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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719921/-patient-s-autonomy-and-information-in-psycho-oncology-computer-based-distress-screening-for-an-interactive-treatment-planning-epos-react
#1
Norbert Schäffeler, Jana Sedelmaier, Hannah Möhrer, Katrin Ziser, Johanna Ringwald, Martin Wickert, Sara Brucker, Florian Junne, Stephan Zipfel, Martin Teufel
To identify distressed patients in oncology using screening questionnaires is quite challenging in clinical routine. Up to now there is no evidence based recommendation which instrument is most suitable and how to put a screening to practice. Using computer based screening tools offers the possibility to automatically analyse patient's data, inform psycho-oncological and medical staff about the results, and use reactive questionnaires. Studies on how to empower patients in decision making in psycho-oncology are rare...
July 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718058/cultural-biases-in-current-medical-practices-with-a-specific-attention-to-orthopedic-surgery-a-review
#2
Gracia Etienne, Todd P Pierce, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Carlos J Lavernia, Teva Y Vogelstein, Craig M Thomas, Charles S Modlin, Michael A Mont
Due to the increasing diversity within the United States population, there is an ever-increasing need for increased education on cultural literacy and tolerance in medical schools and residency programs. The purpose of this article was to review how a person's culture can play a substantive role in effecting and influencing (1) medical diagnosis, (2) patient and health provider medical decision-making, (3) the patient's perception of disease, and (4) the doctor-patient relationships. Many of the decisions we make as orthopedic surgeons must account for the patient's cultural needs, as much of our work impacts patients' daily activities and function...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717229/investigation-of-autistic-traits-through-strategic-decision-making-in-games-with-adaptive-agents
#3
Alexis B Craig, Emily Grossman, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other people. Impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to infer what another person is thinking, may contribute to these social deficits. The present study assesses the relationship between autistic traits and decision-making in a socioeconomic game environment that measures ToM and cooperation. We quantified participant strategy during game play with computer agents that simulated aspects of ToM or fixed strategy agents with static behaviors or heuristics...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716978/how-do-clinicians-prepare-family-members-for-the-role-of-surrogate-decision-maker
#4
Thomas V Cunningham, Leslie P Scheunemann, Robert M Arnold, Douglas White
PURPOSE: Although surrogate decision-making (SDM) is prevalent in intensive care units (ICUs) and concerns with decision quality are well documented, little is known about how clinicians help family members understand the surrogate role. We investigated whether and how clinicians provide normative guidance to families regarding how to function as a surrogate. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We audiorecorded and transcribed 73 ICU family conferences in which clinicians anticipated discussing goals of care for incapacitated patients at high risk of death...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715105/a-simulation-based-approach-to-measuring-team-situational-awareness-in-emergency-medicine-a-multicenter-observational-study
#5
Elizabeth D Rosenman, Aurora J Dixon, Jessica M Webb, Sarah Brolliar, Simon J Golden, Kerin A Jones, Sachita Shah, James A Grand, Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao, Rosemarie Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision-making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA; but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine teams. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement...
July 17, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712160/perspectives-on-childhood-resilience-among-the-aboriginal-community-an-interview-study
#6
Christian Young, Allison Tong, Janice Nixon, Peter Fernando, Deanna Kalucy, Simone Sherriff, Kathleen Clapham, Jonathan C Craig, Anna Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To describe Aboriginal community members' perspectives on the outcomes and origins of resilience among Aboriginal children. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 36 Aboriginal adults (15 health service professionals, 8 youth workers and 13 community members) at two urban and one regional Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in New South Wales. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: We identified six themes: withstanding risk (displaying normative development, possessing inner fortitude); adapting to adversity (necessary endurance, masking inner vulnerabilities); positive social influences (secure family environments, role modelling healthy behaviours and relationships); instilling cultural identity (investing in Aboriginal knowledge, building a strong cultural self-concept); community safeguards (offering strategic sustainable services, holistic support, shared responsibility, providing enriching opportunities); and personal empowerment (awareness of positive pathways, developing self-respect, fostering positive decision making)...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711551/from-evidence-based-medicine-to-medicine-based-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Ralph I Horwitz, Allison Hayes-Conroy, Roberto Caricchio, Burton H Singer
Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?' We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711397/birth-stories-from-south-africa-voices-unheard
#8
Marie Hastings-Tolsma, Anna G W Nolte, Annie Temane
BACKGROUND: The manner that birth events unfold can have a lasting impact on women. Giving voice to women's experiences is key in the creation of care that embodies humanistic, family-centred service. AIM: The aim of this research was to describe the experiences of women receiving care during childbirth. METHODS: The design was qualitative and descriptive using thematic analysis to analyse women's birth stories. A purposive sample of women (N=12) who had recently given birth in South Africa was selected...
