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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147629/trial-watch-immune-checkpoint-blockers-for-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Claire Lhuillier, Lucillia Bezu, Fernando Aranda, Takahiro Yamazaki, Oliver Kepp, Jitka Fucikova, Radek Spisek, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are literally revolutionizing the clinical management of an ever more diversified panel of oncological indications. Although considerable attention persists around the inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) signaling, several other co-inhibitory T-cell receptors are being evaluated as potential targets for the development of novel ICBs. Moreover, substantial efforts are being devoted to the identification of biomarkers that reliably predict the likelihood of each patient to obtain clinical benefits from ICBs in the absence of severe toxicity...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140597/improving-omics-based-research-and-precision-health-in-minority-populations-recommendations-for-nurse-scientists
#2
Jacquelyn Y Taylor, Veronica Barcelona de Mendoza
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of nurse scientists in -omics-based research and to promote discussion around the conduct of -omics-based nursing research in minority communities. Nurses are advocates, educators, practitioners, scientists, and researchers, and are crucial to the design and successful implementation of -omics studies, particularly including minority communities. The contribution of nursing in this area of research is crucial to reducing health disparities...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125066/autonomous-self-navigating-drug-delivery-vehicles-from-science-fiction-to-reality
#3
Valery A Petrenko
Low efficacy of targeted nanomedicines in biological experiments enforced us to challenge the traditional concept of drug targeting and suggest a paradigm of 'addressed self-navigating drug-delivery vehicles,' in which affinity selection of targeting peptides and vasculature-directed in vivo phage screening is replaced by the migration selection, which explores ability of 'promiscuous' phages and their proteins to migrate through the tumor-surrounding cellular barriers, using a 'hub and spoke' delivery strategy, and penetrate into the tumor affecting the diverse tumor cell population...
December 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116901/use-of-ics-in-copd-from-blockbuster-medicine-to-precision-medicine
#4
Marco Contoli, Angelo G Corsico, Pierachille Santus, Fabiano Di Marco, Fulvio Braido, Paola Rogliani, Luigi Calzetta, Nicola Scichilone
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, whose burden is expected to increase in the next decades, because of numerous risk factors, including the aging of the population. COPD is both preventable and treatable by an effective management including risk factor reduction, prevention, assessment, and treatment of acute exacerbations and co-morbidities. The available agents approved for COPD treatment are long-acting or ultra-long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) bronchodilators, as well as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with LABAs...
November 8, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107872/inflammation-and-gut-brain-axis-link-obesity-to-cognitive-dysfunction-plausible-pharmacological-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, María J Ramírez, J Alfredo Martínez
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106464/application-of-single-cell-sequencing-in-human-cancer
#6
Mattias Rantalainen
Precision medicine is emerging as a cornerstone of future cancer care with the objective of providing targeted therapies based on the molecular phenotype of each individual patient. Traditional bulk-level molecular phenotyping of tumours leads to significant information loss, as the molecular profile represents an average phenotype over large numbers of cells, while cancer is a disease with inherent intra-tumour heterogeneity at the cellular level caused by several factors, including clonal evolution, tissue hierarchies, rare cells and dynamic cell states...
November 2, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105366/limbal-stem-cells-identity-developmental-origin-and-therapeutic-potential
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel Gonzalez, Yuzuru Sasamoto, Bruce R Ksander, Markus H Frank, Natasha Y Frank
The cornea is our window to the world and our vision is critically dependent on corneal clarity and integrity. Its epithelium represents one of the most rapidly regenerating mammalian tissues, undergoing full-turnover over the course of approximately 1-2 weeks. This robust and efficient regenerative capacity is dependent on the function of stem cells residing in the limbus, a structure marking the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Limbal stem cells (LSC) represent a quiescent cell population with proliferative capacity residing in the basal epithelial layer of the limbus within a cellular niche...
