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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525539/prediction-of-multiple-recurrent-events-a-comparison-of-extended-cox-models-in-bladder-cancer
#1
Hilde Smedinga, Ewout W Steyerberg, Willemien Beukers, David van Klaveren, Ellen C Zwarthoff, Yvonne Vergouwe
Recurrence of bladder cancer can occur repeatedly in the same patient after treatment of the primary tumor. Models predicting the risk of a next recurrence may inform individualized decision-making on surveillance frequency. We aimed to assess the usefulness of extensions of the Cox proportional hazards model for repeated events in this context. We analyzed 531 Dutch patients with bladder cancer (1990-2012) with information on 7 pre-specified predictors at the time of diagnosing the primary and recurrent tumors...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523437/using-participatory-action-research-to-develop-a-working-model-that-enhances-psychiatric-nurses-professionalism-the-architecture-of-stability
#2
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices...
May 18, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508814/plausibility-of-individual-decisions-from-random-forests-in-clinical-predictive-modelling-applications
#3
Dieter Hayn, Harald Walch, Jörg Stieg, Karl Kreiner, Hubert Ebner, Günter Schreier
BACKGROUND: Machine learning algorithms are a promising approach to help physicians to deal with the ever increasing amount of data collected in healthcare each day. However, interpretation of suggestions derived from predictive models can be difficult. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of a specific feature on an individual decision proposed by a random forest (RF). METHODS: For each decision tree within the RF, the influence of each feature on a specific decision (FID) was quantified...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496355/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-prescription-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
James M Corroon, Laurie K Mischley, Michelle Sexton
BACKGROUND: The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs. METHODS: A total of 2,774 individuals were a self-selected convenience sample who reported having used cannabis at least once in the previous 90 days...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470830/a-critique-of-the-principle-of-respect-for-autonomy-grounded-in-african-thought
#5
Kevin G Behrens
I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships...
May 3, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462745/the-efficiency-of-the-local-health-systems-investigating-the-roles-of-health-administrations-and-health-care-providers
#6
Laura Anselmi, Mylène Lagarde, Kara Hanson
The analysis of efficiency in health care has largely focussed either on individual health care providers, or on sub-national health systems conceived as a unique decision-making unit. However, in hierarchically organized national health services, two separate entities are responsible for turning financial resources into services at the local level: health administrations and health care providers. Their separate roles and the one of health administrations in particular have not been explicitly considered in efficiency analysis...
May 2, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449182/validation-of-a-nomogram-for-selecting-patients-for-chemotherapy-after-d2-gastrectomy-for-cancer
#7
Z-X Wang, G-X Li, Z-W Zhou, Z-P Huang, F Wang, R-H Xu
BACKGROUND: According to some guidelines for the management of gastric cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for patients with pT3-4 or node-positive disease. The aim of this study was to define low- and high-risk groups in terms of survival, and to predict the benefit of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin (F-OX) chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with pT3-4 or node-positive gastric cancer after gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy between 2000 and 2013 were included...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#8
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448328/hospice-or-community-network-choices-in-end-of-life-care-in-jamaica
#9
Roger Lee Mendoza
AIM: Now considered a subspecialty of medicine and nursing, palliative care is a critical aspect of healthcare at the end of life. National and international healthcare agencies typically attribute its slow or haphazard growth in developing countries to various resource constraints. However, this study provides evidence of the substantial and widening gap between policy advocacy and patient choices in end-of-life care. It does so by establishing the incentives and risks that underlie decision-making by patients and providers against the relative scarcity of palliative care and hospices in these countries...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432782/the-good-lies-altruistic-goals-modulate-processing-of-deception-in-the-anterior-insula
#10
Lijun Yin, Yang Hu, Dennis Dynowski, Jian Li, Bernd Weber
When it comes to lies, the beneficiaries of one's dishonesty play an important role in the decision-making process. Altruistic lies that are made with the intention of benefiting others are a specific type of lies and very common in real life. While it has been shown that altruistic goals influence (dis)honest behaviors, the neural substrates of this effect is still unknown. To reveal how the brain integrates altruistic goals into (dis)honest decisions, this study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of participants in a real incentivized context while they were making (dis)honest decisions...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429239/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-short-three-dimensional-inventory-of-character-strengths
#11
Wenjie Duan, He Bu
PURPOSE: Character strength is described as a positive and organized pattern of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. It serves as a schema that organizes categories of information toward the self, others, and the world, and provides the self-aware knowledge that facilitates the pursuit of goals, values, and ethical principles. Recent research has suggested that three reliable factors emerge from the measures of character strengths: caring, inquisitiveness, and self-control. The goal of this paper is to develop a psychometrically sound short measure of character strength...
