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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777372/cardiac-surgery-2017-reviewed
#1
REVIEW
Torsten Doenst, Hristo Kirov, Alexandros Moschovas, David Gonzalez-Lopez, Rauf Safarov, Mahmoud Diab, Steffen Bargenda, Gloria Faerber
For the year 2017, more than 21,000 published references can be found in PubMed when entering the search term "cardiac surgery". This review focusses on conventional cardiac surgery, considering the new interventional techniques only if they were directly compared to classic techniques but also entails aspects of perioperative intensive care management. The publications last year provided a plethora of new and interesting information that helped to quantify classic surgical treatment effects and provided new guidelines for the management of structural heart disease, which made comparisons to interventional techniques easier...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769409/individuals-fail-to-reap-the-collective-benefits-of-diversity-because-of-over-reliance-on-personal-information
#2
Alan Novaes Tump, Max Wolf, Jens Krause, Ralf H J M Kurvers
Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individuals in solving cognitive tasks. Although numerous studies have demonstrated this effect, the mechanisms underlying collective intelligence remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate diversity in cue beliefs as a mechanism potentially promoting collective intelligence. In our experimental study, human groups observed a sequence of cartoon characters, and classified each character as a cooperator or defector based on informative and uninformative cues...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765310/economic-holobiont-influence-of-parasites-microbiota-and-chemosignals-on-economic-behavior
#3
Petr Houdek
The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748213/time-optimized-path-choice-in-the-termite-hunting-ant-megaponera-analis
#4
Erik T Frank, Philipp O Hönle, K Eduard Linsenmair
Trail network systems among ants have received a lot of scientific attention due to their various applications in problem solving of networks. Recent studies have shown that ants select the fastest available path when facing different velocities on different substrates, rather than the shortest distance. The progress of decision-making by these ants is determined by pheromone-based maintenance of paths, which is a collective decision. However, path optimization through individual decision-making remains mostly unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738898/individual-decisions-to-vaccinate-one-s-child-or-oneself-a-discrete-choice-experiment-rejecting-free-riding-motives
#5
Frederik Verelst, Lander Willem, Roselinde Kessels, Philippe Beutels
It is essential for public health to understand what drives people's hesitance towards vaccination. Theoretical models of vaccination decisions are ubiquitous, often incorporating herd immunity, perceptions of vaccine-related side-effects (VRSE) and of vaccine-preventable burden of disease, but with little to no empirical exploration. Herd immunity is a (usually) positive externality where vaccinated individuals influence others' risks by their reduced capability to transmit an infectious disease to them. It is often assumed that (rational) individuals incorporate this externality in their strategic vaccination decision, from which free-riding behavior arises...
May 1, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734394/searching-for-empirical-evidence-on-traffic-equilibrium
#6
Mehmet Yildirimoglu, Osman Kahraman
Cities around the world are inundated by cars and suffer traffic congestion that results in excess delays, reduced safety and environmental pollution. The interplay between road infrastructure and travel choices defines the level and the spatio-temporal extent of congestion. Given the existing infrastructure, understanding how the route choice decisions are made and how travellers interact with each other is a crucial first step in mitigating traffic congestion. This is a problem with fundamental importance, as it has implications for other limited supply systems where agents compete for resources and reach an equilibrium...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730877/evaluation-of-the-decision-making-capacity-of-two-cases-planning-to-undergo-uterine-evacuation
#7
Ali Ercan Altınöz, Altan Eşsizoğlu, Mustafa Sercan, Didem Yiğit, Sinan Yıldız
Psychiatric disorders in the perinatal period can lead to a deterioration in one's judgment and decision-making ability. These disorders may cause sensitive and complex legal and ethical issues relating to psychiatric, obstetric, and neonatal care. Clinicians should ethically respect the autonomy of the individual, but at the same time, they must assess the individual's decision-making process with the use of forensic psychiatric and consultation-liaison psychiatric practice. While the literature related to mental disorders in pregnancy has been increasing, there is limited information regarding the medico-legal and ethical aspects of this topic...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720890/higher-order-risk-preferences-in-social-settings
#8
Timo Heinrich, Thomas Mayrhofer
We study prudence and temperance (next to risk aversion) in social settings. Previous experimental studies have shown that these higher-order risk preferences affect the choices of individuals deciding privately on lotteries that only affect their own payoff. Yet, many risky and financially relevant decisions are made in the social settings of households or organizations. We elicit higher-order risk preferences of individuals and systematically vary how an individual's decision is made (alone or while communicating with a partner) and who is affected by the decision (only the individual or the partner as well)...
