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Epigenetics inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#1
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100001/transplantation-tolerance-don-t-forget-about-the-b-cells
#2
REVIEW
Anita S Chong, Stella H Khiew
Establishing a state of transplantation tolerance that leads to indefinite graft survival without the need for lifelong immunosuppression has been successfully achieved in limited numbers of transplant recipients in the clinic. These successes led to studies aimed at identifying potential biomarkers that diagnose allograft tolerance and identify the patients most amenable to drug minimization, and implicated an enriched B cell signature of tolerance. The emergence of a specialized subset of regulatory B cell (Bregs) that possess immune-modulatory function in inflammation and autoimmune disease, raised the possibility that Bregs play critical roles in the promotion of transplantation tolerance and that Bregs are the underlying explanation for the B cell signature of tolerance...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097530/virus-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-special-emphasis-on-hbv
#3
REVIEW
Ming Wang, Dong Xi, Qin Ning
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with high lethality, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a chief cause. HBV can accelerate HCC via multiple mechanisms. First, HBV induces immune reactions that lead to repeated hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and a deficient immune microenvironment. Subsequently, HBV can modify host genes near the insertion point through DNA integration to cause host cell genome instability and to generate carcinogenic fusion proteins. Additionally, HBV expresses diverse active proteins, especially HBx and HBs, which have a range of transactivation functions such as regulation of apoptosis, interference with intracellular signaling pathways, and alteration of epigenetics...
January 17, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093709/molecular-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Zohreh Hojati
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of spinal cord and brain. The initial event in MS occurs when activated CD4(+) T cells in periphery exacerbates immune responses by stimulating immune cells such as B cells, CD8(+) cells, mast cells, granulocytes and monocytes. These proinflammatory cells pass blood brain barrier by secreting proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and INF-γ which activate adhesion factors. APCs (antigen-presenting cells) reactivate CD4(+) T cells after infiltrating the CNS and CD4(+) T cells produce cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#5
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090287/transcription-factors-transcriptional-coregulators-and-epigenetic-modulation-in-the-control-of-pulmonary-vascular-cell-phenotype-therapeutic-implications-for-pulmonary-hypertension-2015-grover-conference-series
#6
REVIEW
Soni S Pullamsetti, Frédéric Perros, Prakash Chelladurai, Jason Yuan, Kurt Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089111/the-molecular-landscape-of-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis
#7
Deborah Saraggi, Matteo Fassan, Claudia Mescoli, Marco Scarpa, Nicola Valeri, Andrea Michielan, Renata D'Incá, Massimo Rugge
In spite of the well-established histopathological phenotyping of IBD-associated preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, their molecular landscape remains to be fully elucidated. Several studies have pinpointed the initiating role of longstanding/relapsing inflammatory insult on the intestinal mucosa, with the activation of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ), chemokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid resulting in the activation of key transcription factors such as NF-κB. Longstanding inflammation may also modify the intestinal microbiota, prompting the overgrowth of genotoxic microorganisms, which may act as further cancer promoters...
December 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080202/chemical-probes-targeting-epigenetic-proteins-applications-beyond-oncology
#8
Suzanne Ackloo, Peter J Brown, Susanne Müller
Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors and antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about four thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#9
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072632/asc-methylation-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-are-associated-with-aerobic-capacity-in-heart-failure
#10
Brittany Butts, Javed Butler, Sandra B Dunbar, Elizabeth Corwin, Rebecca A Gary
BACKGROUND: Aerobic capacity, as measured by peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), is one of the most powerful predictors of prognosis in heart failure (HF). Inflammation is a key factor contributing to alterations in aerobic capacity, and interleukin (IL)-1 cytokines are implicated in this process. The adaptor protein ASC is necessary for inflammasome activation of IL-1β and IL-18. ASC expression is controlled through epigenetic modification; lower ASC methylation is associated with worse outcomes in HF...
