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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072847/heuristic-strategies-for-persuader-selection-in-contagions-on-complex-networks
#1
Peng Wang, Li-Jie Zhang, Xin-Jian Xu, Gaoxi Xiao
Individual decision to accept a new idea or product is often driven by both self-adoption and others' persuasion, which has been simulated using a double threshold model [Huang et al., Scientific Reports 6, 23766 (2016)]. We extend the study to consider the case with limited persuasion. That is, a set of individuals is chosen from the population to be equipped with persuasion capabilities, who may succeed in persuading their friends to take the new entity when certain conditions are satisfied. Network node centrality is adopted to characterize each node's influence, based on which three heuristic strategies are applied to pick out persuaders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057832/modification-of-feeding-circuits-in-the-evolution-of-social-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Eva K Fischer, Lauren A O'Connell
Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999143/aspirin-use-and-reduced-risk-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Harvey A Risch, Lingeng Lu, Samantha A Streicher, Jing Wang, Wei Zhang, Quanxing Ni, Mark S Kidd, Herbert Yu, Yu-Tang Gao
BACKGROUND: Few options besides the avoidance of smoking and obesity are available to prevent pancreatic cancer. The association between aspirin use and risk of pancreatic cancer has been inconsistent across studies. METHODS: We performed a population-based study of 761 case and 794 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age during 2006 to 2011 in Shanghai, China. Participants were asked about episodes of regular use of aspirin, tablets per day or week, and ages that the use started and stopped...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933391/-tapering-and-termination-of-immunosuppressive-treatment-in-spondyloarthritides-including-psoriatic-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
G Scholz, B Möller
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory long-term treatment has also become the standard treatment for spondyloarthritides (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis (PsA); however, uncertainty exists about dose reduction or termination of treatment after remission or low disease activity. OBJECTIVE: When is it possible to reduce medication or terminate treatment for SpA? MATERIAL AND METHODS: An extensive non-systematic literature search was performed focusing on practice guidelines, systematic meta-analyses and clinical trials on medicinal long-term treatment and voluntary medication reduction in axial and peripheral SpA, including PsA...
December 8, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920788/vegetative-and-adaptive-traits-predict-different-outcomes-for-restoration-using-hybrids
#5
Philip A Crystal, Nathanael I Lichti, Keith E Woeste, Douglass F Jacobs
Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor's genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919386/donor-s-support-tool-enabling-informed-secondary-use-of-patient-s-biomaterial-and-personal-data
#6
Haridimos Kondylakis, Lefteris Koumakis, Stephanie Hänold, Iheanyi Nwankwo, Nikolaus Forgó, Kostas Marias, Manolis Tsiknakis, Norbert Graf
PURPOSE: Biomedical research is being catalyzed by the vast amount of data rapidly collected through the application of information technologies (IT). Despite IT advances, the methods for involving patients and citizens in biomedical research remain static, paper-based and organized around national boundaries and anachronistic legal frameworks. The purpose of this paper is to study the current practices for obtaining consent for biobanking and the legal requirements for reusing the available biomaterial and data in EU and finally to present a novel tool to this direction enabling the secondary use of data and biomaterial...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892991/surveillance-mammography-in-older-patients-with-breast-cancer-can-we-ever-stop-a-review
#7
Rachel A Freedman, Nancy L Keating, Ann H Partridge, Hyman B Muss, Arti Hurria, Eric P Winer
Importance: Approximately 4% to 5% of breast cancer survivors will develop a new ipsilateral or contralateral cancer (in-breast event) over the 5 years following diagnosis, and annual surveillance mammography is recommended for those with residual breast tissue. The risk for such in-breast events persists over time, though increasing age at cancer diagnosis and treatment with hormonal therapy are associated with lower risk, and most older survivors of breast cancer will ultimately die from nonbreast cancer-related causes...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886816/pretreatment-with-antiplatelet-agents-in-the-setting-of-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-when-and-which-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Davide Capodanno, Dominick J Angiolillo
Administering antiplatelet agents before coronary angiography to patients referred to elective or urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) requires a careful evaluation of advantages and disadvantages associated with platelet inhibition to avoid overtreatment on one side and undertreatment on the other. The delicate balance between ischemic protection and bleeding demands the ability to undertake risk stratification and individualized decisions, which is particularly challenging in the setting of ad hoc PCI and urgent procedures...