2018: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720888/measuring-higher-order-ambiguity-preferences
#9
Aurélien Baillon, Harris Schlesinger, Gijs van de Kuilen
We report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an important role in precautionary behavior and the mere presence of ambiguity averse agents in markets. We observe that the majority of individuals' decisions are consistent with ambiguity aversion, ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance...
2018: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718971/personal-social-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-lifejacket-wear-in-adults-and-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
Amy E Peden, Daniel Demant, Martin S Hagger, Kyra Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: Drowning claims 7% of the global burden of injury-related deaths. Lifejackets are routinely recommended as a drowning prevention strategy; however, a review of related factors regarding lifejacket wear has not previously been investigated. METHODS: This systematic review examined literature published from inception to December 2016 in English and German languages. The personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear among adults and children were investigated, a quantitative evaluation of the results undertaken, and gaps in the literature identified...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684131/the-somatic-marker-hypothesis-and-sexual-decision-making-understanding-the-role-of-iowa-gambling-task-performance-and-daily-sexual-arousal-on-the-sexual-behavior-of-gay-and-bisexual-men
#11
H Jonathon Rendina, Brett M Millar, Genevieve Dash, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Jeffrey T Parsons
Background: The sexual decision-making literature suggests that sexual arousal and behavior are associated. The somatic marker hypothesis suggests that individual neuropsychological differences in decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), may moderate these associations; however, this hypothesis has yet to be tested with event-level sexual behavior data. Purpose: We hypothesized that (a) daily sexual arousal would be positively associated with likelihood of engaging in sex and condomless anal sex (CAS) and (b) IGT scores would moderate these associations such that the associations would be stronger among those with higher IGT scores...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674222/anti-smoking-policy-in-russia-relevant-factors-and-program-planning
#12
Tatiana Kossova, Elena Kossova, Maria Sheluntcova
In this paper, we consider anti-smoking policy in Russia and the socioeconomic factors that influence an individual's decision to smoke. Among various factors, we investigate the individual time preferences of Russians. To estimate individual time preferences, we use an experiment in which survey respondents are given hypothetical money prizes. We find that being middle-aged, being unmarried and having parents who smoke are positively correlated with both men and women's likelihood of taking up smoking in Russia...
April 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627663/a-cluster-phase-analysis-for-collective-behavior-in-team-sports
#13
Maurici A López-Felip, Tehran J Davis, Till D Frank, James A Dixon
Collective behavior can be defined as the ability of humans to coordinate with others through a complex environment. Sports offer exquisite examples of this dynamic interplay, requiring decision making and other perceptual-cognitive skills to adjust individual decisions to the team self-organization and vice versa. Considering players of a team as periodic phase oscillators, synchrony analyses can be used to model the coordination of a team. Nonetheless, a main limitation of current models is that collective behavior is context independent...
