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"Individualized decision"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904100/influence-of-biases-in-numerical-magnitude-allocation-on-human-pro-social-decision-making
#1
Qadeer Arshad, Yuliya Nigmatullina, Shuaib Siddiqui, Mustafa Franka, Saniya Mediratta, Sanjeev Ramachandaran, Rhannon Lobo, Paresh Malhotra, R Edward Roberts, Adolfo M Bronstein
Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human pro-social decision-making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e. ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition upon decision-making during task performance remains unknown. Whilst performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor upon a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883691/liquid-biopsy-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-circulating-tumor-cells-and-cell-free-nucleic-acids
#2
REVIEW
Wataru Okajima, Shuhei Komatsu, Daisuke Ichikawa, Mahito Miyamae, Takuma Ohashi, Taisuke Imamura, Jun Kiuchi, Keiji Nishibeppu, Tomohiro Arita, Hirotaka Konishi, Atsushi Shiozaki, Ryo Morimura, Hisashi Ikoma, Kazuma Okamoto, Eigo Otsuji
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with its high incidence and mortality rate, is one of the most common malignant tumors. Despite recent development of a diagnostic and treatment method, the prognosis of HCC remains poor. Therefore, to provide optimal treatment for each patient with HCC, more precise and effective biomarkers are urgently needed which could facilitate a more detailed individualized decision-making during HCC treatment, including the following; risk assessment, early cancer detection, prediction of treatment or prognostic outcome...
August 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863219/discussing-advance-care-planning-and-directives-in-the-general-population
#3
Pascal J de Caprariis, Bronwyn Rucker, Claudia Lyon
The concept of end-of-life planning, along with medical and legal issues, has been discussed and has evolved over several years. The 1990 Patient Self-Determination Act and individual states' Department of Health Advance Directive forms helped overcome past problems. Patients with terminal and chronic illness are now able to have their wishes recognized for their future care. Any healthy individual's decision during an advance care planning (ACP) discussion can be adversely affected by various factors; however, multiple barriers-religion, culture, education, and family dynamics-can influence the process...
September 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857643/opioid-prescribing-in-rural-family-practices-a-qualitative-study
#4
Ivy A Click, Jeri Ann Basden, Joy M Bohannon, Heather Anderson, Fred Tudiver
BACKGROUND: Rural Tennessee, especially rural East Tennessee has seen a dramatic increase in rates of controlled drug prescriptions and controlled drug overdose deaths in recent years. However, little is known about the individual decisions to prescribe or continue prescriptions with relation to addiction concerns. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to learn more about what factors lead to physicians' prescribing control drugs for non-cancer pain through the use of focus groups...
August 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857480/principles-for-ethical-treatment-decision-making-in-veterinary-oncology
#5
REVIEW
C Rohrer Bley
Many owners of companion animals with cancer are overwhelmed by having to choose the "right course of action." With the aim of reducing the burden on owners who are forced to act as surrogates for their animals, this work discusses principles that apply to ethical treatment decision-making for animal patients with cancer. Four principles frequently used for ethical decision-making in human medicine will be considered for their potential applicability in veterinary medicine. As a result of these considerations, preliminary guidelines are presented, along which a decision-making discussion can be held...
August 31, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855371/experience-matters-context-dependent-decisions-explain-spatial-foraging-patterns-in-the-deposit-feeding-crab-scopimera-intermedia
#6
T Y Hui, Gray A Williams
Behavioural decisions are often context-dependent, where information from immediate experience is incorporated into an individual's decision-making, particularly in complex environments. To test whether such mechanism is adopted by foragers in heterogeneous environments, we investigated the foraging behaviour of the deposit-feeding sand-bubbler crab, Scopimera intermedia An individual-based model was constructed, based on an optimal-patch selection criterion, which implicitly assumed that individuals adjust foraging decisions based on immediate past experience...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851282/psychological-determinants-of-influenza-vaccination
#7
Jens-Oliver Bock, André Hajek, Hans-Helmut König
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigated the determinants of individuals' decision to vaccinate against influenza primarily focusing on social as well as certain proximal determinants, for example, behavioral beliefs. Thus, so far, the analysis of psychological factors as determinants of influenza vaccination was mainly limited to beliefs, attitudes or perceptions that were directly related to influenza vaccination and its perceived impact. However, considering general psychological factors, like general self-efficacy, optimism or subjective well-being, might further enhance the understanding of why certain people vaccinate while others do not...
