keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Translational

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236356/proteomics-in-pathology
#1
Rémi Longuespée, Rita Casadonte, Kristina Schwamborn, David Reuss, Daniel Kazdal, Katharina Kriegsmann, Andreas von Deimling, Wilko Weichert, Peter Schirmacher, Jörg Kriegsmann, Mark Kriegsmann
Proteomic approaches are of growing importance in the biologist's toolbox. It greatly benefited from past and recent advances in sampling, chemical processing, mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation and data processing. MS-based analysis of proteins is now on the process to be translated in pathology for objective diagnoses. In this viewpoint we present the workflows that we think are the most promising for applications in pathology. We also comment what we think are prerequisites for a successful translational implementation...
December 13, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236321/murine-models-of-osteosarcoma-a-piece-of-the-translational-puzzle
#2
Mannu K Walia, Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Anthony J Mutsaers, T John Martin, Carl R Walkley
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone in children and young adults. Despite extensive research efforts, there has been no significant improvement in patient outcome for many years. An improved understanding of the biology of this cancer and how genes frequently mutated contribute to OS may help improve outcomes for patients. Whilst our knowledge of the mutational burden of OS is approaching saturation, our understanding of how these mutations contribute to OS initiation and maintenance is less clear...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236262/studying-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-in-mammalian-cells-using-a-multicolored-bioluminescence-based-reporter-system
#3
Andrew Nickless, Zhongsheng You
The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway degrades aberrant transcripts containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) and also regulates the levels of many normal mRNAs containing NMD-inducing features. The activity of this pathway varies considerably in different cell types and can change in response to developmental and environmental cues. Modulating NMD activity represents a potential therapeutic avenue for certain genetic disorders and cancers. Simple reporter systems capable of faithfully assessing NMD activity in mammalian cells greatly facilitate both basic and translational research on NMD...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236252/characterizing-mrna-sequence-motifs-in-the-3-utr-using-gfp-reporter-constructs
#4
Rene Geissler, Andrew Grimson
GFP reporter constructs are widely used as an expression system for studying the function of regulatory sequence motifs (cis elements) within the 3'-UTRs (3' untranslated regions) of mRNAs. Here we provide details on the characterization of individual sequence motifs, which typically regulate mRNA decay and translation. In addition, we describe methods to identify trans factors required for the function of such elements. To facilitate efficient identification of novel functional 3'-UTR motifs, we describe a screening approach based on dual-color fluorescence reporter constructs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236251/par-clip-for-discovering-target-sites-of-rna-binding-proteins
#5
Aitor Garzia, Pavel Morozov, Marcin Sajek, Cindy Meyer, Thomas Tuschl
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) establish posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTGR) by coordinating the maturation, editing, transport, stability, and translation of cellular RNAs. A variety of experimental approaches have been developed to characterize the RNAs associated with RBPs in vitro as well as in vivo. Our laboratory developed Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which in combination with next-generation sequencing enables the identification of RNA targets of RBPs at a nucleotide-level resolution...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235977/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-through-interacting-with-ns5a
#6
Zhubing Li, Qiang Liu
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease actively involved in regulating lipid homeostasis. Although PCSK9 has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and replication, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. Moreover, whether PCSK9 regulates HCV translation and assembly/secretion has not been determined. We therefore further studied the effects of PCSK9 on the HCV life cycle. We showed that PCSK9 did not affect HCV translation or assembly/secretion...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235574/ten-principles-of-heterochromatin-formation-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Robin C Allshire, Hiten D Madhani
Heterochromatin is a key architectural feature of eukaryotic chromosomes, which endows particular genomic domains with specific functional properties. The capacity of heterochromatin to restrain the activity of mobile elements, isolate DNA repair in repetitive regions and ensure accurate chromosome segregation is crucial for maintaining genomic stability. Nucleosomes at heterochromatin regions display histone post-translational modifications that contribute to developmental regulation by restricting lineage-specific gene expression...
