Read by QxMD icon Read

Personalized decision making

Andrew Bottomley, Madeline Pe, Jeff Sloan, Ethan Basch, Franck Bonnetain, Melanie Calvert, Alicyn Campbell, Charles Cleeland, Kim Cocks, Laurence Collette, Amylou C Dueck, Nancy Devlin, Hans-Henning Flechtner, Carolyn Gotay, Eva Greimel, Ingolf Griebsch, Mogens Groenvold, Jean-Francois Hamel, Madeleine King, Paul G Kluetz, Michael Koller, Daniel C Malone, Francesca Martinelli, Sandra A Mitchell, Carol M Moinpour, Jammbe Musoro, Daniel O'Connor, Kathy Oliver, Elisabeth Piault-Louis, Martine Piccart, Francisco L Pimentel, Chantal Quinten, Jaap C Reijneveld, Christoph Schürmann, Ashley Wilder Smith, Katherine M Soltys, Martin J B Taphoorn, Galina Velikova, Corneel Coens
Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient-reported outcomes generate important data in cancer randomised trials to assist in assessing the risks and benefits of cancer therapies and fostering patient-centred cancer care. However, the various ways these measures are analysed and interpreted make it difficult to compare results across trials, and hinders the application of research findings to inform publications, product labelling, clinical guidelines, and health policy. To address these problems, the Setting International Standards in Analyzing Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life Endpoints Data (SISAQOL) initiative has been established...
October 18, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Samia A Hurst, Alex Mauron
Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar...
October 21, 2016: Bioethics
Matthew S Lebowitz, Woo-Kyoung Ahn
People with mental disorders are strongly stigmatized. Among mental-health professionals, stigmatizing attitudes often manifest as desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. Currently ascendant biomedical conceptualizations of psychopathology could exacerbate this problem by engendering dehumanization, which is linked to prejudice. Given the clinical implications of such an occurrence, the present research tested a possible mitigation strategy. In an online study of 216 U.S. mental-health clinicians, two strategies for mitigating dehumanization in healthcare were tested-personification, highlighting personal traits of people with mental disorders rather than presenting them as malfunctioning brains, and agency reorientation, underscoring people's ability to make choices and decisions...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Jane Mills, Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun, Helena Harrison, Karen Yates, Andrea O'Shea
BACKGROUND: A core objective of the Australian health system is to provide high quality, safe health care that meets the needs of all Australians. To achieve this, an adequate and effective workforce must support the delivery of care. With rapidly changing health care systems and consumer demographics, demand for care is increasing and retention of sufficient numbers of skilled staff is now a critical priority to meet current and future health care demands. Nurses are the largest cohort of professionals within the health workforce...
2016: BMC Nursing
Charlotte L Allan, Sophie Behrman, Nina Baruch, Klaus P Ebmeier
Most people with mild dementia can continue to drive, but dementia is progressive and many patients and clinicians will be faced with questions about driving safety in the course of their illness. Determining when this happens is a complex decision, with risks of personal and public safety needing to be weighed against individual patient benefits of driving in terms of autonomy, independence and well-being. Decisions need to make reference to cognitive abilities, as well as other factors including physical comorbidity, vision, mobility, insight and history of driving errors and accidents...
October 20, 2016: Evidence-based Mental Health
Sonya Charles, Allison B Wolf
In this article, we discuss decision making during labor and delivery, specifically focusing on decision making around offering women a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC). Many have discussed how humans are notoriously bad at assessing risks and how we often distort the nature of various risks surrounding childbirth. We will build on this discussion by showing that physicians make decisions around TOLAC not only based on distortions of risk, but also based on personal values (i.e. what level of risk are you comfortable with or what types of risks are you willing to take) rather than medical data (or at least medical data alone)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Liangsong Zhu, Guangyu Wu, Jianfeng Wang, Jiwei Huang, Wen Kong, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
To investigate the feasibility of the noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) to evaluate renal arteries before partial nephrectomy (PN).Retrospective analyzed 479 patients who underwent renal surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 with NCE-MRA or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) renal artery image reconstruction preoperative in our department. The renal artery reconstruction score (RARS) was based on the level of artery visualization in a 4-class criterion, and the R.E.N...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Esther I Bernhofer, Rose Hosler, Diana Karius
Providing optimal pain care for patients is essential to the work of nursing and a measure of patient satisfaction prompting some hospitals to offer pain management classes for clinicians. Although nurses generally do well on knowledge tests after attending a pain class, actual improvement in pain care for patients may not occur. The personal values of the clinician may be a key driver of pain-management decision making. Therefore, a segment on how clinicians' personal values influence pain care decisions was added to a large Midwestern hospital's pain management class...
