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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165935/peripapillary-perfused-capillary-density-in-exfoliation-syndrome-and-exfoliation-glaucoma-versus-poag-and-healthy-controls-an-octa-study
#1
Yanin Suwan, Lawrence S Geyman, Masoud Aghsaei Fard, Apichat Tantraworasin, Toco Y Chui, Richard B Rosen, Robert Ritch
PURPOSE: To compare the peripapillary perfused capillary density (PCD) among eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS), exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and controls. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images (4.5×4.5 mm) of the optic nerve head were obtained using a commercial spectral domain OCTA system (AngioVue Avanti RTVue-XR, OptoVue, Fremont, CA)...
November 22, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163640/a-review-of-pathway-based-analysis-tools-that-visualize-genetic-variants
#2
REVIEW
Elisa Cirillo, Laurence D Parnell, Chris T Evelo
Pathway analysis is a powerful method for data analysis in genomics, most often applied to gene expression analysis. It is also promising for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data analysis, such as genome-wide association study data, because it allows the interpretation of variants with respect to the biological processes in which the affected genes and proteins are involved. Such analyses support an interactive evaluation of the possible effects of variations on function, regulation or interaction of gene products...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163338/radial-peripapillary-capillary-network-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#3
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Enrico Borrelli, Luca Agnifili, Lisa Toto, Luca Di Antonio, Alfonso Senatore, Michele Palmieri, Alessandro D'Uffizi, Paolo Carpineto
Purpose: To investigate radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Eleven patients (22 eyes) with previous diagnosis of RP and 16 age-matched healthy subjects (16 eyes) were enrolled. The diagnosis of RP was made based on both clinical features and electrophysiological examination. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography and visual field (VF)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163278/can-limitations-of-visuospatial-attention-be-circumvented-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Basil Wahn, Peter König
In daily life, humans are bombarded with visual input. Yet, their attentional capacities for processing this input are severely limited. Several studies have investigated factors that influence these attentional limitations and have identified methods to circumvent them. Here, we provide a review of these findings. We first review studies that have demonstrated limitations of visuospatial attention and investigated physiological correlates of these limitations. We then review studies in multisensory research that have explored whether limitations in visuospatial attention can be circumvented by distributing information processing across several sensory modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163117/deep-learning-predicts-correlation-between-a-functional-signature-of-higher-visual-areas-and-sparse-firing-of-neurons
#5
Chengxu Zhuang, Yulong Wang, Daniel Yamins, Xiaolin Hu
Visual information in the visual cortex is processed in a hierarchical manner. Recent studies show that higher visual areas, such as V2, V3, and V4, respond more vigorously to images with naturalistic higher-order statistics than to images lacking them. This property is a functional signature of higher areas, as it is much weaker or even absent in the primary visual cortex (V1). However, the mechanism underlying this signature remains elusive. We studied this problem using computational models. In several typical hierarchical visual models including the AlexNet, VggNet, and SHMAX, this signature was found to be prominent in higher layers but much weaker in lower layers...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163020/what-drives-bird-vision-bill-control-and-predator-detection-overshadow-flight
#6
REVIEW
Graham R Martin
Although flight is regarded as a key behavior of birds this review argues that the perceptual demands for its control are met within constraints set by the perceptual demands of two other key tasks: the control of bill (or feet) position, and the detection of food items/predators. Control of bill position, or of the feet when used in foraging, and timing of their arrival at a target, are based upon information derived from the optic flow-field in the binocular region that encompasses the bill. Flow-fields use information extracted from close to the bird using vision of relatively low spatial resolution...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162966/a-qsar-model-of-olanzapine-derivatives-as-potential-inhibitors-for-5-ht2a-receptor
#7
Pooja Mitra, Aishwarya Rastogi, Mayank Rajpoot, Ajay Kumar, Vivek Srivastava
Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental disorder, affecting about 21 million people worldwide. It is characterized by symptoms, including distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, disorganized speech, sense of self and behavior. Recently, a numbers of marketed drugs for Schizophrenia are available against dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we docked Olanzapine derivatives (collected from literature) with 5-HT2A Receptor using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162576/functional-visual-fields-a-cross-sectional-uk-study-to-determine-which-visual-field-paradigms-best-reflect-difficulty-with-mobility-function
#8
Hikmat Subhi, Keziah Latham, Joy Myint, Michael Crossland
OBJECTIVES: To develop an appropriate method of assessing visual field (VF) loss which reflects its functional consequences, this study aims to determine which method(s) of assessing VF best reflect mobility difficulty. SETTING: This cross-sectional observational study took place within a single primary care setting. Participants attended a single session at a University Eye Clinic, Cambridge, UK, with data collected by a single researcher (HS), a qualified optometrist...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162547/compact-in-line-lensfree-digital-holographic-microscope
#9
Manon Rostykus, Ferréol Soulez, Michael Unser, Christophe Moser
Phase imaging brings information about transparent samples such as biological ones. Digital holographic microscopy is a well-known method to visualize transparent samples via the phase information without any staining. Lensfree digital holographic microscopes (DHM) offer the added advantage to provide large field of views (several mm(2) and compared to several hundred μm(2)) and more compact setups that traditional DHM. In this article, a lensfree DHM is presented using a side illumination technique in order to further reduce the device size...