December 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235571/the-hypoxia-marker-caix-is-prognostic-in-the-uk-phase-iii-vortex-biobank-cohort-an-important-resource-for-translational-research-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#8
Laura Forker, Piers Gaunt, Stefano Sioletic, Patrick Shenjere, Robert Potter, Darren Roberts, Joely Irlam, Helen Valentine, David Hughes, Ana Hughes, Lucinda Billingham, Rob Grimer, Beatrice Seddon, Ananya Choudhury, Martin Robinson, Catharine M L West
BACKGROUND: Despite high metastasis rates, adjuvant/neoadjuvant systemic therapy for localised soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not used routinely. Progress requires tailoring therapy to features of tumour biology, which need exploration in well-documented cohorts. Hypoxia has been linked to metastasis in STS and is targetable. This study evaluated hypoxia prognostic markers in the phase III adjuvant radiotherapy VorteX trial. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour biopsies, fresh tumour/normal tissue and blood were collected before radiotherapy...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235492/proteome-wide-analysis-of-lysine-2-hydroxyisobutyrylation-in-developing-rice-oryza-sativa-seeds
#9
Xiaoxi Meng, Shihai Xing, Loida M Perez, Xiaojun Peng, Qingyong Zhao, Edilberto D Redoña, Cailin Wang, Zhaohua Peng
Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation is a recently identified protein post-translational modification that is known to affect the association between histone and DNA. However, non-histone protein lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation remains largely unexplored. Utilizing antibody-based affinity enrichment and nano-HPLC/MS/MS analyses of 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation peptides, we efficaciously identified 9,916 2-hydroxyisobutyryl lysine sites on 2,512 proteins in developing rice seeds, representing the first lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome dataset in plants...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235459/pi3k%C3%AE-activates-e2f1-synthesis-in-response-to-mrna-translation-stress
#10
Sivakumar Vadivel Gnanasundram, Slovénie Pyndiah, Chrysoula Daskalogianni, Kate Armfield, Karin Nylander, Joanna B Wilson, Robin Fåhraeus
The c-myc oncogene stimulates ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis to promote cellular growth. However, the pathway by which cells sense and restore dysfunctional mRNA translation and how this is linked to cell proliferation and growth is not known. We here show that mRNA translation stress in cis triggered by the gly-ala repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA1, results in PI3Kδ-dependent induction of E2F1 mRNA translation with the consequent activation of c-Myc and cell proliferation...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235215/cloning-free-template-dna-preparation-for-cell-free-protein-synthesis-via-two-step-pcr-using-versatile-primer-designs-with-short-3-utr
#11
Mika Nomoto, Yasuomi Tada
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems largely retain the endogenous translation machinery of the host organism, making them highly applicable for proteomics analysis of diverse biological processes. However, laborious and time-consuming cloning procedures hinder progress with CFPS systems. Herein, we report the development of a rapid and efficient two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to prepare linear DNA templates for a wheat germ CFPS system. We developed a novel, effective short 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) sequence that facilitates translation...
December 13, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235198/substrate-interaction-defects-in-histidyl-trna-synthetase-linked-to-dominant-axonal-peripheral-neuropathy
#13
Jamie A Abbott, Rebecca Meyer-Schuman, Vincenzo Lupo, Shawna Feely, Inès Mademan, Stephanie N Oprescu, Laurie B Griffin, M Antonia Alberti, Carlos Casasnovas, Sharon Aharoni, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Stephan Züchner, Peter De Jonghe, Jonathan Baets, Michael E Shy, Carmen Espinós, Borries Demeler, Anthony Antonellis, Christopher Francklyn
Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) ligates histidine to cognate tRNA molecules, which is required for protein translation. Mutations in HARS cause the dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 2W (CMT2W); however, the precise molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we investigated three HARS missense mutations associated with CMT2W (p.Tyr330Cys, p.Ser356Asn, and p.Val155Gly). The three mutations localize to the HARS catalytic domain and failed to complement deletion of the yeast ortholog (HTS1)...