October 15, 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
António Dos Anjos Luis, Pedro Cabral
BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is important information that can be extracted from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and used in effective healthcare planning. The aim of this study is to measure the geographic accessibility of population to existing Healthcare Centers (HC), and to estimate the number of persons served by the health network of Mozambique...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
J E McDonagh, K L Shaw, J Prescott, F J Smith, R Roberts, N J Gray
BACKGROUND: Taking medicines as intended is difficult for everybody, but young people going through adolescence have greater problems than adults and younger children. One of the most important things that happen during the teenage years is the development of individual identities, which might not remain constant during this time and can be affected deeply by the diagnosis of a long-term condition. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between identity and medication use among young people with juvenile arthritis...
October 19, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Mark Pogson
Aggregation of many species of invertebrate is an example of a consensus decision, the success of which is central to survival. Personality is a stable form of behavioural diversity which has been observed in the aggregation process, but neither the reasons for its stability nor its effects on consensus decisions are well understood. By using an agent-based model of invertebrate aggregation, it is found that diverse personalities have only limited benefits to the experimental consensus decision-making process, but may have a more valuable role in natural settings...
2016: PloS One
Daniel W Jones
Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease are both common. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have hypertension. Hypertension can be both a cause and a result of CKD. Many patients with CKD, both diabetic and non-diabetic have overt proteinuria (>300 mg/day). Patients with proteinuria are at higher risk for progression of kidney disease and for atherosclerosis. Because patients with CKD are often excluded from hypertension trials with hard outcomes, there has been until recently less data than ideal to consider in making decisions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Steven Steinhubl
Despite having the basic tools necessary to appropriately identify and manage individuals with hypertension for over half a century it remains the single greatest contributing risk factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide today. Since diagnosis and effective treatment availability are not issues, this major failing in care can be attributed to inadequate systems of care: systems that have led to only <20% of hypertensive individuals globally having their blood pressure adequately controlled. Even in the US, where it is one of the most common reasons for a primary care visit, and with over $42...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lawrence Appel
The identification of explicit blood pressure targets for clinical management remains controversial, particularly in older individuals with co-morbidities. Recommendations from the panel appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) and results of the SPRINT trial have rekindled interest in this issue. JNC8 recommended a higher (more relaxed) BP goal of < 150/90, instead of the traditional BP goal of <140/90, in persons aged 60+. In contrast, the recently completed SPRINT trial, which enrolled high risk patients without diabetes, documented that a lower (more stringent) SBP goal of <120 mmHg reduced total mortality and cardiovascular disease events compared to <140 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Benjamin Margolin Rottman
Whether humans can accurately make decisions in line with Bayes' rule has been one of the most important yet contentious topics in cognitive psychology. Though a number of paradigms have been used for studying Bayesian updating, rarely have subjects been allowed to use their own preexisting beliefs about the prior and the likelihood. A study is reported in which physicians judged the posttest probability of a diagnosis for a patient vignette after receiving a test result, and the physicians' posttest judgments were compared to the normative posttest calculated from their own beliefs in the sensitivity and false positive rate of the test (likelihood ratio) and prior probability of the diagnosis...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Hui Min Lim, Lee Gan Goh, T Thirumoorthy
Medical reports are required to support court applications to appoint a deputy to make decisions on behalf of a person who has lost mental capacity. The doctor writing such a medical report needs to be able to systematically assess the mental capacity of the person in question, in order to gather the necessary evidence for the Court to make a decision. If the medical report is not adequate, the application will be rejected and the appointment of the deputy delayed. This article sets out the best practices for performing the assessment, and the common errors, issues of concern and best practices in writing the medical report...
October 18, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Mary P Henman
BACKGROUND: A suicidal person with a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order presents an ethical dilemma to the emergency physician. Many believe that suicide is an irrational action, and therefore, all suicide attempts must be treated. Others believe a DNR order should be respected even in the setting of a suicide attempt. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman with a known terminal illness presented to the emergency department after a suspected suicide attempt. She had a DNR order during her previous hospitalization...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"