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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050358/state-of-the-art-considerations-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-brain-metastases
#1
REVIEW
Rimas V Lukas, Vinai Gondi, David O Kamson, Priya Kumthekar, Ravi Salgia
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) frequently leads to development of brain metastases. These unfortunately continue to be associated with short survival. Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the underlying biology of disease. This understanding on the background of previously evaluated and currently utilized therapeutic treatments can help guide the next steps in investigations into this disease with the potential to influence future treatments. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of the literature covering epidemiology, pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, prognosis, and therapeutic management of SCLC brain metastases was performed...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050245/von-hippel-lindau-regulates-interleukin-32%C3%AE-stability-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
Hyo Jeong Yong, Jeong Su Park, Ae Lee Jeong, Sora Han, Sunyi Lee, Hye In Ka, Buyanravjkh Sumiyasuren, Hyun Jeong Joo, Su Jeong So, Ji Young Park, Do-Young Yoon, Jong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Seok Lee, Hee Gu Lee, Young Yang
Hypoxia-induced interleukin-32β (IL-32β) shifts the metabolic program to the enhanced glycolytic pathway. In the present study, the underlying mechanism by which hypoxia-induced IL-32β stability is regulated was investigated in ovarian cancer cells. IL-32β expression increased under hypoxic conditions in ovarian cancer cells as it did in breast cancer cells. The amount of IL-32β was regulated by post-translational control rather than by transcriptional activation. Under normoxic conditions, IL-32β was continuously eliminated through ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) E3 ligase complex...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050215/proteomics-analysis-of-bladder-cancer-invasion-targeting-eif3d-for-therapeutic-intervention
#3
Agnieszka Latosinska, Marika Mokou, Manousos Makridakis, William Mullen, Jerome Zoidakis, Vasiliki Lygirou, Maria Frantzi, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Marie C Hupe, Maciej Dobrzynski, Walter Kolch, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak, Maria G Roubelakis, Antonia Vlahou
Patients with advanced bladder cancer have poor outcomes, indicating a need for more efficient therapeutic approaches. This study characterizes proteomic changes underlying bladder cancer invasion aiming for the better understanding of disease pathophysiology and identification of drug targets. High resolution liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tissue specimens from patients with non-muscle invasive (NMIBC, stage pTa) and muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stages pT2+) was conducted...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050023/monitoring-of-root-caries-lesions
#4
Iain A Pretty
The early detection of root caries is essential for the implementation of appropriate preventive therapeutic regimes. Subsequent monitoring of lesions is required to determine the outcomes of such therapies. While much research activity has been seen in the detection and monitoring of enamel caries, this has not been seen in root caries - despite the possibilities for shorter clinical trials due to the more rapid remineralization and arrest of such lesions. The main stay of both clinical practice and research has been the use of visual tactile criteria including, hardness, texture, the presence or absence of cavitation, and color...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049978/targeting-eif4e-inhibits-growth-survival-and-angiogenesis-in-retinoblastoma-and-enhances-efficacy-of-chemotherapy
#5
Genguo Wang, Zhi Li, Zhuojun Li, Yi Huang, Xiaochun Mao, Chang Xu, Sha Cui
Although the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) has been shown to be critically involved in the transformation and progression of various tumors, little is known about the role of eIF4E in retinoblastoma. In this work, we report that ribavirin, a pharmacologic inhibitor of eIF4E function, effectively targets retinoblastoma and angiogenesis. Ribavirin treatment dose-dependently blocked the growth and stimulated apoptosis in various retinoblastoma cell lines, with IC50 values that are within the clinically achievable range...