December 12, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235176/roles-of-elusive-translational-gtpases-come-to-light-and-inform-on-the-process-of-ribosome-biogenesis-in-bacteria
#14
REVIEW
Michelle R Gibbs, Kurt Fredrick
Protein synthesis relies on several translational GTPases (trGTPases), related proteins that couple the hydrolysis of GTP to specific molecular events on the ribosome. Most bacterial trGTPases, including IF2, EF-Tu, EF-G, and RF3, play well-known roles in translation. The cellular functions of LepA (also termed EF4) and BipA (also termed TypA), on the other hand, have remained enigmatic. Recent studies provide compelling in vivo evidence that LepA and BipA function in biogenesis of the 30S and 50S subunit, respectively...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235170/scaling-up-integrated-early-childhood-development-programs-lessons-from-four-countries
#15
R Pérez-Escamilla, V Cavallera, M Tomlinson, T Dua
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235102/eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-up-regulates-the-expression-of-proteins-implicated-in-cell-migration-and-cancer-cell-metastasis
#16
Jianling Xie, Kaikai Shen, Roman V Lenchine, Lee A Gethings, Paul J Trim, Marten F Snel, Ying Zhou, Justin W Kenney, Makoto Kamei, Marina Kochetkova, Xuemin Wang, Christopher G Proud
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) negative regulates the elongation phase of mRNA translation and hence protein synthesis. Increasing evidence indicates that eEF2K plays an important role in the survival and migration of cancer cells and in tumour progression. As demonstrated by two-dimensional wound-healing and three-dimensional transwell invasion assays, knocking down or inhibiting eEF2K in cancer cells impairs migration and invasion of cancer cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of eEF2K or knocking down eEF2 (the substrate of eEF2K) accelerates wound healing and invasion...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234972/staging-treatment-and-future-approaches-of-gallbladder-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Sanjeev Kumar Shukla, Govind Singh, K S Shahi, Bhuvan, Prabhat Pant
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the bile ducts and third most common gastrointestinal malignant in the world for public health. Its relatively low incidence and confused symptoms result in advanced disease at the time of presentation, contributing to poor prognosis and reduced survival associated with this disease. The main function of the gallbladder is to store excreted bile acids from the liver in preparation for a meal. Its main risk factor is prolonged exposure to biliary calculations, although bacterial infections and other inflammatory conditions are associated...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234936/a-generic-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-therapeutic-proteins-in-pk-sim
#18
Christoph Niederalt, Lars Kuepfer, Juri Solodenko, Thomas Eissing, Hans-Ulrich Siegmund, Michael Block, Stefan Willmann, Jörg Lippert
Proteins are an increasingly important class of drugs used as therapeutic as well as diagnostic agents. A generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in order to represent at whole body level the fundamental mechanisms driving the distribution and clearance of large molecules like therapeutic proteins. The model was built as an extension of the PK-Sim model for small molecules incorporating (i) the two-pore formalism for drug extravasation from blood plasma to interstitial space, (ii) lymph flow, (iii) endosomal clearance and (iv) protection from endosomal clearance by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated recycling as especially relevant for antibodies...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#19
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234833/towards-a-generic-physiologically-based-kinetic-model-to-predict-in-vivo-uterotrophic-responses-in-rats-by-reverse-dosimetry-of-in-vitro-estrogenicity-data
#20
Mengying Zhang, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Eric Fabian, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Jochem Louisse
Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-based reverse dosimetry is a promising tool for the prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity using in vitro concentration-response data. In the present study, the potential of this approach to predict the dose-dependent increase of uterus weight in rats upon exposure to estrogenic chemicals was assessed. In vitro concentration-response data of 17β-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) obtained in the MCF-7/BOS proliferation assay, the U2OS ER-CALUX assay and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, were translated into in vivo dose-response data in rat, using a PBK model with a minimum number of in vitro and in silico determined parameter values...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
keyword
keyword
9216
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"