November 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162286/medical-management-of-a-subretinal-klebsiella-pneumoniae-abscess-with-excellent-visual-outcome-without-performing-vitrectomy
#10
A Martel, B Butet, J C Ramel, D Martiano, S Baillif
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a Klebsiella pneumoniae endogenous endophthalmitis (KPEE) of hepatic and urinary origin that was successfully treated with systemic antibiotherapy and 13 intravitreal antibiotics injections without performing a vitrectomy. PATIENT AND METHOD: Case report of a 60-year-old man with a subretinal abscess in the left eye that developed 3 days after initial presentation for K. pneumoniae bacteremia, liver abscess and urinary tract infection...
November 18, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162010/statistics-of-visual-responses-to-image-object-stimuli-from-primate-ait-neurons-to-dnn-neurons
#11
Qiulei Dong, Hong Wang, Zhanyi Hu
Under the goal-driven paradigm, Yamins et al. (2014; Yamins & DiCarlo, 2016) have shown that by optimizing only the final eight-way categorization performance of a four-layer hierarchical network, not only can its top output layer quantitatively predict IT neuron responses but its penultimate layer can also automatically predict V4 neuron responses. Currently, deep neural networks (DNNs) in the field of computer vision have reached image object categorization performance comparable to that of human beings on ImageNet, a data set that contains 1...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161268/nucleic-acid-purification-from-plants-animals-and-microbes-in-under-30-seconds
#12
Yiping Zou, Michael Glenn Mason, Yuling Wang, Eugene Wee, Conny Turni, Patrick J Blackall, Matt Trau, Jose Ramon Botella
Nucleic acid amplification is a powerful molecular biology tool, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively cumbersome methods required to extract nucleic acids from biological samples. To address this issue, we investigated a variety of materials for their suitability for nucleic acid capture and purification. We report here that untreated cellulose-based paper can rapidly capture nucleic acids within seconds and retain them during a single washing step, while contaminants present in complex biological samples are quickly removed...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161237/bilateral-visual-field-defects-in-a-patient-treated-with-the-mek-and-braf-inhibitors-trametinib-and-dabrafenib-for-melanoma-of-unknown-origin
#13
Jakob Siedlecki, Marc Mackert, Armin Wolf, Carola Berking, Siegfried G Priglinger, Kirsten Eibl-Lindner
INTRODUCTION: Although the introduction of BRAF and MEK inhibitors has greatly enhanced treatment possibilities in advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, class-related toxicities are rather frequent and often involve the eye. Ophthalmologic side effects most commonly include central/diffuse serous retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. Affection of the optic nerve head however has not been described clinically. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old man presented in our eye clinic with bilateral blurred vision...