November 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101112/prostate-cancer-germline-variations-and-implications-for-screening-and-treatment
#8
Alexander Dias, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Christos Mikropoulos, Ros Eeles
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heritable disease, and rapid evolution of sequencing technologies has enabled marked progression of our understanding of its genetic inheritance. A complex polygenic model that involves common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles causing individually small but cumulatively significant risk and rarer genetic variants causing greater risk represent the current most accepted model. Through genome-wide association studies, more than 100 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa risk have been identified...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082092/optophysiology-of-cardiomyocytes-characterizing-cellular-motion-with-quantitative-phase-imaging
#9
Christine Cordeiro, Oscar J Abilez, Georges Goetz, Tushar Gupta, Yan Zhuge, Olav Solgaard, Daniel Palanker
Quantitative phase imaging enables precise characterization of cellular shape and motion. Variation of cell volume in populations of cardiomyocytes can help distinguish their types, while changes in optical thickness during beating cycle identify contraction and relaxation periods and elucidate cell dynamics. Parameters such as characteristic cycle shape, beating frequency, duration and regularity can be used to classify stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes according to their health and, potentially, cell type...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069341/epigenetics-and-precision-medicine-in-cardiovascular-patients-from-basic-concepts-to-the-clinical-arena
#10
Sarah Costantino, Peter Libby, Raj Kishore, Jean-Claude Tardif, Assam El-Osta, Francesco Paneni
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of mortality worldwide and also inflict major burdens on morbidity, quality of life, and societal costs. Considering that CVD preventive medications improve vascular outcomes in less than half of patients (often relative risk reductions range from 12% to 20% compared with placebo), precision medicine offers an attractive approach to refine the targeting of CVD medications to responsive individuals in a population and thus allocate resources more wisely and effectively...
October 23, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063527/high-participation-rate-among-25-721-patients-with-broad-age-range-in-a-hospital-based-research-project-involving-whole-genome-sequencing-the-lausanne-institutional-biobank
#11
Murielle Bochud, Christine Currat, Laurence Chapatte, Cindy Roth, Vincent Mooser
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the interest of adult inpatients and selected outpatients in engaging in a large, real-life, hospital-based, genomic medicine research project and in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings. METHODS: Within the framework of the cross-sectional Institutional Biobank of Lausanne, Switzerland, a total of 25721 patients of the CHUV University Hospital were systematically invited to grant researchers access to their biomedical data and to donate blood for future analyses, including whole-genome sequencing...
October 24, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058036/the-road-less-traveled-from-genotype-to-phenotype-in-flies-and-humans
#12
Robert R H Anholt, Trudy F C Mackay
Understanding how genomic variation gives rise to phenotypic variation is essential for elucidating mechanisms of adaptive evolution, plant and animal breeding, and precision medicine. However, identifying causal links between DNA sequence variants and variation in phenotypes is challenging in human populations, due to large blocks of linkage disequilibrium in the genome and heterogeneous developmental histories, lifestyles, and social and physical environments. Drosophila melanogaster presents a powerful genetic model, since linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, facilitating assignment of causality to polymorphisms associated with phenotypic variation, and large numbers of individuals can be reared under defined environmental conditions, economically, and without regulatory restrictions...
October 20, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052956/meta-analysis-of-full-roc-curves-using-bivariate-time-to-event-models-for-interval-censored-data
#13
Annika Hoyer, Stefan Hirt, Oliver Kuss
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are the cornerstones of evidence based medicine and inform treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of individual patients as well as policy decisions in health care. Statistical methods for the meta-analysis of intervention studies are well established today. Meta-analysis for diagnostic accuracy trials has also been a vivid research area in recent years which is especially due to the increased complexity of their bivariate outcome of sensitivity and specificity. The situation is even more challenging when single studies report a full ROC curve with several pairs of sensitivity and specificity, each pair for a different threshold...