August 29, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838092/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-vs-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-for-left-main-revascularization-an-updated-meta-analysis
#8
Navkaranbir S Bajaj, Nirav Patel, Rajat Kalra, Peter Marogil, Ashwanikumar Bhardwaj, Garima Arora, Pankaj Arora
Aims: The optimal revascularization strategy for left main coronary artery disease (LMD) remains controversial, especially with two recent randomized controlled trials showing conflicting results. We sought to address this controversy with our analysis. Methods and results: Comprehensive literature search was performed. We compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for LMD revascularization using standard meta-analytic techniques...
July 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834844/barriers-to-career-flexibility-in-academic-medicine-a-qualitative-analysis-of-reasons-for-the-underutilization-of-family-friendly-policies-and-implications-for-institutional-change-and-department-chair-leadership
#9
Kimberlee Shauman, Lydia P Howell, Debora A Paterniti, Laurel A Beckett, Amparo C Villablanca
PURPOSE: Academic medical and biomedical professionals need workplace flexibility to manage the demands of work and family roles and meet their commitments to both, but often fail to use the very programs and benefits that provide flexibility. This study investigated the reasons for faculty underutilization of work-life programs. METHOD: As part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study, in 2010 the authors investigated attitudes of clinical and/or research biomedical faculty at the University of California, Davis, toward work-life policies, and the rationale behind their individual decisions regarding use of flexibility policies...
August 22, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833471/perceived-barriers-to-and-drivers-of-community-participation-in-protected-area-governance
#10
Caroline Ward, George Holmes, Lindsay Stringer
Protected areas (PAs) are a frequently used conservation strategy, yet their socio-economic impacts on local communities remain contentious. A shift towards increased local community participation in PA governance has sought to deliver benefits for human well-being as well as biodiversity. Although participation is considered critical to the success of PAs, few studies have investigated individuals' decisions to participate and what this means for how local people experience the costs and benefits of conservation...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831812/thromboembolic-and-major-bleeding-events-with-rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-use-in-a-real-world-setting
#11
Giavanna Russo-Alvarez, Kathryn A Martinez, Megan Valente, James Bena, Bo Hu, Jennifer Luxenburg, Alexander Chaitoff, Catherine Ituarte, Andrei Brateanu, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: Although randomized trials demonstrate the noninferiority of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the context of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about how these drugs compare in practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a large health system and to evaluate this association by time in therapeutic range (TTR). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with propensity matching in the Cleveland Clinic Health System...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822499/countervailing-incentives-in-value-based-payment
#12
REVIEW
Daniel R Arnold
Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives...
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816519/the-effects-of-exercise-on-a-choice-reaction-time-task-in-individuals-with-post-concussion-syndrome
#13
Stephanie A Ramautar, Alyssa A Prangley, Michael E Cinelli
PURPOSE: To assess cognitive performance differences pre- and post-exercise in individuals without concussion (non-concussed, NC) and individuals with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). METHODS: A total of 30 participants completed a choice reaction time (CRT) task in the form of an iPad application, measuring each individual's decision-making capabilities, while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker system. Participants completed four blocks of testing; the time interval between the first two blocks of trials and the last two blocks of trials was 10 minutes...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#14
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810062/the-association-between-patient-attitudes-and-values-and-the-strength-of-consideration-for-contralateral-prophylactic-mastectomy-in-a-population-based-sample-of-breast-cancer-patients
#15
Sarah T Hawley, Kent A Griffith, Ann S Hamilton, Kevin C Ward, Monica Morrow, Nancy K Janz, Steven J Katz, Reshma Jagsi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the individual decision styles and values of breast cancer patients at the time of treatment decision making are associated with the consideration of different treatment options and specifically with the consideration of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer who were treated in 2013-2014 were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries of Los Angeles and Georgia and were surveyed approximately 7 months after surgery (n = 2578; response rate, 71%)...