October 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049930/antibiotic-efficacy-context-matters
#6
REVIEW
Jason H Yang, Sarah C Bening, James J Collins
Antibiotic lethality is a complex physiological process, sensitive to external cues. Recent advances using systems approaches have revealed how events downstream of primary target inhibition actively participate in antibiotic death processes. In particular, altered metabolism, translational stress and DNA damage each contribute to antibiotic-induced cell death. Moreover, environmental factors such as oxygen availability, extracellular metabolites, population heterogeneity and multidrug contexts alter antibiotic efficacy by impacting bacterial metabolism and stress responses...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049900/genetic-alphabet-expansion-biotechnology-by-creating-unnatural-base-pairs
#7
REVIEW
Kyung Hyun Lee, Kiyofumi Hamashima, Michiko Kimoto, Ichiro Hirao
Recent studies have made it possible to expand the genetic alphabet of DNA, which is originally composed of the four-letter alphabet with A-T and G-C pairs, by introducing an unnatural base pair (UBP). Several types of UBPs function as a third base pair in replication, transcription, and/or translation. Through the UBP formation, new components with different physicochemical properties from those of the natural ones can be introduced into nucleic acids and proteins site-specifically, providing their increased functionalities...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049872/optimal-dosing-and-delivery-of-pth-and-its-analogues-for-osteoporosis-and-hypoparathyroidism-translating-the-pharmacology
#8
REVIEW
D Tay, S Cremers, J P Bilezikian
In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), bone loss results from the resorptive effects of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH). Under physiological conditions, PTH has actions that are more targeted to homeostasis and to bone accrual. The predominant action of PTH, either catabolic, anabolic, or homeostatic, can be understood in molecular and pharmacokinetic terms. When administered intermittently, PTH increases bone mass, but when present continuously and in excess (e.g., PHPT), bone loss ensues. This dual effect of PTH depends not only on the dosing regimen, continuous or intermittent, but also on how the PTH molecule interacts with various states of its receptor (PTH/PTHrP receptor) influencing downstream signaling pathways differentially...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049867/ion-pair-and-solvation-dynamics-of-bmim-bf4-water-system
#9
João Cascão, Wagner Silva, Ana S D Ferreira, Eurico J Cabrita
In this work, [Bmim][BF4 ]/water mixtures were analysed over the whole water composition (xw ) in order to study the rotational and translational behaviour of the ions. We employed a multinuclear NMR approach to determine anion/cation/water diffusion coefficients and longitudinal relaxation rates at different water content. In neat IL the cation diffuses faster than the anion and at low xw anions and cations share almost the same diffusion coefficient, but above a critical water concentration the anion begins to diffuse faster than the cation...
October 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049866/melanoma-sponge-on-pigmentation-gene-to-reduce-tumour-suppressive-micrornas
#10
Peter Dietrich, Anja Katrin Bosserhoff
MicroRNAs (miRs) were originally described as non-coding RNA molecules that mediate the inhibition of translation of their target genes by binding to distinctive, now called canonical, MicroRNA Response Elements (MREs). After binding to MREs, which are usually located near the 3'UTR of their target mRNA, a complex protein machinery (RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC) mediates mRNA decay and/or the inhibition of translation initiation (Mione and Bosserhoff, 2015). However, the diversity of microRNA regulation and function has greatly expanded over the last several years, and more non-canonical functions of miRs are emerging...
October 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049361/methodological-aspects-of-mri-of-transplanted-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-labeled-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-live-rat-brain
#11
Daria Namestnikova, Ilya Gubskiy, Irina Kholodenko, Pavel Melnikov, Kirill Sukhinich, Anna Gabashvili, Daniil Vishnevskiy, Anastasia Soloveva, Maxim Abakumov, Igor Vakhrushev, Alexei Lupatov, Vladimir Chekhonin, Leonid Gubsky, Konstantin Yarygin
In vivo tracking of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migration and homing is vital for understanding the mechanisms of beneficial effects of MSCs transplantation in animal models of diseases and in clinical trials. Transplanted cells can be labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles and visualized in vivo using a number of iron sensitive MRI techniques. However, the applicability of those techniques for SPIO-labeled MSCs tracking in live brain has not been sufficiently investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049353/should-preventive-antibiotics-be-used-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Feng Zheng, Niklas von Spreckelsen, Xintong Zhang, Pantelis Stavrinou, Marco Timmer, Christian Dohmen, Roland Goldbrunner, Fang Cao, Qiang Zhang, Qishan Ran, Gang Li, Ruiming Fan, Shengtao Yao, Boris Krischek
BACKGROUND: Infection is a common complication in acute stroke. Whether or not preventive antibiotics reduce the risk of infection or even lead to a favorable outcome and reduction of mortality after a stroke still remains equivocal. This review was performed to update the current knowledge on the effect and possible benefits of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in patients with stroke. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of preventive antibiotics`effect on the incidence of infection, favorable outcome (mRS≤2) and mortality in patients with acute stroke is performed with relevant randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049345/processing-of-the-major-autolysin-of-e-faecalis-atla-by-the-zinc-metalloprotease-gele-impacts-atla-septal-localization-and-cell-separation
#13
Emily K Stinemetz, Peng Gao, Kenneth L Pinkston, Maria Camila Montealegre, Barbara E Murray, Barrett R Harvey
