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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#1
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932223/relationship-between-psychophysical-measures-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-density%C3%A2-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-measures-of-cone-density%C3%A2-in-glaucoma
#2
Juliane Matlach, Pádraig J Mulholland, Marketa Cilkova, Reena Chopra, Nilpa Shah, Tony Redmond, Steven C Dakin, David F Garway-Heath, Roger S Anderson
PURPOSE: Considerable between-individual variation in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density exists in healthy individuals, making identification of change from normal to glaucoma difficult. In ascertaining local cone-to-RGC density ratios in healthy individuals, we wished to investigate the usefulness of objective cone density estimates as a surrogate of baseline RGC density in glaucoma patients, and thus a more efficient way of identifying early changes. DESIGN: Exploratory cohort study...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931654/the-response-of-the-microcirculation-to-mechanical-support-of-the-heart-in-critical-illness
#3
REVIEW
Sakir Akin, Atila Kara, Corstiaan A den Uil, Can Ince
Critical illness associated with cardiac pump failure results in reduced tissue perfusion in all organs and occurs in various conditions such as sepsis, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices can be used to maintain organ perfusion in patients with cardiogenic shock and decompensated chronic heart failure. However, correction of global hemodynamic parameters by MCS does not always cause a parallel improvement in microcirculatory perfusion and oxygenation of the organ systems, a condition referred to as a loss of hemodynamic coherence between macro- and microcirculation (MC)...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930744/interactions-of-calcium-fluctuations-during-cardiomyocyte-contraction-with-real-time-camp-dynamics-detected-by-fret
#4
Julia U Sprenger, Nadja I Bork, Jonas Herting, Thomas H Fischer, Viacheslav O Nikolaev
Calcium (Ca2+) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) play a critical role for cardiac excitation-contraction-coupling. Both second messengers are known to interact with each other, for example via Ca2+-dependent modulation of phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) and adenylyl cyclase 5/6 (AC 5/6) activities, which is supposed to occur especially at the local level in distinct subcellular microdomains. Currently, many studies analyze global and local cAMP signaling and its regulation in resting cardiomyocytes devoid of electrical stimulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930724/efficient-avoidance-of-the-penalty-zone-in-human-eye-movements
#5
Markku Kilpeläinen, Jan Theeuwes
People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930468/the-appropriative-retractors-for-genioplasty
#6
Mingcan Zhao, Guomin Wu
Mental nerve (MN) injury is the most common complications of genioplasty; to protect the MN and oral mucosa, the authors invent and validate the appropriative retractors for genioplasty, and which can avoid the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip, chin, and the vestibular gingiva of the mandibular incisor from paresthesia or dysesthesia. The patent application for the appropriative retractors for genioplasty is already submitted (Patent No 201610164563.3, China). The retractors provide a better surgical visual field and improve the operation efficiency while reducing the risk of surgery...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930297/measuring-spectroscopy-and-magnetism-of-extracted-and-intracellular-magnetosomes-using-soft-x-ray-ptychography
#7
Xiaohui Zhu, Adam P Hitchcock, Dennis A Bazylinski, Peter Denes, John Joseph, Ulysses Lins, Stefano Marchesini, Hung-Wei Shiu, Tolek Tyliszczak, David A Shapiro
Characterizing the chemistry and magnetism of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is an important aspect of understanding the biomineralization mechanism and function of the chains of magnetosomes (Fe3O4 nanoparticles) found in such species. Images and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of magnetosomes extracted from, and magnetosomes in, whole Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 cells have been recorded using soft X-ray ptychography at the Fe 2p edge. A spatial resolution of 7 nm is demonstrated. Precursor-like and immature magnetosome phases in a whole MV-1 cell were visualized, and their Fe 2p spectra were measured...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928960/research-advances-in-molecular-modeling-in-cyclodextrins
#8
Qianqian Zhao, Weixiang Zhang, Runmiao Wang, Yitao Wang, Defang Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Cyclodextrins (CDs), as one type of the novel pharmaceutical excipients, have been widely used in drug delivery and pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decades, a large amount of molecular modeling studies in CDs were reported for profound understanding of structural, dynamic and energetic features of CDs systems. Thus, this review is focused on qualitative and quantitative analysis of research outputs on molecular modeling in CDs. METHODS: The original data were collected from Web of Science and analyzed by scientific knowledge mapping tools, including Citespace, Science of Science, VOSviewer, GPSvisualizer and Gephi software...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928419/bilateral-concurrent-eye-examination-with-a-head-mounted-perimeter-for-diagnosing-functional-visual-loss
#9
Toshiaki Goseki, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Nobuyuki Shoji
The authors here report a case series where bilateral concurrent eye examination, using a head-mounted perimeter (imo®), was employed to facilitate diagnosis of functional visual loss, as regular ophthalmological tests were ineffective. Subjects (11-year-old female, 15-year-old male, and 24-year-old male) were diagnosed with unilateral functional visual loss by using the imo®, at the Kitasato University hospital. The results of the imo® and those of Goldmann perimetry or Humphrey Field Analyzer II differed for all subjects, which is indicative of potential functional visual loss...
