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Critical care immunocompromised

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753764/inherent-risk-factors-for-nosocomial-infection-in-the-long-stay-critically-ill-child-without-known-baseline-immunocompromise-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-crisis-trial
#1
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713885/the-immunocompromised-oncohematological-critically-ill-patient-considerations-in-severe-infections
#2
Belén Encina, Leonel Lagunes, Marc Morales-Codina
Sepsis and septic shock remain a major cause of mortality among critically ill patient. This is particularly relevant among cancer patients as highlighted by different series showing that up to one in five patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with sepsis have cancer, and also, sepsis is a leading reason for ICU admission in patients with cancer. The classic predictors of mortality among these patients (such as cancer lineage, neutropenia degree, or bone marrow transplantation history) have changed during the last decades, and they should no longer be used to rule out ICU admission...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660289/interaction-between-2-nutraceutical-treatments-and-host-immune-status-in-the-pediatric-critical-illness-stress-induced-immune-suppression-comparative-effectiveness-trial
#3
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry J Zimmerman, Christopher J L Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster, Robert F Tamburro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pediatric Critical Illness Stress-induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) trial compared the effectiveness of 2 nutraceutical supplementation strategies and found no difference in the development of nosocomial infection and sepsis in the overall population. We performed an exploratory post hoc analysis of interaction between nutraceutical treatments and host immune status related to the development of nosocomial infection/sepsis. METHODS: Children from the CRISIS trial were analyzed according to 3 admission immune status categories marked by decreasing immune competence: immune competent without lymphopenia, immune competent with lymphopenia, and previously immunocompromised...
September 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659437/a-5-year-surveillance-study-on-antimicrobial-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-from-a-tertiary-greek-hospital
#4
Sofia Maraki, Elpis Mantadakis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010-2014) in A...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612566/predicting-invasive-fungal-disease-due-to-candida-species-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-adult-patients-in-united-kingdom-critical-care-units
#5
Jason Shahin, Elizabeth J Allen, Krishna Patel, Hannah Muskett, Sheila E Harvey, Jonathan Edgeworth, Christopher C Kibbler, Rosemary A Barnes, Sharmistha Biswas, Neil Soni, Kathryn M Rowan, David A Harrison
BACKGROUND: Given the predominance of invasive fungal disease (IFD) amongst the non-immunocompromised adult critically ill population, the potential benefit of antifungal prophylaxis and the lack of generalisable tools to identify high risk patients, the aim of the current study was to describe the epidemiology of IFD in UK critical care units, and to develop and validate a clinical risk prediction tool to identify non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of IFD who would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517077/intramuscular-injection-abscess-due-to-vrsa-a-new-health-care-challenge
#6
Senthil Nathan Sambandam, Ganeshkumar Jayasree Rohinikumar, Arif Gul, Varatharaj Mounasamy
Abscess formation following intramuscular injections is rare and they are most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. In this case series we present a cohort of three patients presented to us in a critically ill condition with an abscess due to intramuscular injection. Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus was isolated from all three patients. These patients posed a major challenge to the healthcare system and the treating physician because of the: severity of illness, virulence and resistance of the organism, rarity of the situation, immune state of the patient, and lack of supporting evidence to properly guide management in the use of health resources...
June 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495046/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-patients-with-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia
#7
Yong Duk Jeon, Woo Yong Jeong, Moo Hyun Kim, In Young Jung, Mi Young Ahn, Hea Won Ann, Jin Young Ahn, Sang Hoon Han, Jun Yong Choi, Young Goo Song, June Myung Kim, Nam Su Ku
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for mortality in patients with S. maltophilia bacteremia.Retrospectively, medical records from all patients with S. maltophilia bacteremia between December 2005 and 2014 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea, were reviewed. Analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 28-day mortality...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475024/comparison-of-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-with-galactomannan-in-serum-and-bronchoalveolar-fluid-for-the-detection-of-aspergillus-species-in-immunosuppressed-mechanical-ventilated-critically-ill-patients
#8
Tobias Lahmer, Michael Neuenhahn, Jürgen Held, Sebastian Rasch, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity/mortality in immunocompromised critically ill patients. New diagnostic strategies for early detection of IPA include the noninvasive biomarkers 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), serum, and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid galactomannan (GM). The aim of this study was to compare these markers for early detection of IPA in immunosuppressed critically ill patients. METHODS: Between December 2014 and December 2015, 49 immunosuppressed patients with respiratory failure were treated at our intensive care unit (ICU)...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379619/inherent-risk-factors-for-nosocomial-infection-in-the-long-stay-critically-ill-child-without-known-baseline-immunocompromise-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-crisis-trial
#9
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kjs Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (> 3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
June 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316915/french-intensive-care-society-international-congress-r%C3%A3-animation-2016
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134159/management-of-infections-in-critically-ill-returning-travellers-in-the-intensive-care-unit-ii-clinical-syndromes-and-special-considerations-in-immunocompromised-patients
#11
REVIEW
Jordi Rello, Oriol Manuel, Philippe Eggimann, Guy Richards, Christian Wejse, Jorgen Eskild Petersen, Kai Zacharowski, Hakan Leblebicioglu
This position paper is the second ESCMID Consensus Document on this subject and aims to provide intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians with a standardized approach to the management of serious travel-related infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) or the emergency department. This document is a cooperative effort between members of two European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) study groups and was coordinated by Hakan Leblebicioglu and Jordi Rello for ESGITM (ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Travellers and Migrants) and ESGCIP (ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Critically Ill Patients), respectively...