August 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797780/clinical-practice-recommendations-on-indication-and-timing-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-mature-t-cell-and-nk-t-cell-lymphomas-an-international-collaborative-effort-on-behalf-of-the-guidelines-committee-of-the-american-society-for-blood-and-marrow
#16
Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja, Ambuj Kumar, Ernesto Ayala, Mehdi Hamadani, Peter Reimer, Christian Gisselbrecht, Francesco d'Amore, Esa Jantunen, Takashi Ishida, Ali Bazarbachi, Francine Foss, Ranjana Advani, Timothy S Fenske, Hillard M Lazarus, Jonathan W Friedberg, Mahmoud Aljurf, Lubomir Sokol, Kensei Tobinai, Eric Tse, Linda J Burns, Julio C Chavez, Nishitha M Reddy, Ritsuro Suzuki, Sairah Ahmed, Auayporn Nademanee, Mohamad Mohty, Ajay K Gopal, Michelle A Fanale, Barbara Pro, Alison J Moskowitz, Anna Sureda, Miguel Angel Perales, Paul A Carpenter, Bipin N Savani
Recognizing the significant biological and clinical heterogeneity of mature T cell and natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphomas, the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation invited experts to develop clinical practice recommendations related to the role of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) for specific histological subtypes. We used the GRADE methodology to aid in moving from evidence to decision making and ultimately to generating final recommendations...
August 7, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768085/scuba-in-older-aged-divers
#17
Michael B Strauss, Jeremy A Busch, Stuart S Miller
As the population gets older, coupled with increased awareness of good health practices and the recognition that fitness contributes to participation in activities generally appropriate for younger individuals, decisions need to be made about what are appropriate activities for the older-aged scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diver. It is essential to appreciate the distinction between chronological and physiological age. Three factors, namely fitness, comorbidities, and mobility and strength are fundamental when making decisions about participation in activities in general as well as in scuba diving for older adults...
January 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767716/factors-associated-with-interest-in-novel-interfaces-for-upper-limb-prosthesis-control
#18
Susannah M Engdahl, Cynthia A Chestek, Brian Kelly, Alicia Davis, Deanna H Gates
BACKGROUND: Surgically invasive interfaces for upper limb prosthesis control may allow users to operate advanced, multi-articulated devices. Given the potential medical risks of these invasive interfaces, it is important to understand what factors influence an individual's decision to try one. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous online survey of individuals with upper limb loss. A total of 232 participants provided personal information (such as age, amputation level, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765861/improving-communication-about-cancer-screening-moving-towards-informed-decision-making
#19
Jolyn K Hersch, Brooke L Nickel, Alex Ghanouni, Jesse Jansen, Kirsten J McCaffery
For decades, public communications about cancer screening have used persuasive techniques with the aim of maximising the number of people being screened. However, perspectives have changed more recently to acknowledge that screening can lead to harm as well as benefit, and that it is important for service users to consider both. For some types of cancer screening, there is professional contention about whether benefits clearly outweigh harms. In light of this, an emerging trend in cancer screening communication is to try to support informed decision making - that is, to help people understand both the advantages and disadvantages of screening, allowing them to make individual decisions about their screening participation that reflect their informed preferences...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760866/learning-predictive-statistics-strategies-and-brain-mechanisms
#20
Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew E Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
When immersed in a new environment, we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. However, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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