mock, Naihao Ye
Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS). About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840539/recent-advances-in-pharmacological-research-on-ecklonia-species-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Prashamsa Koirala, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
The genus Ecklonia (Lessoniaceae, Phaeophyceae), commonly called kelp (brown algae), is abundant on the coasts of Japan and Korea. During the past few decades, Ecklonia species have received tremendous attention for their wide range of therapeutic properties and multiple health benefits, such as great nutritional value and being rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, and polysaccharides. Several novel functional ingredients with diversified biological activities have been isolated and possess antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant therapeutic properties...
August 24, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822911/maullinia-braseltonii-sp-nov-rhizaria-phytomyxea-phagomyxida-a-cyst-forming-parasite-of-the-bull-kelp-durvillaea-spp-stramenopila-phaeophyceae-fucales
#5
Pedro Murúa, Franz Goecke, Renato Westermeier, Pieter van West, Frithjof C Küpper, Sigrid Neuhauser
Phytomyxea are obligate endoparasites of angiosperm plants and Stramenopiles characterised by a complex life cycle. Here Maullinia braseltonii sp. nov., an obligate parasite infecting the bull kelp Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) from the South-Eastern Pacific (Central Chile and Chiloe Island) and South-Western Atlantic (Falkland Islands, UK) is described. M. braseltonii causes distinct hypertrophies (galls) on the host thalli making it easily identifiable in the field. Sequence comparisons based on the partial 18S and the partial 18S-5...
July 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803408/iodine-rich-herbs-and-potassium-iodate-have-different-effects-on-the-oxidative-stress-and-differentiation-of-th17-cells-in-iodine-deficient-nod-h-2-h4-mice
#6
Cheng-Han Gao, Jin-Qiao Qu, Xi-Yu Zhou, Tian-Shu Gao
Iodine-rich herbs such as seaweed, kelp, and sea tangle were widely used to treat various types of goiter with good effect and without any adverse side effects in China. When compared with potassium iodate (PI), iodine-rich herbs had a positive effect on the recovery of goiter resulting from iodine deficiency without any obvious harmful effects. In NOD.H-2(h4) mice, an autoimmune thyroiditis-prone model, iodine excess can increase infiltration of lymphocytes and structural damage of the thyroid follicles, hence resulting in thyroiditis...
August 12, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800586/the-potential-role-of-kelp-forests-on-iodine-speciation-in-coastal-seawater
#7
Jennifer Gonzales, Teresa Tymon, Frithjof C Küpper, Matthew S Edwards, Carl J Carrano
Kelps have a major role in marine and atmospheric iodine cycling in the coastal zone of temperate regions, with potential wide-ranging impacts on ozone destruction in the coastal marine boundary layer. However, little is known about the impact of kelp forests on iodine speciation in coastal sea water. To address this, we examined iodide and iodate concentrations in seawater in and around a giant kelp forest near San Diego, CA, USA, and a nearby site that was not influenced by kelp biology. Our data shows that while both iodide and iodate concentrations remained unchanged during the year at the nearby site, these concentrations changed significantly in and around the kelp forest, and were strongly related to changes in kelp canopy biomass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791178/kelp-and-dolphin-gulls-cause-perineal-wounds-in-south-american-fur-seal-pups-arctocephalus-australis-at-guafo-island-chilean-patagonia
#8
Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Pavés, Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791154/co2-induced-ocean-acidification-does-not-affect-individual-or-group-behaviour-in-a-temperate-damselfish
#9
Garfield Tsz Kwan, Trevor James Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres
Open ocean surface CO2 levels are projected to reach approximately 800 µatm, and ocean pH to decrease by approximately 0.3 units by the year 2100 due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the subsequent process of ocean acidification (OA). When exposed to these CO2/pH values, several fish species display abnormal behaviour in laboratory tests, an effect proposed to be linked to altered neuronal GABAA- receptor function. Juvenile blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis) are social fish that regularly experience CO2/pH fluctuations through kelp forest diurnal primary production and upwelling events, so we hypothesized that they might be resilient to OA...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759813/high-proportions-of-inorganic-arsenic-in-laminaria-digitata-but-not-in-ascophyllum-nodosum-samples-from-ireland
#10
Jenny M Ronan, Dagmar B Stengel, Andrea Raab, Jörg Feldmann, Linda O'Hea, Edi Bralatei, Evin McGovern
Seaweed can accumulate inorganic arsenic (iAs) from seawater as hydrogen arsenate (HAsO4(2-)) in place of the phosphate anion (HPO4(2-)). While it is rapidly metabolised to organoarsenic species, predominantly arsenosugars and arsenolipids, iAs may be present in seaweed biomass and this poses a potential health concern for consumers of seaweed products. Here, the distribution of total (AsTOT) and iAs was determined in thallus parts of the kelp Laminaria digitata and the intertidal fucoid Ascophyllum nodosum (both Phaeophyceae) using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography - ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752962/seabirds-laridae-as-a-source-of-campylobacter-spp-salmonella-spp-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-south-africa
#11
Elisabet Moré, Teresa Ayats, Peter G Ryan, Preneshni R Naicker, Karen H Keddy, Davide Gaglio, Minke Witteveen, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar
Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n=129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n=100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751026/impact-of-kelp-cultivation-on-the-ecological-status-of-benthic-habitats-and-zostera-marina-seagrass-biomass
#12
REVIEW
A M Walls, R Kennedy, M D Edwards, M P Johnson
The Ecological Status of subtidal benthic communities within a commercial kelp farm on the southwest coast of Ireland was not impacted by macroalgal cultivation. Additionally, there was no effect on the biomass of Zostera marina, a key habitat under the EU Habitats Directive and OSPAR Commission. However, sediment grain size and total organic matter (TOM) were influenced by abiotic and biotic aspects of the farm. A temporal effect on univariate and multivariate species data, Infaunal Quality Index (IQI) and Z...