April 20, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424839/reirradiation-of-recurrent-node-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-previous-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-stage%C3%A2-i-disease-a%C3%A2-multi-institutional-treatment-recommendation
#12
Carsten Nieder, Dirk De Ruysscher, Laurie E Gaspar, Matthias Guckenberger, Minesh P Mehta, Patrick Cheung, Arjun Sahgal
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines have been developed for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many common clinical scenarios still require individualized decision making. This is true for locoregional relapse after initial stereotactic radiotherapy (stereotactic body radiation therapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy; SBRT or SABR), an increasingly utilized curative treatment option for stage I NSCLC. METHODS: A consortium of expert radiation oncologists was established with the aim of providing treatment recommendations...
April 19, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416655/economic-inequality-increases-risk-taking
#13
B Keith Payne, Jazmin L Brown-Iannuzzi, Jason W Hannay
Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments (n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374557/the-ecology-of-population-dispersal-modeling-alternative-basin-plateau-foraging-strategies-to-explain-the-numic-expansion
#14
Kate E Magargal, Ashley K Parker, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Will Rath, Brian F Codding
OBJECTIVES: The expansion of Numic speaking populations into the Great Basin required individuals to adapt to a relatively unproductive landscape. Researchers have proposed numerous social and subsistence strategies to explain how and why these settlers were able to replace any established populations, including private property and intensive plant processing. Here we evaluate these hypotheses and propose a new strategy involving the use of landscape fire to increase resource encounter rates...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357651/cancer-patients-control-preferences-in-decision-making-and-associations-with-patient-reported-outcomes-a-prospective-study-in-an-outpatient-cancer-center
#15
Markus Schuler, Jan Schildmann, Freya Trautmann, Leopold Hentschel, Beate Hornemann, Anke Rentsch, Gerhard Ehninger, Jochen Schmitt
PURPOSE: "Shared decision making" has been proposed as a prerequisite of patient-centered care. However, little is known on factors, which may influence cancer patients' decision control preferences (DCP) in routine care. This study investigated possible determinants of the patients' DCP with respect to patient characteristics and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting at a comprehensive cancer center between May 2014 and October 2014 were offered a self-administered electronic questionnaire including standardized PRO measures and patients' DCP...
March 29, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#16
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331976/nosy-neighbours-large-broods-attract-more-visitors-a-field-experiment-in-the-pied-flycatcher-ficedula-hypoleuca
#17
Wiebke Schuett, Pauliina E Järvistö, Sara Calhim, William Velmala, Toni Laaksonen
Life is uncertain. To reduce uncertainty and make adaptive decisions, individuals need to collect information. Individuals often visit the breeding sites of their conspecifics (i.e., "prospect"), likely to assess conspecifics' reproductive success and to use such information to identify high-quality spots for future breeding. We investigated whether visitation rate by prospectors and success of visited sites are causally linked. We manipulated the reproductive success (enlarged, reduced, and control broods) in a nest-box population of migratory pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in Finland...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327125/facilitating-informed-decisions-about-breast-cancer-screening-development-and-evaluation-of-a-web-based-decision-aid-for-women-in-their-40s
#18
Elena B Elkin, Valerie H Pocus, Alvin I Mushlin, Tessa Cigler, Coral L Atoria, Margaret M Polaneczky
BACKGROUND: Expert groups and national guidelines recommend individualized decision making about screening mammography for women in their 40s at low-to-average risk of breast cancer. We created Breast Screening Decisions (BSD), a personalized, web-based decision aid, to help women decide when to start and how often to have routine screening mammograms. We evaluated BSD in a large, prospective pilot trial of women and their clinicians. METHODS: Women ages 40-49 were invited to use BSD before a scheduled preventive care visit...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326827/factors-influencing-patients-receptiveness-to-evidence-based-recommendations-during-the-clinical-encounter
#19
Cara Stepanczuk, Nyna Williams, Katie Morrison, Charlene Kemmerer
AIM: To identify the factors that promote or interfere with evidence-based clinical decisions from the patient perspective. MATERIALS & METHODS: We developed four hypothetical scenarios with clinical decisions, such as whether to pursue testing for a chronic condition. We conducted eight focus groups to better understand the influences on individuals' decisions in the context of the scenarios. RESULTS: A patient's relationship with a physician emerged as the strongest influence on whether participants would accept or reject a physician's recommendation...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298025/outcome-after-hunt-and-hess-grade-v-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-comparison-of-pre-coiling-era-1980-1995-versus-post-isat-era-2005-2014
#20
Juergen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Juergen Beck, Erdem Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Andreas Raabe, Gerhard Marquardt
OBJECTIVE Outcome analysis of comatose patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still lacking. The aims of this study were to analyze the outcome of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH and to compare outcomes in the current period with those of the pre-International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) era as well as with published data from trials of decompressive craniectomy (DC) for middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. METHODS The authors analyzed cases of Hunt and Hess Grade V SAH from 1980-1995 (referred to in this study as the earlier period) and 2005-2014 (current period) and compared the results for the 2 periods...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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