July 12, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710056/health-related-coping-and-social-interaction-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-supported-by-a-social-network-pilot-study-with-a-new-methodological-approach
#9
Luigi Lavorgna, Antonio Russo, Manuela De Stefano, Roberta Lanzillo, Sabrina Esposito, Fatemeh Moshtari, Francesco Rullani, Kyrie Piscopo, Daniela Buonanno, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Antonio Gallo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Simona Bonavita
BACKGROUND: Social media are a vital link for people with health concerns who find in Web communities a valid and comforting source for information exchange, debate, and knowledge enrichment. This aspect is important for people affected by chronic diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), who are very well informed about the disease but are vulnerable to hopes of being cured or saved by therapies whose efficacy is not always scientifically proven. To improve health-related coping and social interaction for people with MS, we created an MS social network (SMsocialnetwork...
July 14, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709410/identification-of-barriers-and-facilitators-for-optimal-cesarean-section-care-perspective-of-professionals
#10
Sonja Melman, Rachel Hellen Petra Schreurs, Carmen Desiree Dirksen, Anneke Kwee, Jan Gerrit Nijhuis, Nicol Anna Cornelia Smeets, Hubertina Catharina Johanna Scheepers, Rosella Petronella Maria Gemma Hermens
BACKGROUND: The cesarean section (CS) rate has increased over recent decades with poor guideline adherence as a possible cause. The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators for delivering optimal care as described in clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: Key recommendations from evidence-based guidelines were used as a base to explore barriers and facilitators for delivering optimal CS care in The Netherlands. Both focus group and telephone interviews among 29 different obstetrical professionals were performed...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709175/-healthy-sick-or-how-genetic-risks-lever-the-disease-concept-of-the-healthcare-system
#11
Friedhelm Meier, Jens Ried, Matthias Braun, Peter Dabrock
Currently it is not clear, whether and which specific prophylactic measures the healthcare system should provide as a standard offer for persons with genetic risks. Furthermore, there is no theoretical model for transparent regulation in this context. In the concrete case of BRCA1/2 carriers, the consequences of these defects become obvious: requests for medical measures are subjected to decision-making procedures of health insurance companies that are not wholly transparent. Against the background of medical advance in relation to complex diseases and in order to address this problem of the healthcare system, this article develops a healthy-sick model...