AtlA is the major peptidoglycan hydrolase of Enterococcus faecalis involved in cell division and cellular autolysis. The secreted zinc metalloprotease, gelatinase (GelE), has been identified as an important regulator of cellular function through post-translational modification of protein substrates. AtlA is a known target of GelE, and their interplay has been proposed to regulate AtlA function. To study the protease-mediated post-translational modification of AtlA, monoclonal antibodies were developed as research tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049321/determination-and-production-of-antimicrobial-compounds-by-aspergillus-clavatonanicus-strain-mj31-an-endophytic-fungus-from-mirabilis-jalapa-l-using-uplc-esi-ms-ms-and-td-gc-ms-analysis
#14
Vineet Kumar Mishra, Ajit Kumar Passari, Preeti Chandra, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Brijesh Kumar, Sivakumar Uthandi, Sugitha Thankappan, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Bhim Pratap Singh
Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are reported as potent producers of diverse classes of secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungi, Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, exhibiting significant antimicrobial activity was isolated from roots of Mirabilis jalapa L., was identified by sequencing three nuclear genes i.e. internal transcribed spacers ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) and translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF 1α). Ethyl acetate extract of strain MJ31displayed significant antimicrobial potential against Bacillus subtilis, followed by Micrococccus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049316/genomic-comparison-of-early-passage-conditionally-reprogrammed-breast-cancer-cells-to-their-corresponding-primary-tumors
#15
Akanksha S Mahajan, Bruna M Sugita, Anju N Duttargi, Francisco Saenz, Ewa Krawczyk, Justine N McCutcheon, Aline S Fonseca, Bhaskar Kallakury, Paula Pohlmann, Yuriy Gusev, Luciane R Cavalli
Conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) are epithelial cells that are directly isolated from patients' specimens and propagated in vitro with feeder cells and a Rho kinase inhibitor. A number of these cells have been generated from biopsies of breast cancer patients, including ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas. The characterization of their genomic signatures is essential to determine their ability to reflect the natural biology of their tumors of origin. In this study, we performed the genomic characterization of six newly established invasive breast cancer CRC cultures in comparison to the original patients' primary breast tumors (PBT) from which they derived...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049300/increased-cell-survival-and-cytogenetic-integrity-by-spatial-dose-redistribution-at-a-compact-synchrotron-x-ray-source
#16
Karin Burger, Katarina Ilicic, Martin Dierolf, Benedikt Günther, Dietrich W M Walsh, Ernst Schmid, Elena Eggl, Klaus Achterhold, Bernhard Gleich, Stephanie E Combs, Michael Molls, Thomas E Schmid, Franz Pfeiffer, Jan J Wilkens
X-ray microbeam radiotherapy can potentially widen the therapeutic window due to a geometrical redistribution of the dose. However, high requirements on photon flux, beam collimation, and system stability restrict its application mainly to large-scale, cost-intensive synchrotron facilities. With a unique laser-based Compact Light Source using inverse Compton scattering, we investigated the translation of this promising radiotherapy technique to a machine of future clinical relevance. We performed in vitro colony-forming assays and chromosome aberration tests in normal tissue cells after microbeam irradiation compared to homogeneous irradiation at the same mean dose using 25 keV X-rays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049116/basic-translational-development-of-forthcoming-opioid-and-nonopioid-targeted-pain-therapeutics
#17
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Ajay Yekkirala, Tony L Yaksh
Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048937/executive-summary-of-the-nhlbi-workshop-report-leveraging-current-scientific-advances-to-better-understand-sarcoidosis-variability-and-improve-outcomes
#18
Lisa A Maier, Elliott D Crouser, William J Martin, Jerry Eu
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung; it is associated with significant disparities, more commonly impacting those in the prime of their lives, age 20-50, with a second peak after age 60, Blacks, and women. However, the burden of disease, the ability to diagnose and prognose organ involvement and course, as well as specific treatment and management options, and disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. As a result, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) undertook a sarcoidosis workshop "Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes" to help address these issues by defining the scientific and clinical priorities to improve sarcoidosis care...
October 19, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048929/the-effect-of-hamstring-tendon-autograft-harvest-on-the-restoration-of-knee-stability-in-the-setting-of-concurrent-anterior-cruciate-ligament-and-medial-collateral-ligament-injuries
#19
Thomas J Kremen, Landon S Polakof, Sean S Rajaee, Trevor J Nelson, Melodie F Metzger
BACKGROUND: A hamstring autograft is commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR); however, there is evidence to suggest that the tendons harvested may contribute to medial knee instability. HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the gracilis (G) and semitendinosus (ST) tendons significantly contribute to sagittal, coronal, and/or rotational knee stability in the setting of ACLR with a concurrent partial medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048884/nanotechnology-for-multimodal-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#20
Wenpei Fan, Bryant Yung, Peng Huang, Xiaoyuan Chen
The complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of tumors seriously undermine the therapeutic potential of treatment. Therefore, the current trend in clinical research has gradually shifted from a focus on monotherapy to combination therapy for enhanced treatment efficacy. More importantly, the cooperative enhancement interactions between several types of monotherapy contribute to the naissance of multimodal synergistic therapy, which results in remarkable superadditive (namely "1 + 1 > 2") effects, stronger than any single therapy or their theoretical combination...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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