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gold standard for lung cancer

Giulia R Mosele, Gianfilippo Caggiari, Roberto M Scarpa, Carlo Doria
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women. It comprises 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common site for metastasis from RCC is the lung (50% of patients), followed by the skeleton (20% to 50% of patients). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive series of 63 patients surgically treated for spinal metastases from RCC. The surgical treatment for spinal metastases varied in each patient. Factors influencing the choice of surgery included age, disease status, symptoms, morbidity of the patient, the location, the number of repetitive lesions and the existence of extra-osseous metastases...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Thomas Atwater, Christine M Cook, Pierre P Massion
The noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer remains a formidable challenge. Although tissue diagnosis will remain the gold standard for the foreseeable future, questions pertaining to the risks and costs associated with invasive diagnostic procedures are of prime relevance. This review addresses new modalities for improving the noninvasive evaluation of suspicious lung nodules. Ultimately, the goal is to translate early diagnosis into early treatment. We discuss how biomarkers could assist in distinguishing benign from malignant nodules and aggressive from indolent tumors...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ahmed R Eldesoky, Esben S Yates, Tine B Nyeng, Mette S Thomsen, Hanne M Nielsen, Philip Poortmans, Carine Kirkove, Mechthild Krause, Claus Kamby, Ingvil Mjaaland, Egil S Blix, Ingelise Jensen, Martin Berg, Ebbe L Lorenzen, Zahra Taheri-Kadkhoda, Birgitte V Offersen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized multi-atlas libraries using MIM Maestro™ software. These libraries were used for auto-segmentation in two different patient groups (50 patients from the local institution and 40 patients from other institutions)...
September 30, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Michael Dobosz, Ute Haupt, Werner Scheuer
Preclinical efficacy studies of antibodies targeting a tumor-associated antigen are only justified when the expression of the relevant antigen has been demonstrated. Conventionally, antigen expression level is examined by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue section. This method represents the diagnostic "gold standard" for tumor target evaluation, but is affected by a number of factors, such as epitope masking and insufficient antigen retrieval. As a consequence, variances and discrepancies in histological staining results can occur, which may influence decision-making and therapeutic outcome...
September 23, 2016: MAbs
Mohamad Assi, Amélie Rébillard
Chronic inflammation and excessive loss of skeletal muscle usually occur during cancer cachexia, leading to functional impairment and delaying the cure of cancer. The release of cytokines by tumor promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn regulate catabolic pathways involved in muscle atrophy. ROS also exert a dual role within tumor itself, as they can either promote proliferation and vascularization or induce senescence and apoptosis. Accordingly, previous studies that used antioxidants to modulate these ROS-dependent mechanisms, in cancer and cancer cachexia, have obtained contradictory results, hence the need to gather the main findings of these studies and draw global conclusions in order to stimulate more oriented research in this field...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Bode Falase, Mgbajah Ogadinma, Adetinuwe Majekodunmi, Barakat Nimasahun, Olufunke Adeyeye
INTRODUCTION: Cervical mediastinoscopy is the gold standard for obtaining histological diagnosis of mediastinal pathology. It has been used for the staging of lung cancer as well as to determine the cause of Isolated Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy. There is very limited evidence in the literature of its use in Nigeria to assess mediastinal pathology. The aim of this study was to describe our institutional experience with cervical mediastinoscopy. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of 40 patients that underwent cervical mediastinoscopy in our institution between March 2007 and February 2013...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Bakir Mehić, Lina Duranović Rayan, Nurija Bilalović, Danina Dohranović Tafro, Ilijaz Pilav
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis...
2016: BMC Cancer
Ruoshi Shi, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Ming Li, Olga Ludkovski, Arnavaz Danesh, Christine Ng, Nhu-An Pham, Trevor Pugh, Frances A Shepherd, Ming-Sound Tsao
INTRODUCTION: Oncogenic fusion of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 protein or other partner genes occurs in 3% to 6% of lung adenocarcinomas. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the accepted standard for detecting anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) gene rearrangement that gives rise to new fusion genes, not all ALK FISH-positive patients respond to ALK inhibitor therapies. We report here an ALK FISH-positive patient-derived xenograft (PDX) that was nonresponsive to crizotinib therapy...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Fernando Vannucci, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas
Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) for treatment of lung cancer is being increasingly applied worldwide in the last few years. Since its introduction, many publications have been providing strong evidences that this minimally invasive approach is feasible, safe and oncologically efficient; offering to patients several advantages over traditional open thoracotomy, particularly for early-stage disease (I and II). The application of VATS for locally advanced disease treatment has also been largely described, but probably requires a further level of experience, which is more likely to be found in reference centers, with skilled experts...
October 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Johanna S M Mattsson, Hans Brunnström, Verena Jabs, Karolina Edlund, Karin Jirström, Stephanie Mindus, Linnéa la Fleur, Fredrik Pontén, Mats G Karlsson, Christina Karlsson, Hirsh Koyi, Eva Brandén, Johan Botling, Gisela Helenius, Patrick Micke, Maria A Svensson
BACKGROUND: Identification of targetable EML4-ALK fusion proteins has revolutionized the treatment of a minor subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is regarded as the gold standard for detection of ALK rearrangements, ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often used as screening tool in clinical practice. In order to unbiasedly analyze the diagnostic impact of such a screening strategy, we compared ALK IHC with ALK FISH in three large representative Swedish NSCLC cohorts incorporating clinical parameters and gene expression data...