April 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614070/combining-independent-decisions-increases-diagnostic-accuracy-of-reading-lumbosacral-radiographs-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Ralf H J M Kurvers, Annemarie de Zoete, Shelby L Bachman, Paul R Algra, Raymond Ostelo
Diagnosing the causes of low back pain is a challenging task, prone to errors. A novel approach to increase diagnostic accuracy in medical decision making is collective intelligence, which refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers in solving problems. We investigated whether combining the independent ratings of chiropractors, chiropractic radiologists and medical radiologists can improve diagnostic accuracy when interpreting diagnostic images of the lumbosacral spine. Evaluations were obtained from two previously published studies: study 1 consisted of 13 raters independently rating 300 lumbosacral radiographs; study 2 consisted of 14 raters independently rating 100 lumbosacral magnetic resonance images...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611623/evaluating-facts-and-facting-evaluations-on-the-fact-value-relationship-in-hta
#15
Bjørn Hofmann, Ken Bond, Lars Sandman
Health technology assessment (HTA) is an evaluation of health technologies in terms of facts and evidence. However, the relationship between facts and values is still not clear in HTA. This is problematic in an era of "fake facts" and "truth production." Accordingly, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between facts and values in HTA. We start with the perspectives of the traditional positivist account of "evaluating facts" and the social-constructivist account of "facting values...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582210/in-hospital-and-day-120-survival-of-critically-ill-solid-cancer-patients-after-discharge-of-the-intensive-care-units-results-of-a-retrospective-multicenter-study-a-groupe-de-recherche-respiratoire-en-r%C3%A3-animation-en-onco-h%C3%A3-matologie-grrr-oh-study
#16
François Vincent, Marcio Soares, Djamel Mokart, Virginie Lemiale, Fabrice Bruneel, Marouane Boubaya, Frédéric Gonzalez, Yves Cohen, Elie Azoulay, Michaël Darmon
OBJECTIVES: To assess outcomes at hospital discharge and day-120 after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge among patients with solid cancer admitted to ICU and to identify characteristics associated with in-hospital and day-120 after ICU discharge mortalities. DESIGN: International, multicenter, retrospective study. SETTING: Five ICUs in France and Brazil, two located in cancer centers, two in university affiliated and one in general hospitals...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581393/the-importance-of-individual-variation-in-the-dynamics-of-animal-collective-movements
#17
REVIEW
Maria Del Mar Delgado, Maria Miranda, Silvia J Alvarez, Eliezer Gurarie, William F Fagan, Vincenzo Penteriani, Agustina di Virgilio, Juan Manuel Morales
Animal collective movements are a key example of a system that links two clearly defined levels of organization: the individual and the group. Most models investigating collective movements have generated coherent collective behaviours without the inclusion of individual variability. However, new individual-based models, together with emerging empirical information, emphasize that within-group heterogeneity may strongly influence collective movement behaviour. Here we (i) review the empirical evidence for individual variation in animal collective movements, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations have represented individual heterogeneity when modelling collective movements and (iii) present a model to show how within-group heterogeneity influences the collective properties of a group...
May 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558944/intelligent-judgements-over-health-risks-in-a-spatial-agent-based-model
#18
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552755/prognostic-significance-of-egfr-and-cox-2-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-and-their-association-a-study-in-greek-population
#19
Anna Mouzakiti, Constantinos Nastos, Dimitrios Vlachodimitropoulos, Constantinos Gennatas, Agathi Kondi-Pafiti, Dionisios Voros
PURPOSE: Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Various prognostic markers have been proposed and individualized treatment strategies have been adapted according to tumor molecular and genetic characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze a possible association between the expression of COX- 2 and EGFR and clinical and histopathological factors of patients undergoing colon surgery in a Greek population. METHODS: Data from our department's prospectively collected database were retrieved for a total of 100 consecutive colectomies that were performed in our department...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549407/-treatment-of-necrosis-of-the-lunate-bone
#20
REVIEW
K Kalb, J van Schoonhoven, J Windolf, T Pillukat
BACKGROUND: There still is no standard therapy that predictably results in healing of avascular necrosis of the lunate bone. Nevertheless, there exists a wide spectrum of operative treatment options for different stages. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the treatment options for necrosis of the lunate bone and proposes algorithms based on the age of the patient and condition of the lunate bone and the wrist. METHODS: Surgical treatment options for necrosis of the lunate bone can be divided into relieving or revascularization procedures and salvage procedures...
May 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
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