December 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928412/posterior-vitreous-detachment-associated-with-non-arteritic-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy
#10
Bailey Shen, Peter W MacIntosh
It has been hypothesised that non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy is caused by vitreous traction on the optic nerve. The authors recently took care of a patient who developed a posterior vitreous detachment shortly after she was diagnosed with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy. Her visual field spontaneously improved after the posterior vitreous detachment. This case report provides some evidence that non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy, vitreous traction, and posterior vitreous detachment may be related...
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928405/trauma-associated-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#11
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Jane W Chan, Anthony C Arnold
A 19-year-old man developed visual loss in the left eye 1 day following a martial arts kick to the head. Vision worsened over a week, when visual loss was noted in the right eye without further trauma. The fundus was initially normal, but visual field testing showed temporal depression right eye with diffuse depression left eye, and traumatic chiasmopathy was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated an enlarged chiasm with intrinsic signal abnormality, but no enhancement. Treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy did not result in visual improvement...
August 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928403/increased-prevalence-of-optic-disc-drusen-after-papilloedema-from-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-on-the-possible-formation-of-optic-disc-drusen
#12
Faith A Birnbaum, Gabriella M Johnson, Lenworth N Johnson, Bokkwan Jun, Jason T Machan
This is a 25-year observational retrospective review of 372 consecutive participants with optic disc drusen or resolved papilloedema from idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The prevalence of optic disc drusen at 19% among eyes with resolved papilloedema was approximately 10 times higher and significantly increased (p < 0.001) as compared with the occurrence in the general population. Eyes with both resolved papilloedema and optic disc drusen had similar visual acuity and visual field outcome as compared with resolved papilloedema alone...
August 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928401/idiopathic-acquired-temporal-wedge-visual-field-defects
#13
Michael J Gilhooley, Clare L Fraser, Sui Wong, Simon J Hickman, Gordon T Plant
Our aim is to report 13 unusual cases of acquired, temporal sectoral scotomas. Such stationary "wedge" field defects have been reported previously in cases of presumed congenital nasal hypoplasia of the optic disc and as a complication of vitreoretinal surgery. To our knowledge, the literature provides no reports of similar defects occurring spontaneously. This is a descriptive clinical case series of 13 patients presenting with sub-acute monocular temporal visual field loss. All were clinically assessed and investigated with Goldmann perimetry, automated Humphrey visual fields, retinal optical coherence tomography, orbital ultrasound, and standard and multi-focal electroretinography...
August 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928400/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-a-patient-with-optic-atrophy-after-non-arteritic-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy
#14
Tomoaki Higashiyama, Yusuke Ichiyama, Sanae Muraki, Yasuhiro Nishida, Masahito Ohji
A 75-year-old female noticed a lower visual field (VF) defect in the right eye. A diagnosis of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was made. The lower VF defect in the right eye did not change after onset. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiograms on the disc and the macula showed decreased retinal perfusion in the upper retina of the right eye. Retinal nerve fibre layer loss and ganglion cell complex loss in the upper retina were also seen in the right eye. OCT angiography could non-invasively detect the decrease of the retinal perfusion due to NAION...
