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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816519/the-effects-of-exercise-on-a-choice-reaction-time-task-in-individuals-with-post-concussion-syndrome
#1
Stephanie A Ramautar, Alyssa A Prangley, Michael E Cinelli
PURPOSE: To assess cognitive performance differences pre- and post-exercise in individuals without concussion (non-concussed, NC) and individuals with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). METHODS: A total of 30 participants completed a choice reaction time (CRT) task in the form of an iPad application, measuring each individual's decision-making capabilities, while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker system. Participants completed four blocks of testing; the time interval between the first two blocks of trials and the last two blocks of trials was 10 minutes...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#2
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810062/the-association-between-patient-attitudes-and-values-and-the-strength-of-consideration-for-contralateral-prophylactic-mastectomy-in-a-population-based-sample-of-breast-cancer-patients
#3
Sarah T Hawley, Kent A Griffith, Ann S Hamilton, Kevin C Ward, Monica Morrow, Nancy K Janz, Steven J Katz, Reshma Jagsi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the individual decision styles and values of breast cancer patients at the time of treatment decision making are associated with the consideration of different treatment options and specifically with the consideration of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer who were treated in 2013-2014 were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries of Los Angeles and Georgia and were surveyed approximately 7 months after surgery (n = 2578; response rate, 71%)...
August 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797780/clinical-practice-recommendations-on-indication-and-timing-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-mature-t-cell-and-nk-t-cell-lymphomas-an-international-collaborative-effort-on-behalf-of-the-guidelines-committee-of-the-american-society-for-blood-and-marrow
#4
Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja, Ambuj Kumar, Ernesto Ayala, Mehdi Hamadani, Peter Reimer, Christian Gisselbrecht, Francesco d'Amore, Esa Jantunen, Takashi Ishida, Ali Bazarbachi, Francine Foss, Ranjana Advani, Timothy S Fenske, Hillard M Lazarus, Jonathan W Friedberg, Mahmoud Aljurf, Lubomir Sokol, Kensei Tobinai, Eric Tse, Linda J Burns, Julio C Chavez, Nishitha M Reddy, Ritsuro Suzuki, Sairah Ahmed, Auayporn Nademanee, Mohamad Mohty, Ajay K Gopal, Michelle A Fanale, Barbara Pro, Alison J Moskowitz, Anna Sureda, Miguel Angel Perales, Paul A Carpenter, Bipin N Savani
Recognizing the significant biologic and clinical heterogeneity of mature T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas, the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation invited experts to develop clinical practice recommendations related to the role of auto-HCT and allo-HCT for specific histologic subtypes. We used the GRADE methodology to assist in moving from evidence to decision-making and ultimately generating final recommendations. Auto-HCT in front-line consolidation is recommended in PTCL-NOS, AITL, ALCL-ALK negative, NK/T-cell (disseminated), EATL and hepatosplenic lymphomas...
August 7, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768085/scuba-in-older-aged-divers
#5
Michael B Strauss, Jeremy A Busch, Stuart S Miller
As the population gets older, coupled with increased awareness of good health practices and the recognition that fitness contributes to participation in activities generally appropriate for younger individuals, decisions need to be made about what are appropriate activities for the older-aged scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) diver. It is essential to appreciate the distinction between chronological and physiological age. Three factors, namely fitness, comorbidities, and mobility and strength are fundamental when making decisions about participation in activities in general as well as in scuba diving for older adults...