2016: BMC Cancer
Spasenija Savic, Lukas Bubendorf
CONTEXT: -Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. OBJECTIVE: -To review common applications of FISH in cytology. DATA SOURCES: -The published literature was reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: -Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer...
August 4, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Nicholas M Donin, Andrew T Lenis, Stuart Holden, Alexandra Drakaki, Allan Pantuck, Arie Belldegrun, Karim Chamie
PURPOSE: To review the biological mechanisms of action, clinical safety, and efficacy of immunotherapies for urothelial carcinoma (UC). To describe current areas of investigation in immunotherapy, and to highlight ongoing trials and promising investigational agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was obtained by a search of Pubmed,, and Cochrane databases for English language articles published through February 2016. Applicable abstracts from recent SUO, EAU, AUA, and ASCO meetings were utilized...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Urology
Giuseppe Lo Russo, Sara Pusceddu, Natalie Prinzi, Martina Imbimbo, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Milena Vitali, Monica Ganzinelli, Marco Maccauro, Roberto Buzzoni, Ettore Seregni, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino
Well-differentiated bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (B-NETs) are rare. They represent 1-5 % of all lung cancers. The incidence of these neoplasms has risen over the past 30 years and, especially for advanced or metastatic disease, management is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) is the most important first-line therapy, in particular in well-differentiated NETs with high somatostatin type receptor (SSTR) expression. In these tumors, the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitors and the potential utility of other target therapies remain unclear while chemotherapy represents the gold standard treatment only for aggressive forms with low SSTR expression...
July 27, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Pravachan V C Hegde, Moishe Liberman
Combined endosonographic lymph node biopsy techniques are a minimally invasive alternative to surgical staging in non-small cell lung cancer and may be superior to standard mediastinoscopy and surgical mediastinal staging techniques. Endosonography allows for the biopsy of lymph nodes and metastases unattainable with standard mediastinoscopy. Standard cervical mediastinoscopy is an invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia and is associated with higher risk, cost, and major complication rates compared with minimally invasive endosonographic biopsy techniques...
August 2016: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
Julia Mantey, Julie Ruterbusch, Rafael Meza, Kendra Schwartz
BACKGROUND: American Community Survey (ACS) estimates are said to be uncertain for small areas and small population groups. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database uses a decennial census extrapolation methodology to yield population estimates used by cancer researchers across the country. We compared metropolitan Detroit cancer incidence estimates calculated using ACS data to those using SEER population estimates, which we considered to be the gold standard. METHODS: We generated age-adjusted cancer incidence rate estimates for 1-year, 3-year and 5-year time periods (2005-2010) using SEER and ACS population estimates for four racial/ethnic groups by sex and cancer type for residents in the tri-county Detroit area...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Di Ma, Zheng Wang, Lin Yang, Xinlin Mu, Yan Wang, Xinming Zhao, Junling Li, Dongmei Lin
Although the Ventana immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform for detecting anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) (D5F3) expression was recently approved by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is still the "gold-standard" method recommended by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline for NSCLC. We evaluated 6 ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who tested Ventana IHC-positive and FISH-negative and assessed their clinical responses to the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib...
July 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Thanyarak Wongkamhla, Visanu Thamlikitkul
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding system in identifying comorbidities and infectious conditions using data from a Thai university hospital administrative database. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients hospitalized in six general medicine wards at Siriraj Hospital. ICD-10 code data was identified and retrieved directly from the hospital administrative database...
April 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Mu-Sheng Zeng
The accuracy and efficiency of tumor treatment depends mainly on early and precise diagnosis. Although histopathology is always the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, noninvasive biomarkers represent an opportunity for early detection and molecular staging of cancer. Besides the classical tumor markers, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) emerge to be a novel category of biomarker for cancer diagnosis since the dysregulation of ncRNAs is closely associated with the development and progression of human cancers such as liver, lung, breast, gastric, and other kinds of cancers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eun Young Kim, Young Saing Kim, Inkeun Park, Hee Kyung Ahn, Eun Kyung Cho, Yu Mi Jeong, Jeong Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Single cross-sectional area of muscle at the third lumbar vertebra (L3MA) is gold standard to estimate skeletal muscle mass (SMM), and L3 muscle index (L3MI, L3MA/height(2)) is used to determine sarcopenia. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between SMM indices determined by routine chest CT and L3MI in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to suggest chest CT-derived diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. METHODS: Area of pectoralis muscles at the aortic arch (PMA) and at L1 (L1MA) was retrospectively measured on chest CT images of 90 consecutive SCLC patients...
November 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Mehmet Fatih Börksüz, Taner Erselcan, Zekiye Hasbek, Birsen Yücel, Bülent Turgut
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response to treatment by histopathologic type in patients with lung cancer and under follow-up with 18F-fluoro-2deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging by using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria that evaluate morphologic and metabolic parameters. METHODS: On two separate (pre- and post-treatment) 18F-FDG PET/CT images, the longest dimension of primary tumor as well as of secondary lesions were measured and sum of these two measurements was recorded as the total dimension in 40 patients...
June 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
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