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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926646/vascular-hypoperfusion-in-acute-optic-neuritis-is-a-potentially-new-neurovascular-model-for-demyelinating-diseases
#1
Ta-Ching Chen, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Chao-Wen Lin, Chung-May Yang, Chang-Hao Yang, I-Hung Lin, Pao-Yang Chen, Jung-Yu Cheng, Fung-Rong Hu
PURPOSE: Optic neuritis is highly correlated with multiple sclerosis and is a major cause of acute visual loss and long-term neuronal degeneration. Primary cerebral hypoperfusion has been reported in brain demyelinating diseases. This study investigated whether peripapillary perfusion is changed in patients with acute optic neuritis (AON). METHODS: This three-year cohort study was conducted from September 1 2012, to August 31, 2015. Two hundred and forty-one patients with non-glaucomatous acute optic neuropathy were screened, and 42 non-highly myopic patients who had suffered their first episode of unilaterally idiopathic AON were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#2
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925742/visual-search-performance-in-patients-with-vision-impairment-a-systematic-review
#3
Cassia Senger, Maria Rita Rodrigues Alves Margarido, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Ligia Issa De Fendi, André Messias, Jayter Silva Paula
PURPOSE: Patients with visual impairment are constantly facing challenges to achieve an independent and productive life, which depends upon both a good visual discrimination and search capacities. Given that visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and could be used as an index of the overall visual function, we investigated the relationship between vision impairment and visual search performance. METHODS: A comprehensive search was undertaken using electronic PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases from January 1980 to December 2016, applying the following terms: "visual search", "visual search performance", "visual impairment", "visual exploration", "visual field", "hemianopia", "search time", "vision lost", "visual loss", and "low vision"...
September 19, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925373/visualization-and-automatic-detection-of-defect-distribution-in-gan-atomic-structure-from-sampling-moir%C3%A3-phase
#4
Qinghua Wang, Shien Ri, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masako Kodera, Kyoichi Suguro, Naoto Miyashita
Quantitative detection of defects in atomic structures is of great significance to evaluating product quality and exploring quality improvement process. In this study, a Fourier transform filtered sampling Moire technique was proposed to visualize and detect defects in atomic arrays in a large field of view. Defect distributions, defect numbers and defect densities could be visually and quantitatively determined from a single atomic structure image at low cost. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was verified from numerical simulations...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924661/correlative-sim-storm-microscopy
#5
O Burri, T Laroche, R Guiet, A Seitz
The ability to specifically label subcellular structures or even proteins of interest in combination with the ability to look at live specimens turned fluorescence light microscopy into an invaluable tool. However, conventional light microscopy is diffraction limited, which restricts the lateral resolution to around 200 nm laterally and 600-800 nm axially. In 2014, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner for the development of super-resolved fluorescent microscopy techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924446/use-of-intravitreal-dexamethasone-in-a-case-of-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#6
Raffaele Nuzzi, Francesca Monteu
Nowadays there is no unique and well-established treatment for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, despite being the main acute pathology that affects the optic nerve in the elderly population and often resulting in a significant loss of visual acuity. The effectiveness of oral steroids is still under debate in the international literature, although many studies show that patients treated with high doses of systemic corticosteroids have a significantly higher chance of improved visual acuity and visual fields...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924236/in-vivo-mouse-and-live-cell-sted-microscopy-of-neuronal-actin-plasticity-using-far-red-emitting-fluorescent-proteins
#7
Waja Wegner, Peter Ilgen, Carola Gregor, Joris van Dort, Alexander C Mott, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The study of proteins in dendritic processes within the living brain is mainly hampered by the diffraction limit of light. STED microscopy is so far the only far-field light microscopy technique to overcome the diffraction limit and resolve dendritic spine plasticity at superresolution (nanoscopy) in the living mouse. After having tested several far-red fluorescent proteins in cell culture we report here STED microscopy of the far-red fluorescent protein mNeptune2, which showed best results for our application to superresolve actin filaments at a resolution of ~80 nm, and to observe morphological changes of actin in the cortex of a living mouse...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924128/igg4-related-hypophysitis-with-subtle-hypopituitarism-in-an-elderly-diabetic-patient-is-treatment-or-observation-preferable
#8
Motoki Kawasaki, Motoyoshi Tsujino, Fuminori Sato, Maya Sakurada, Kenji Nishida, Takayasu Kise, Yuko Hijioka, Mitsugu Ishizawa, Kazuaki Enatsu, Yoshihiro Ogawa
A 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus presented with an enlarged pituitary stalk in 2014. IgG4-related parotitis and submandibular sialoadenitis were diagnosed in 2012. He denied any symptoms related to a pituitary mass. His visual field was intact, and his hypopituitarism was subtle. The serum IgG4 level was elevated. A lip biopsy revealed strong fibrosis and hyper-infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Based on these findings, IgG4-related hypophysitis was diagnosed. The patient was carefully followed without specific intervention...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924008/primary-generators-of-visually-evoked-field-potentials-recorded-in-the-macaque-auditory-cortex
#9
Yoshinao Kajikawa, John F Smiley, Charles E Schroeder
Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, while field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923763/hemispheric-specialization-for-global-and-local-processing-a-direct-comparison-of-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-stimuli
#10
Sanne G Brederoo, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Monicque M Lorist, Frans W Cornelissen
It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli...