January 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767716/factors-associated-with-interest-in-novel-interfaces-for-upper-limb-prosthesis-control
#6
Susannah M Engdahl, Cynthia A Chestek, Brian Kelly, Alicia Davis, Deanna H Gates
BACKGROUND: Surgically invasive interfaces for upper limb prosthesis control may allow users to operate advanced, multi-articulated devices. Given the potential medical risks of these invasive interfaces, it is important to understand what factors influence an individual's decision to try one. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous online survey of individuals with upper limb loss. A total of 232 participants provided personal information (such as age, amputation level, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765861/improving-communication-about-cancer-screening-moving-towards-informed-decision-making
#7
Jolyn K Hersch, Brooke L Nickel, Alex Ghanouni, Jesse Jansen, Kirsten J McCaffery
For decades, public communications about cancer screening have used persuasive techniques with the aim of maximising the number of people being screened. However, perspectives have changed more recently to acknowledge that screening can lead to harm as well as benefit, and that it is important for service users to consider both. For some types of cancer screening, there is professional contention about whether benefits clearly outweigh harms. In light of this, an emerging trend in cancer screening communication is to try to support informed decision making - that is, to help people understand both the advantages and disadvantages of screening, allowing them to make individual decisions about their screening participation that reflect their informed preferences...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760866/learning-predictive-statistics-strategies-and-brain-mechanisms
#8
Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
When immersed in a new environment we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. Yet, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity: from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760277/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-patient-decision-making-aid-for-orthodontics
#9
Kate Parker, Susan J Cunningham, Aviva Petrie, Fiona S Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Patient decision-making aids (PDAs) are instruments that facilitate shared decision making and enable patients to reach informed, individual decisions regarding health care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a PDA compared with traditional information provision for adolescent patients considering fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Before treatment, orthodontic patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the intervention group received the PDA and standard information regarding fixed appliances, and the control group received the standard information only...
August 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758998/functional-dissection-of-signal-and-noise-in-mt-and-lip-during-decision-making
#10
Jacob L Yates, Il Memming Park, Leor N Katz, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
During perceptual decision-making, responses in the middle temporal (MT) and lateral intraparietal (LIP) areas appear to map onto theoretically defined quantities, with MT representing instantaneous motion evidence and LIP reflecting the accumulated evidence. However, several aspects of the transformation between the two areas have not been empirically tested. We therefore performed multistage systems identification analyses of the simultaneous activity of MT and LIP during individual decisions. We found that monkeys based their choices on evidence presented in early epochs of the motion stimulus and that substantial early weighting of motion was present in MT responses...
July 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758891/form-and-function-in-the-lower-palaeolithic-history-progress-and-continued-relevance
#11
Alastair Key, Lycett Stephen
Percussively flaked stone artefacts constitute a major source of evidence relating to hominin behavioural strategies and are, essentially, a product or byproduct of a past individual's decision to create a tool with respect to some broader goal. Moreover, it has long been noted that both differences and recurrent regularities exist within and between Palaeolithic stone artefact forms. Accordingly, archaeologists have frequently drawn links between form and functionality, with functional objectives and performance often being regarded consequential to a stone tool's morphological properties...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748278/-therapy-escalation-for-the-potential-organ-donor-are-all-intensive-care-measures-also-ethically-justifiable
#12
REVIEW
S-O Kuhn, K Hahnenkamp
The gap between the number of organs needed and the number available has dramatically increased in Germany in the last decade-for intensivists and transplantation specialists, it is challenging to cover the demand responsibly. It is therefore increasingly important to identify potential organ donors in order to realize organ donation. An escalation of intensive care measures is often required, which raises critical ethical questions. In Germany, organ donation is only allowed after brain death with prior informed consent from the deceased or his/her relatives...
July 26, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746975/breeding-habitat-selection-across-spatial-scales-is-grass-always-greener-on-the-other-side
#13
Paul Acker, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Yves Monnat, Emmanuelle Cam
Habitat selection theory predicts that natural selection should favor mechanisms allowing individuals to choose habitats associated with the highest fitness prospects. However, identifying sources of information on habitat quality that individuals use to choose their breeding habitat has proved to be difficult. It has also proven difficult to identify dispersal costs that prevent individuals from joining the highest-quality sites. A synthesis that integrates dispersal costs and habitat selection mechanisms across space has remained elusive...