July 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742072/phaeoviruses-discovered-in-kelp-laminariales
#13
Dean A McKeown, Kim Stevens, Akira F Peters, Peter Bond, Glenn M Harper, Colin Brownlee, Murray T Brown, Declan C Schroeder
Phaeoviruses are latent double-stranded DNA viruses that insert their genomes into those of their brown algal (Phaeophyceae) hosts. So far these viruses are known only from members of the Ectocarpales, which are small and short-lived macroalgae. Here we report molecular and morphological evidence for a new Phaeovirus cluster, referred to as sub-group C, infecting kelps (Laminariales) of the genera Laminaria and Saccharina, which are ecologically and commercially important seaweeds. Epifluorescence and TEM observations indicate that the Laminaria digitata Virus (LdigV), the type species of sub-group C, targets the host nucleus for its genome replication, followed by gradual degradation of the chloroplast and assembly of virions in the cytoplasm of both vegetative and reproductive cells...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732876/extraction-isolation-and-characterization-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-from-industrial-kelp-laminaria-japonica-waste
#14
Zhenhua Liu, Xinping Li, Wei Xie, Haoyuan Deng
Kelp (Laminaria japonica) is an economically important type of algae cultured in East Asia. Kelp waste is a by-product from the extraction of commercial alginate from kelp. This work reports the isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from the cellulose extracted from the kelp waste. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) show that the crystallinity index of the isolated kelp NCC was 69.4%, which was slightly higher than that of kelp cellulose as well as maintained the cellulose I crystalline form and typical cellulose chemical structure...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713595/fatty-acid-profiles-of-stipe-and-blade-from-the-norwegian-brown-macroalgae-laminaria-hyperborea-with-special-reference-to-acyl-glycerides-polar-lipids-and-free-fatty-acids
#15
Lena Foseid, Hanne Devle, Yngve Stenstrøm, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, Dag Ekeberg
A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710898/projected-climate-changes-threaten-ancient-refugia-of-kelp-forests-in-the-north-atlantic
#16
Jorge Assis, Miguel B Araújo, Ester A Serrão
Intra-specific genetic variability is critical for species adaptation and evolution and yet it is generally overlooked in projections of the biological consequences of climate change. We ask whether ongoing climate changes can cause the loss of important gene pools from North Atlantic relict kelp forests that persisted over glacial-interglacial cycles. We use ecological niche modeling to predict genetic diversity hotspots for eight species of large brown algae with different thermal tolerances (Arctic to warm-temperate), estimated as regions of persistence throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000 YBP), the warmer Mid-Holocene (6,000 YBP) and the present...
July 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645755/microwave-assisted-micellar-extraction-of-organic-and-inorganic-iodines-using-zwitterionic-surfactants
#17
Shu-Ling Wang, Ling Yi, Li-Hong Ye, Jun Cao, Li-Jing Du, Li-Qing Peng, Jing-Jing Xu, Qi-Dong Zhang
Zwitterionic surfactant, used as extractant in microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was investigated for the first time to extract organic and inorganic iodines from kelp samples. Optimized conditions for the MAE were 200W of microwave irradiation power, 100°C of extraction temperature, 10min of microwave irradiation time, 1g of sample, and 20mL of solvent volume. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the iodines...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609971/what-is-i-pseudopotamilla-i-i-reniformis-i-sabellidae-comparisons-of-populations-from-britain-iceland-and-canada-with-comments-on-i-eudistylia-i-and-i-schizobranchia-i
#18
Phyllis Knight-Jones, Teresa Darbyshire, Mary E Petersen, María Ana Tovar-Hernández
A neotype of Amphitrite Müller (1771) is established and re-described, using material collected in 2001 from near the type locality on the southwest coast of Iceland. We examined material from Iceland, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, identified as Pseudopotamilla reniformis, showing scissiparity and commonly found in aggregations within kelp holdfasts or amongst encrusting fauna. By contrast, scissiparity has not been seen in a population recorded as P. reniformis from Wales (broadcast spawning is presumed, Chughtai & Knight-Jones 1988), which bores into limestone and that the present analysis shows to belong to a different species from P...
April 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586684/herbivory-in-the-marine-realm
#19
Robert S Steneck, David R Bellwood, Mark E Hay
Herbivory occurs when animals consume plants; but the term hides two fundamentally different processes. One relates to the animal's nutrition, the other to the plant's survival and abundance. Both are central to the ecological process called herbivory. Evolutionary innovations in herbivore function have shaped shallow marine ecosystems from kelp forests to coral reefs.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581670/interactive-effects-of-predator-and-prey-harvest-on-ecological-resilience-of-rocky-reefs
#20
Robert P Dunn, Marissa L Baskett, Kevin A Hovel
A major goal of ecosystem-based fisheries management is to prevent fishery-induced shifts in community states. This requires an understanding of ecological resilience: the ability of an ecosystem to return to the same state following a perturbation, which can strongly depend on species interactions across trophic levels. We use a structured model of a temperate rocky reef to explore how multi-trophic level fisheries impact ecological resilience. Increasing fishing mortality of prey (urchins) has a minor effect on equilibrium biomass of kelp, urchins, and spiny lobster predators, but increases resilience by reducing the range of predator harvest rates at which alternative stable states are possible...
September 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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