June 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928399/spectrum-and-clinical-course-of-visual-field-abnormalities-in-ethambutol-toxicity
#15
Thomas Mendel, David Fleischman, R Rand Allingham, Henry Tseng, David A Chesnutt
Visual toxicities from ethambutol are rare but represent one of the few causes of non-glaucomatous and non-compressive bitemporal hemianopsia. The authors present a six-patient case series illustrating variable clinical presentation and reversibility of visual loss in patients treated with ethambutol for Mycobacterium avium complex, including four patients who presented with visual field defects suggestive of bitemporal hemianopsia. Two additional patients were being followed for glaucoma, developed visual field defects with ethambutol treatment, and subsequently recovered with cessation of drug...
June 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928388/syphilitic-optic-neuropathy-re-emerging-cases-over-a-2-year-period
#16
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Pisit Preechawat, Kavin Vanikieti
We report 7 cases of syphilitic optic neuropathy during a 2-year period. All patients were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six cases (86%) initially presented with swollen optic disc either unilaterally or bilaterally. Blind spot enlargement was the most common type of visual field defect. Final visual acuity of at least 20/25 was achieved together with visual field improvement and resolution of swollen optic disc. Optic nerve involvement can be the first manifestation of syphilis and HIV co-infection...
April 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928375/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-treatment-for-post-stroke-homonymous-hemianopia-screening-and-recruitment
#17
Fiona J Rowe, Elizabeth J Conroy, P Graham Barton, Emma Bedson, Emma Cwiklinski, Caroline Dodridge, Avril Drummond, Marta Garcia-Finana, Claire Howard, Stevie Johnson, Claire MacIntosh, Carmel P Noonan, Alex Pollock, Janet Rockliffe, Catherine M Sackley, Tracey Shipman
The authors report the screening process and recruitment figures for the VISION (Visual Impairment in Stroke; Intervention Or Not) trial. This is a prospective, randomised, single-blinded, three-arm controlled trial in 14 UK acute hospital stroke units. Stroke teams identified stroke survivors suspected as having homonymous hemianopia. Interventions included Fresnel prisms versus visual search training versus standard care (information only). Primary outcome was change in visual field assessment from baseline to 26 weeks...
February 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927783/spectral-and-spatial-tuning-of-onset-and-offset-response-functions-in-auditory-cortical-fields-a1-and-cl-of-rhesus-macaques
#18
Deepa L Ramamurthy, Gregg H Recanzone
The mammalian auditory cortex is necessary for spectral and spatial processing of acoustic stimuli. Most physiological studies of single neurons in the auditory cortex have focused on the onset and sustained portions of evoked responses, but there have been far fewer studies on the relationship between onset and offset responses. In the current study, we compared spectral and spatial tuning of onset and offset responses of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) and the caudolateral (CL) belt area of awake macaque monkeys...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927589/pilot-study-of-a-patient-centered-radiology-process-model
#19
J Shannon Swan, Vanessa F Furtado, Lisa A Keller, Judith Borsody Lotti, Catherine A Saltalamacchia, Inga T Lennes, Gloria M Salazar
PURPOSE: The Radiology Process Model (RPM) was previously described in terms of its conceptual basis and proposed survey items. The current study describes the first pilot application of the RPM in the field and the results of initial psychometric analysis. METHODS: We used an Institutional Review Board-approved pilot RPM survey in 100 patients having outpatient interventional radiology procedures. The 24 survey items had 4 or 5 levels of severity. We assessed for missing data, items that patients found confusing, any suggestions by patients for additional items and clarity of items from patient feedback...
December 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927083/measurement-of-peripheral-vision-reaction-time-identifies-white-matter-disruption-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Kyle B Womack, Christopher Paliotta, Jeremy F Strain, Johnson S Ho, Yosef S Skolnick, William W Lytton, L Christine Turtzo, Roderick McColl, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Peter Bergold
This study examined whether peripheral vision reaction time (PVRT) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) correlate with white matter abnormalities in centroaxial structures and impairments in neuropsychological testing. Within 24 hours after mTBI, crossed reaction times (CRT), uncrossed reaction times (URT) and crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) were measured in 23 patients using a laptop computer that displayed visual stimuli predominantly to either the left or right visual field of the retina...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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