July 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739079/individual-confidence-weighting-and-group-decision-making
#14
REVIEW
James A R Marshall, Gavin Brown, Andrew N Radford
Group-living species frequently pool individual information so as to reach consensus decisions such as when and where to move, or whether a predator is present. Such opinion-pooling has been demonstrated empirically, and theoretical models have been proposed to explain why group decisions are more reliable than individual decisions. Behavioural ecology theory frequently assumes that all individuals have equal decision-making abilities, but decision theory relaxes this assumption and has been tested in human groups...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737199/-giant-splenic-cyst-in-a-teenager-girl-case-report
#15
Beatriz Martínez Torres, Manuel Medina García, Miguel Ángel Zafra Anta, Alejandro José García Muñoz-Najar, Juan C Tardío Dovao
Giant nonparasitic splenic epidermoid cysts are relatively uncommon. These lesions can lead abdominal pain, but most of then are asymptomatic, and they are discovered incidentally. We report a 13-y old female with a giant splenic epidermoid cystic, given the special interest of diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making of this rare entity. CASE REPORT: A 13-y old female with clinical history of abdominal pain since the last two months. On physical examination a firm, tender mass was palpable in left hypochondrium...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734560/deciding-on-breast-cancer-risk-reduction-the-role-of-counseling-in-individual-decision-making-a-qualitative-study
#16
Sarah B Blakeslee, Worta McCaskill-Stevens, Patricia A Parker, Christine M Gunn, Hanna Bandos, Therese B Bevers, Tracy A Battaglia, Angela Fagerlin, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Christine Holmberg
OBJECTIVES: The presentation of risks and benefits in clinical practice is common particularly in situations in which treatment recommendations involve trade-offs. The treatment of breast cancer risk with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is such a decision. We investigated the influence of health care provider (HCP) counseling on women's decision-making. METHODS: Thirty breast cancer risk counseling sessions were recorded from April 2012-August 2013 at a comprehensive cancer center and at a safety-net, community hospital in the US...
June 27, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731905/validation-of-the-prognostic-kidney-donor-risk-index-kdri-scoring-system-of-deceased-donors-for-renal-transplantation-in-the-netherlands
#17
Hessel Peters-Sengers, Martin B A Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Jesper Kers, Jaap J Homan van der Heide, Stefan P Berger, Frederike J Bemelman
BACKGROUND: The prognostic Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI)-developed and internally validated in the US-is a widely-used tool to predict transplant outcome of a deceased donor kidney. The KDRI is currently used for longevity matching between donors and recipients in the US. METHODS: We aimed to externally validate the KDRI as proposed by Rao et al, (2009) containing 10 donor factors (KDRIdonor-only) and 1 with 4 additional transplant factors (KDRIfull), with stratification on recipient age and diabetes...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#18
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714606/treating-depression-during-pregnancy-are-we-asking-the-right-questions
#19
REVIEW
Cara Angelotta, Katherine L Wisner
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complication of pregnancy. Once the diagnosis of MDD is made, the physician must assist the pregnant woman in developing a treatment plan. METHODS: In considering antidepressants, the benefit of medication treatment for maternal disease control must be balanced against the risk of the drug to the developing embryo-fetus. This is an individualized decision depending on the disease characteristics, likelihood of maternal depression response, probability of adverse fetal effects, and patient characteristics and values...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711556/medicine-based-evidence-for-individualized-decision-making-case-study-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosis
#20
Ashley E Wivel, Kate Lapane, Christi Kleoudis, Burton H Singer, Ralph I Horwitz
To guide management decisions of an index patient evidence is required from comparisons between approximate matches to the profile of the index case, where some matches contain responses to treatment and others act as controls. We describe a method for constructing clinically relevant histories/profiles using data collected but unreported from two recent phase 3 RCTs assessing belimumab in subjects with clinically active and serologically positive SLE. Outcomes were the SRI (SLE Responder Index) measured at 52 weeks...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
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