October 20, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050983/precision-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-liver-cancer-in-china
#14
Jing Fu, Hongyang Wang
Liver cancer ranks the sixth in cancer incidence and the second in tumor related mortality worldwide, with over half of the new cases and deaths occur in China. Because of difficulties in early diagnosis, rapid progression and lack of targeted drugs, the survival rate of liver cancer is extremely low. The existence of extraordinary heterogeneity has greatly limited the progress in early detection, molecular classification and targeted therapy of live cancer, owing to its varied risk factors, genetic susceptibilities, morphological diversity and microenvironmental discrepancies...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049049/treatable-traits-of-chronic-airways-disease
#15
James Fingleton, Jo Hardy, Richard Beasley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the rationale on which the treatable traits approach to the management of airways disease is based and the issues that need to be considered for its implementation in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: In clinical practice, treatable traits can be classified according to both endotypes and phenotypes, broadly grouped within pulmonary, extrapulmonary, environmental and behavioural factors. Specific investigations and treatments are undertaken for each of the traits rather than a 'one size fits all' stepwise approach to pharmacological treatment which currently represents the core of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040395/human-genome-sequencing-at-the-population-scale-a-primer-on-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-and-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Rachel L Goldfeder, Dennis P Wall, Muin J Khoury, John P A Ioannidis, Euan A Ashley
Most human diseases have underlying genetic causes. To better understand the impact of genes on disease and its implications for medicine and public health, researchers have pursued methods for determining the sequences of individual genes, then all genes, and now complete human genomes. Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing technology, where DNA is sheared into smaller pieces, sequenced, and then computationally reordered and analyzed, enables fast and affordable sequencing of full human genomes. As the price of sequencing continues to decline, more and more individuals are having their genomes sequenced...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036667/disnor-a-disease-network-open-resource
#17
Prisca Lo Surdo, Alberto Calderone, Marta Iannuccelli, Luana Licata, Daniele Peluso, Luisa Castagnoli, Gianni Cesareni, Livia Perfetto
DISNOR is a new resource that aims at exploiting the explosion of data on the identification of disease-associated genes to assemble inferred disease pathways. This may help dissecting the signaling events whose disruption causes the pathological phenotypes and may contribute to build a platform for precision medicine. To this end we combine the gene-disease association (GDA) data annotated in the DisGeNET resource with a new curation effort aimed at populating the SIGNOR database with causal interactions related to disease genes with the highest possible coverage...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035190/brain-tumor-epidemiology-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-the-2017-brain-tumor-epidemiology-consortium-meeting-report
#18
Kimberly J Johnson, Judith Schwartzbaum, Carol Kruchko, Michael E Scheurer, Ching C Lau, Adelheid Woehrer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Joseph Wiemels
The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance the development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 18th annual BTEC meeting was held in Banff, AB, Canada, on June 27 - 29, 2017. The meeting focused on the intersection between epidemiology and precision medicine, that is, the use of molecular indicators of risk, early disease and prognosis or precision epidemiology...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032303/current-strategies-to-streamline-pharmacotherapy-for-older-adults
#19
REVIEW
Jan-F Schlender, Valvanera Vozmediano, Adam G Golden, Monica Rodriguez, Tanay S Samant, Chakradhar V Lagishetty, Thomas Eissing, Stephan Schmidt
Although the term "personalized medicine" has been associated in many cases with pharmacogenomics, its definition embraces the use of specific biomarkers and covariates to help in the selection of medical treatments and procedures which are best for each patient. While several efforts have been performed for the tailored selection of therapies and dosing regimens in the general population, developing personalized medicine initiatives for elderly patients remains understudied. The personalized drug therapy for older patients requires the consideration of anatomical, physiological and functional alterations in a multimorbid setting requiring multiple medications...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024958/a-computable-pathology-report-for-precision-medicine-extending-an-observables-ontology-unifying-snomed-ct-and-loinc
#20
Walter S Campbell, Daniel Karlsson, Daniel J Vreeman, Audrey J Lazenby, Geoffrey A Talmon, James R Campbell
Background: The College of American Pathologists (CAP) introduced the first cancer synoptic reporting protocols in 1998. However, the objective of a fully computable and machine-readable cancer synoptic report remains elusive due to insufficient definitional content in Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) and Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC). To address this terminology gap, investigators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) are developing, authoring, and testing a SNOMED CT observable ontology to represent the data elements identified by the synoptic worksheets of CAP...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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