September 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923585/the-genetics-of-congenital-aniridia-a-guide-for-the-ophthalmologist
#11
Erlend S Landsend, Øygunn A Utheim, Hilde R Pedersen, Neil Lagali, Rigmor C Baraas, Tor P Utheim
Congenital aniridia is a rare panocular disease caused by fundamental disturbances in the development of the eye, characterized primarily by hypoplasia of the iris and the retinal fovea. Severe secondary complications such as keratopathy, cataract, and glaucoma are common and often lead to considerable visual impairment or blindness. Many complications in aniridia patients are difficult to treat and present a challenge for the ophthalmologist. Increasingly, associated non-ocular features of the disease are also being recognised...
September 15, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#12
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922647/the-self-survives-extinction-self-association-biases-attention-in-patients-with-visual-extinction
#13
Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
People show biases to self-related information on a range of tasks. Key but controversial questions are whether self-related information is processed without attention, and whether self-related information determines what is attended. We examined this using patients showing visual extinction. We had patients associated shapes with themselves or their best friend prior to carrying out a shape identification task. We demonstrate that extinction was modulated by whether patients associated stimuli with themselves or their best friend...
August 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922427/knowledge-evolution-in-physics-research-an-analysis-of-bibliographic-coupling-networks
#14
Wenyuan Liu, Andrea Nanetti, Siew Ann Cheong
Even as we advance the frontiers of physics knowledge, our understanding of how this knowledge evolves remains at the descriptive levels of Popper and Kuhn. Using the American Physical Society (APS) publications data sets, we ask in this paper how new knowledge is built upon old knowledge. We do so by constructing year-to-year bibliographic coupling networks, and identify in them validated communities that represent different research fields. We then visualize their evolutionary relationships in the form of alluvial diagrams, and show how they remain intact through APS journal splits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922355/image-identification-from-brain-activity-using-the-population-receptive-field-model
#15
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF) approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922122/semi-automatic-generation-of-stream-surfaces-via-sketching
#16
Jun Tao, Chaoli Wang
We present a semi-automatic approach for stream surface generation. Our approach is based on the conjecture that good seeding curves can be inferred from a set of streamlines. Given a set of densely traced streamlines over the flow field, we design a sketch-based interface that allows users to describe their perceived flow patterns through drawing simple strokes directly on top of the streamline visualization results. Based on the 2D stroke, we identify a 3D seeding curve and generate a stream surface that captures the flow pattern of streamlines at the outermost layer...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922115/colour-constancy-beyond-the-classical-receptive-field
#17
Arash Akbarinia, C Alejandro Parraga
The problem of removing illuminant variations to preserve the colours of objects (colour constancy) has already been solved by the human brain using mechanisms that rely largely on centre-surround computations of local contrast. In this paper we adopt some of these biological solutions described by long known physiological findings into a simple, fully automatic, functional model (termed Adaptive Surround Modulation or ASM). In ASM, the size of a visual neuron's receptive field (RF) as well as the relationship with its surround varies according to the local contrast within the stimulus, which in turn determines the nature of the centre-surround normalisation of cortical neurons higher up in the processing chain...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922031/optic-nerve-head-characteristics-in-chronic-angle-closure-glaucoma-detected-by-swept-source-oct
#18
Dejiao Li, Taibo Li, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Haobing Wang, Elise V Taniguchi, Zi-Ning Choo, Marissa K Shoji, Scott H Greenstein, Stacey C Brauner, Angela V Turalba, Louis R Pasquale, Lucy Q Shen
PURPOSE: To compare structural features in prelaminar and laminar tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH) in chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ONH imaging was performed using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for measurements of minimum rim width at Bruch's membrane opening (BMO-MRW), horizontal, and vertical lamina cribrosa depth (LCD). Prelaminar defects, categorized as hole and wedge, and lamina cribrosa (LC) defects were identified...
September 18, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922016/high-degree-of-variability-in-reporting-of-clinical-and-patient-reported-outcomes-after-hip-arthroscopy
#19
Austin V Stone, Cale A Jacobs, T David Luo, Molly C Meadows, Shane J Nho, Allston J Stubbs, Eric C Makhni
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of intra-articular pathology is a rapidly expanding field. Outcome measures should be reported to document the efficacy of arthroscopic procedures; however, the most effective outcome measures are not established. PURPOSE: To evaluate the variability in outcomes reported after hip arthroscopy and to compare the responsiveness of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921901/structureselector-a-web-based-software-to-select-and-visualize-the-optimal-number-of-clusters-by-using-multiple-methods
#20
Yu-Long Li, Jin-Xian Liu
Inferences of population genetic structure are of great importance to the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The program STUCTURE has been widely used to infer population genetic structure. However, previous studies demonstrated that uneven sampling often leads to wrong inferences on hierarchical structure. The most widely used ΔK method tends to identify the uppermost hierarchy of population structure. Recently, four alternative statistics (MedMedK, MedMeaK, MaxMedK, MaxMeaK) were proposed, which appear to be more accurate than the previously used methods for both even and uneven sampling data...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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