April 17, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160917/visualization-of-calcium-phosphate-cement-in-teeth-by-zero-echo-time-1-h-mri-at-high-field
#14
Weiqiang Dou, Simone Mastrogiacomo, Andor Veltien, Hamdan S Alghamdi, X Frank Walboomers, Arend Heerschap
(1) H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by a zero echo time (ZTE) sequence is an excellent method to image teeth. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) materials are applied in the restoration of tooth lesions, but it has not yet been investigated whether they can be detected by computed tomography (CT) or MRI. The aim of this study was to optimize high-field ZTE imaging to enable the visualization of a new CPC formulation implanted in teeth and to apply this in the assessment of its decomposition in vivo. CPC was implanted in three human and three goat teeth ex vivo and in three goat teeth in vivo...
November 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#15
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160549/a-need-for-standardization-in-visual-acuity-measurement
#16
Hina Patel, Nathan Congdon, Glenn Strauss, Charles Lansingh
Standardization of terminologies and methods is increasingly important in all fields including ophthalmology, especially currently when research and new technology are rapidly driving improvements in medicine. This review highlights the range of notations used by vision care professionals around the world for vision measurement, and the challenges resulting from this practice. The global community is urged to move toward a uniform standard.
September 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160411/spirometry-in-schoolchildren-for-field-studies-does-testing-on-different-days-change-the-result-of-the-exam
#17
Janaina Cristina Scalco, Rafaela Coelho Minsky, Camila Isabel Santos Schivinski
OBJECTIVE: To analyze if there is variation in the results of spirometry performed by healthy schoolchildren on different days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with healthy schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years old, in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Prepubescent children, non-athletes, born at full term, without cardiorespiratory, rheumatic, musculoskeletal, neurological and visual or hearing deficit were included. The child's health was assessed by a health questionnaire and by the survey International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood...
November 13, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159998/summary-of-the-first-inaugural-joint-meeting-of-the-international-consortium-for-scoliosis-genetics-and-the-international-consortium-for-vertebral-anomalies-and-scoliosis-march-16-18-2017-dallas-texas
#18
Philip F Giampietro, Olivier Pourquie, Cathy Raggio, Shiro Ikegawa, Peter D Turnpenny, Ryan Gray, Sally L Dunwoodie, Christina A Gurnett, Benjamin Alman, Kenneth Cheung, Kenro Kusumi, Nancy Hadley-Miller, Carol A Wise
Scoliosis represents the most common musculoskeletal disorder in children and affects approximately 3% of the world population. Scoliosis is separated into two major phenotypic classifications: congenital and idiopathic. Idiopathic scoliosis is defined as a curvature of the spine of 10° or greater visualized on plane radiograph and does not have associated vertebral malformations (VM). "Congenital" scoliosis (CS) due to malformations in vertebrae is frequently associated with other birth defects. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis of both conditions...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159420/smoothness-of-stimulus-motion-can-affect-vection-strength
#19
Yoshitaka Fujii, Takeharu Seno, Robert S Allison
We examined the effect of the smoothness of motion on vection strength. The smoothness of stimulus motion was modulated by varying the number of frames comprising the movement. In this study, a horizontal grating translated through 360° of phase in 1 s divided into steps of 3, 4, 6, 12, 20, 30, or 60 frames. We hypothesized that smoother motion should induce stronger vection because the smoother stimulus is more natural and contains more motion energy. We examined this effect of frame number on vection for both downward (Experiment 1) and expanding (Experiment 2) optical flow...
November 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158816/dual-targeting-theranostic-system-with-mimicking-apoptosis-to-promote-myocardial-infarction-repair-via-modulation-of-macrophages
#20
Jingli Chen, Jun Yang, Ruiyuan Liu, Chenmeng Qiao, Zhiguo Lu, Yuanjie Shi, Zhanming Fan, Zhenzhong Zhang, Xin Zhang
Currently unsatisfactory treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) is due to the unbridled inflammation and the delayed diagnosis at the early stage. To address these problems, firstly, phosphatidylserine (PS) was used to modulate the phenotypes of macrophages (MΦ) and resolve the early inflammation via binding to PS receptors (PSR) on macrophage surface. Secondly, highly-sensitive magnetic iron oxide nanocubes (MIONs) were adopted to realize the early visualization via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the major drawback for MIONs as contrast agents was their hydrophobic properties and insufficient delivery...
2017: Theranostics
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