July 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081478/probiotics-in-critically-ill-children
#12
REVIEW
Sunit C Singhi, Suresh Kumar
Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076972/non-invasive-ventilation-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#13
Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Angela Jerath, Martin Dres, Matteo Parotto
The survival rate of immunocompromised patients has improved over the past decades in light of remarkable progress in diagnostic and therapeutic options. Simultaneously, there has been an increase in the number of immunocompromised patients with life threatening complications requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. ICU admission is necessary in up to 15% of patients with acute leukemia and 20% of bone marrow transplantation recipients, and the main reason for ICU referral in this patient population is acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, which is associated with a high mortality rate, particularly in patients requiring endotracheal intubation...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904233/new-puzzles-for-the-use-of-non-invasive-ventilation-for-immunosuppressed-patients
#14
Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas, Ary Serpa Neto
On October 27, 2015, Lemile and colleagues published an article in JAMA entitled "Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation vs. Oxygen Therapy on Mortality among Immunocompromised Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial", which investigated the effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in 28-day mortality of 374 critically ill immunosuppressed patients. The authors found that among immunosuppressed patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, early NIV compared with oxygen therapy alone did not reduce 28-day mortality...
January 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841255/comparison-of-the-artus-rotorgene-and-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-platforms-for-the-detection-of-cytomegalovirus-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-center
#15
Rouba Hoteit, Puzant Fermanian, Fatmeh Abbas, Rabab Abdel Khalek, Rami Mahfouz
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviruses family. CMV infection rarely causes serious disease in otherwise healthy individuals, however, infection/reactivation among immunocompromised patients, including those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), can be critical and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The detection of CMV in blood using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods is the most sensitive and specific technique providing for a well-determined preemptive treatment cutoff...
April 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829683/laryngotracheal-mucormycosis-report-of-a-case
#16
Jillian Mattioni, Joel E Portnoy, Jaime Eaglin Moore, David Carlson, Robert T Sataloff
Airway mucormycosis is a deadly opportunistic infection that affects immunocompromised persons, particularly diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. Although it is typically a pulmonary or sinonasal infection, mucormycosis can affect the larynx and trachea, with devastating results. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection, hepatitis C infection, neurosyphilis, and recently diagnosed Burkitt lymphoma who presented with dysphonia and stridor after receiving one dose of intrathecal chemotherapy...
January 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527890/clinical-ineffectiveness-of-latamoxef-for-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-infection
#17
Hideharu Hagiya, Ken Tasaka, Toshiaki Sendo, Fumio Otsuka
OBJECTIVES: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia shows wide-spectrum resistance to antimicrobials and causes various infections in immunocompromised or critically ill patients with high mortality. In this era of antibiotics resistance, a revival of old antibiotics is now featured. We examined the clinical usefulness of latamoxef (LMOX) for the treatment of S. maltophilia infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The observational study was retrospectively performed at Okayama University Hospital (Okayama, Japan) from January 2011 to December 2013...
2015: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514771/interleukin-27-a-novel-biomarker-in-predicting-bacterial-infection-among-the-critically-ill
#18
William J Hanna, Zachary Berrens, Travis Langner, Patrick Lahni, Hector R Wong
INTRODUCTION: A continued need exists for effective diagnostic biomarkers in bacterial sepsis among critically ill patients, despite increasing use of available biomarkers such as procalcitonin (PCT). Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has shown early promise in a recent preliminary study, exhibiting high specificity and positive predictive values for bacterial infection in critically ill children. This validation study was performed to assess the value of IL-27 in predicting bacterial infection among patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and to compare its performance with that of PCT...
October 30, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474394/evaluation-of-the-broad-range-pcr-esi-ms-technology-in-blood-specimens-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections
#19
Elena Jordana-Lluch, Montserrat Giménez, M Dolores Quesada, Belén Rivaya, Clara Marcó, M Jesús Domínguez, Fernando Arméstar, Elisa Martró, Vicente Ausina
BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of the etiological agent in bloodstream infections is of vital importance for the early administration of the most appropriate antibiotic therapy. Molecular methods may offer an advantage to current culture-based microbiological diagnosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of IRIDICA, a platform based on universal genetic amplification followed by mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) for the molecular diagnosis of sepsis-related pathogens directly from the patient's blood...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468698/the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-s-new-definitions-for-complications-of-mechanical-ventilation-shift-the-focus-of-quality-surveillance-and-predict-clinical-outcomes-in-a-picu
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Siriporn Phongjitsiri, Jorge Coss-Bu, Curtis Kennedy, Jaime Silva, Jeffrey Starke, Jeanine Graf, Satid Thammasitboon
OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shifted the focus of surveillance paradigm for adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation, moving from the current standard of ventilator-associated pneumonia to broader complications. The surveillance definitions were designed to enable objective measures and efficient processes, so as to facilitate quality improvement initiatives and enhance standardized benchmark comparisons. We evaluated the surveillance definitions in term of their ability to predict clinical outcomes and ease of surveillance in a PICU...
November 2015: Critical Care Medicine
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