July 14, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708740/experiences-of-substitute-decision-makers-in-making-decisions-for-older-persons-diagnosed-with-major-neurocognitive-disorder-at-end-of-life-a-qualitative-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Sarah J Cresp, Susan F Lee, Cheryle Moss
The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on how substitute decision makers (SDMs) are affected by and experience making decisions at end of life (EOL) for older persons diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder (major NCD) (dementia). Addressing the objective will provide an understanding of SDMs' experiences of making decisions for older persons diagnosed with major NCD at EOL, in order to tailor supportive education and interventions and potentially decrease inopportune outcomes...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704458/-the-care-is-the-best-you-can-give-at-the-time-health-care-professionals-experiences-in-providing-gender-affirming-care-in-south-africa
#13
Sarah Spencer, Talia Meer, Alex Müller
BACKGROUND: While the provision of gender affirming care for transgender people in South Africa is considered legal, ethical, and medically sound, and is-theoretically-available in both the South African private and public health sectors, access remains severely limited and unequal within the country. As there are no national policies or guidelines, little is known about how individual health care professionals providing gender affirming care make clinical decisions about eligibility and treatment options...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702891/predictors-associated-with-mri-surveillance-screening-in-women-with-a-personal-history-of-unilateral-breast-cancer-but-without-a-genetic-predisposition-for-future-contralateral-breast-cancer
#14
John V Hegde, Xiaoyan Wang, Deanna J Attai, Maggie L DiNome, Amy Kusske, Anne C Hoyt, Sara A Hurvitz, Joanne B Weidhaas, Michael L Steinberg, Susan A McCloskey
PURPOSE: For women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC), no validated mechanisms exist to calculate future contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. The Manchester risk stratification guidelines were developed to evaluate CBC risk in women with a PHBC, primarily for surgical decision making. This tool may be informative for the use of MRI screening, as CBC risk is an assumed consideration for high-risk surveillance. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-two women with a PHBC were treated with unilateral surgery within our multidisciplinary breast clinic...
July 12, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701812/next-generation-data-systems-and-knowledge-products-to-support-agricultural-producers-and-science-based-policy-decision-making
#15
Susan M Capalbo, John M Antle, Clark Seavert
Research on next generation agricultural systems models shows that the most important current limitation is data, both for on-farm decision support and for research investment and policy decision making. One of the greatest data challenges is to obtain reliable data on farm management decision making, both for current conditions and under scenarios of changed bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. This paper presents a framework for the use of farm-level and landscape-scale models and data to provide analysis that could be used in NextGen knowledge products, such as mobile applications or personal computer data analysis and visualization software...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#16
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699053/vicarious-effort-based-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Maya G Mosner, Jessica L Kinard, Sean McWeeny, Jasmine S Shah, Nathan D Markiewitz, Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Margaret R Burchinal, Helena J V Rutherford, Rachel K Greene, Michael T Treadway, Gabriel S Dichter
This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns of effort-based decision-making across reward parameters. However, when choosing for another person, the ASD group demonstrated relatively decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude, particularly in the high magnitude condition...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697711/biomarkers-of-stroke-recovery-consensus-based-core-recommendations-from-the-stroke-recovery-and-rehabilitation-roundtable
#18
Lara A Boyd, Kathryn S Hayward, Nick S Ward, Cathy M Stinear, Charlotte Rosso, Rebecca J Fisher, Alexandre R Carter, Alex P Leff, David A Copland, Leeanne M Carey, Leonardo G Cohen, D Michele Basso, Jane M Maguire, Steven C Cramer
The most difficult clinical questions in stroke rehabilitation are "What is this patient's potential for recovery?" and "What is the best rehabilitation strategy for this person, given her/his clinical profile?" Without answers to these questions, clinicians struggle to make decisions regarding the content and focus of therapy, and researchers design studies that inadvertently mix participants who have a high likelihood of responding with those who do not. Developing and implementing biomarkers that distinguish patient subgroups will help address these issues and unravel the factors important to the recovery process...
July 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697260/behavioral-counseling-to-promote-a-healthful-diet-and-physical-activity-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-adults-without-cardiovascular-risk-factors-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#19
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthful diet and physical activity have lower rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not. All persons, regardless of their risk status for cardiovascular disease (CVD), can gain health benefits from healthy eating behaviors and appropriate physical activity. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention among adults without obesity who do not have cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes)...
July 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697157/reliability-of-smartphone-based-instant-messaging-application-for-diagnosis-classification-and-decision-making-in-pediatric-orthopedic-trauma
#20
Ido Stahl, Alexander Katsman, Michael Zaidman, Doron Keshet, Amit Sigal, Mark Eidelman
OBJECTIVE: Smartphones have the ability to capture and send images, and their use has become common in the emergency setting for transmitting radiographic images with the intent to consult an off-site specialist. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of smartphone-based instant messaging applications for the evaluation of various pediatric limb traumas, as compared with the standard method of viewing images of a workstation-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS)...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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