January 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886730/school-transitions-peer-influence-and-educational-expectation-formation-girls-and-boys
#9
Megan Andrew, Jennifer Flashman
School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866891/confidence-is-the-bridge-between-multi-stage-decisions
#10
Ronald van den Berg, Ariel Zylberberg, Roozbeh Kiani, Michael N Shadlen, Daniel M Wolpert
Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each decision, such as the speed-accuracy trade-off, ought to depend on the accuracy of the previous decisions. However, as the accuracy of each decision is often unknown to the decision maker, we hypothesized that subjects may carry forward a level of confidence in previous decisions to affect subsequent decisions...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865297/cancer-screening-2016
#11
REVIEW
S Calvin Thigpen, Stephen A Geraci
The primary goal of cancer screening is to reduce cancer-related mortality without incurring significant harm. Screening efforts for solid tumors, therefore, have targeted the precursors of the most common and the most deadly cancers-breast, cervical, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer. Balancing risk and benefit has led to controversy regarding the timing of cancer screening-when to begin, how often to screen and when to stop-and the nature of the modality of cancer screening-invasive or noninvasive, laboratory-centered or imaging-centered...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852229/access-timing-and-frequency-of-very-early-stroke-rehabilitation-insights-from-the-baden-wuerttemberg-stroke-registry
#12
Björn Reuter, Christoph Gumbinger, Tamara Sauer, Horst Wiethölter, Ingo Bruder, Curt Diehm, Peter A Ringleb, Werner Hacke, Michael G Hennerici, Rolf Kern
BACKGROUND: While the precise timing and intensity of very early rehabilitation (VER) after stroke onset is still under discussion, its beneficial effect on functional disability is generally accepted. The recently published randomized controlled AVERT trial indicated that patients with severe stroke might be more susceptible to harmful side effects of VER, which we hypothesized is contrary to current clinical practice. We analyzed the Baden-Wuerttemberg stroke registry to gain insight into the application of VER in acute ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in clinical practice...
November 16, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852187/prevention-of-breast-cancer
#13
Ian N Olver
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846261/neuromodulation-of-nestmate-recognition-decisions-by-pavement-ants
#14
Andrew N Bubak, Jazmine D W Yaeger, Kenneth J Renner, John G Swallow, Michael J Greene
Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846125/experiences-of-mental-health-professionals-and-patients-in-the-use-of-pro-re-nata-medication-in-acute-adult-mental-healthcare-settings-a-systematic-review
#15
Bernadette Morkunas, Kylie Porritt, Matthew Stephenson
BACKGROUND: The use of pro re nata (PRN) medication, a medication that is given when needed, as opposed to medication that is given at a regular time, is surrounded by claims of misuse and poor accountability within the mental health setting. Gaining insight into and understanding of the experiences of health professionals' and patients' use of PRN medication will assist in contributing to improving education and safety around this common intervention. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and synthesize the best available evidence on the perspectives of patients and mental health professionals (MHPs) with their experiences of PRN medication in mental health settings...
October 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844191/-indications-for-implantable-loop-recorders-in-patients-with-channelopathies-and-ventricular-tachycardias
#16
Julia Köbe, Kristina Wasmer, Florian Reinke, Lars Eckardt
Implantable loop recorders (ILR) do not play a pivotal role in the current guidelines on ventricular arrhythmias except in identifying rhythm-symptom correlations if ventricular arrhythmias are assumed. Before a decision for a pure diagnostic implantable device is made, a thorough arrhythmic risk assessment is of major importance due to the potential lethal outcome of ventricular arrhythmias. Nevertheless, some clinical circumstances exist where long-term monitoring by an ILR may add significant information in electrical heart diseases, in patients with ventricular arrhythmias, or structural heart diseases and a potential risk of ventricular arrhythmias...
December 2016: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833462/health-economic-impact-and-prospective-clinical-utility-of-oncotype-dx%C3%A2-genomic-prostate-score
#17
David Albala, Michael J Kemeter, Phillip G Febbo, Ruixiao Lu, Vincy John, Dylan Stoy, Bela Denes, Marybeth McCall, Alan W Shindel, Frank Dubeck
Prostate cancer (CaP) will be diagnosed in approximately 181,000 American men in 2016. Despite the high number of deaths from CaP in the United States, the disease has a protracted natural history and many men diagnosed with CaP will not die of the disease regardless of treatment. Unfortunately, identification of men with truly indolent/ nonaggressive CaP is challenging; limitations of conventional diagnostic modalities diminish the ability of physicians to accurately stage every case of CaP based on biopsy results alone...
2016: Reviews in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825727/appropriateness-of-myocardial-revascularization-assessed-by-the-syntax-score-ii-in-a-country-without-cardiac-surgery-facilities-proust-study
#18
Bojan M Stanetic, Miodrag Ostojic, Carlos M Campos, Jelena Marinkovic, Vasim Farooq, Tamara Kovacevic-Preradovic, Kurt Huber, Patrick W Serruys
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The SYNTAX Score II (SSII) was proposed as a novel approach for objective individualized decision-making for optimal myocardial revascularization i.e. percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We sought to investigate how many lives may be saved by SSII use. METHODS: A total number of 651 consecutive SSII-naive-patients with complex coronary artery disease who were treated with PCI (n=409) or referred to other institutions for CABG (n=242) were included...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823608/insulin-making-sense-of-current-options
#19
REVIEW
Alissa R Segal, Tejaswi Vootla, Richard S Beaser
Newer insulin products have advanced the evolution of insulin replacement options to more accurately mimic natural insulin action. There are new, modified, and concentrated insulins; administration devices calibrated for both increased concentrations and administration accuracy to improve adherence and safety; and inhaled insulin. There are new combinations of longer-acting basal insulin and rapid-acting insulin or glucagon like protein-1 receptor agonists. Existing insulin replacement designs and methods can be updated using these tools to improve efficacy and safety...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803362/toward-optimal-decision-making-among-vulnerable-patients-referred-for-cardiac-surgery-a-qualitative-analysis-of-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#20
Ryan A Gainer, Janet Curran, Karen J Buth, Jennie G David, Jean-Francois Légaré, Gregory M Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population...
November 1, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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