January 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061846/map4k4-and-il-6-th17-cells-play-important-roles-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors such as inflammation and environmental factors contribute to non-obese T2D. According to the data derived from gene knockout mice and T2D clinical samples in Asia and Europe, the pathogenesis of non-obese T2D has been unveiled recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050521/epigenetics-and-periodontitis-a-contemporary-review
#12
REVIEW
Geetha Ari, Sandhya Cherukuri, Ambalavanan Namasivayam
Periodontitis is characterized by infection and inflammation of the tooth supporting structures. Few signs of susceptibility and recurrence after treatment are seen due to the outgrowth of various pathogenic microorganisms. Many studies have been done to understand the genetic basis of periodontal disease. An increased risk for periodontitis has been shown with the variations in genes related to the inflammatory response. Interestingly, some of the genes regulated by epigenetic modifications are modified in response to environmental stimuli...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041684/ash1l-suppresses-matrix-metalloproteinase-through-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-pulpitis
#13
Yin Bei, Hui Tianqian, Yu Fanyuan, Luo Haiyun, Liao Xueyang, Yang Jing, Wang Chenglin, Ye Ling
INTRODUCTION: Pulpitis is an inflammation of dental pulp produced by a response to external stimuli. The response entails substantial cellular and molecular activities. Both genetic and epigenetic regulators contribute to the occurrence of pulpitis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this research, we studied the role of the absent, small, or homeotic-like (ASH1L) gene in the process of pulpitis. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035377/histone-deacetylases-meet-microrna-associated-mmp-9-expression-regulation-in-glucocorticoid-sensitive-and-resistant-cell-lines
#14
Marwa Hentati-Kallel, Sébastien Le Jan, Philippe Bernard, Frank Antonicelli, Aurélie Trussardi-Régnier
Glucocorticoids are largely used in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies and/or hematological malignancies and regulate the expression of a variety of genes involved in inflammation or metastasis such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Long-term exposure to glucocorticoids can result in failure of responsiveness, which is often associated with an unwanted gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in gene expression modulated after development of glucocorticoid resistance but how these mechanisms take place must be further studied...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035070/elucidation-of-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-landscape-alterations-in-rna-binding-proteins-in-glioblastoma
#15
Shruti Bhargava, Vikas Patil, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam, Kumaravel Somasundaram
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in cancer development. An integrated bioinformatics analysis of RBPs (n = 1756) in various datasets (n = 11) revealed several genetic and epigenetically altered events among RBPs in glioblastoma (GBM). We identified 13 mutated and 472 differentially regulated RBPs in GBM samples. Mutations in AHNAK predicted poor prognosis. Copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation and miRNA targeting contributed to RBP differential regulation. Two sets of differentially regulated RBPs that may be implicated in initial astrocytic transformation and glioma progression were identified...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030845/withdrawn-could-some-epigenetic-modifications-hold-the-key-to-opposing-the-metabolic-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Tarantino, Matteo Nicola Di Minno, Carmine Finelli
Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher.
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030472/epigenetic-divergence-in-the-trpa1-promoter-correlates-with-pressure-pain-thresholds-in-healthy-individuals
#17
Sara Gombert, Mathias Rhein, Mirjam Eberhardt, Tino Münster, Stefan Bleich, Andreas Leffler, Helge Frieling
The expression pattern of important transduction molecules in nociceptive sensory neurons is likely to dictate pain sensitivity. While this notion is well established for increased pain sensitivities under conditions like inflammation and neuropathy, less is known as to which molecules are defining interindividual differences in pain sensitivity in healthy subjects. A genome-wide methylation analysis on monozygotic twins found that methylation of a CpG dinucleotide in the promoter of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is inversely associated with the threshold for heat-induced pain...
December 22, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030376/the-effect-of-obesity-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-inception-and-control
#18
Erick Forno, Juan C Celedón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample and growing evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma and morbidity from asthma. Here, we review recent clinical evidence supporting a causal link between obesity and asthma, and the mechanisms that may lead to 'obese asthma'. RECENT FINDINGS: Although in some children obesity and asthma simply co-occur, those with 'obese asthma' have increased asthma severity, lower quality of life, and reduced medication response. Underlying mechanistic pathways may include anatomical changes of the airways such as obstruction and dysanapsis, systemic inflammation, production of adipokines, impaired glucose-insulin metabolism, altered nutrient levels, genetic and epigenetic changes, and alterations in the airway and/or gut microbiome...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028751/epigenetic-modification-mediates-the-increase-of-lag-3-t-cells-in-chronic-osteomyelitis
#19
Yicun Wang, Jun Wang, Jia Meng, Hui Jiang, Jianning Zhao, Hongbo Qian, Tao Chen
Immune suppression plays critical roles in the development of chronic osteomyelitis, and the mechanisms underlying the development of immune suppression in chronic osteomyelitis have attracted much attention. LAG-3 is an important suppressor of T cell activation, but the role of LAG-3 in the immune regulation of chronic osteomyelitis is currently unknown. We sought to demonstrate if LAG-3 plays crucial roles in chronic osteomyelitis progression and has effects on immune suppression and exhausting of T cells, and what is the mechanism underlying LAG-3 deregulation in chronic osteomyelitis...
December 27, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028029/genetic-basis-and-molecular-pathophysiology-of-classical-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#20
William Vainchenker, Robert Kralovics
The genetic landscape of classical myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) is in large part elucidated. The MPN restricted driver mutations including those in JAK2, calreticulin (CALR) and MPL abnormally activate the cytokine receptor/JAK2 pathway and their downstream effectors, more particularly the STATs. The most frequent mutation, JAK2V617F, activates the three main myeloid cytokine receptors (EPOR, G-CSFR and MPL) whereas CALR or MPL mutants are restricted to MPL activation. This explains why JAK2V617F is associated with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) whereas CALR and MPL mutants are found in ET and PMF...
December 27, 2016: Blood
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