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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909501/decreasing-rates-of-major-lower-extremity-amputation-in-people-with-diabetes-but-not-in-those-without-a-nationwide-study-in-belgium
#1
Heiner Claessen, Herve Avalosse, Joeri Guillaume, Maria Narres, Tatjana Kvitkina, Werner Arend, Stephan Morbach, Patrick Lauwers, Frank Nobels, Jacques Boly, Chris Van Hul, Kris Doggen, Isabelle Dumont, Patricia Felix, Kristien Van Acker, Andrea Icks
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The reduction of major lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) is one of the main goals in diabetes care. Our aim was to estimate annual LEA rates in individuals with and without diabetes in Belgium, and corresponding time trends. METHODS: Data for 2009-2013 were provided by the Belgian national health insurance funds, covering more than 99% of the Belgian population (about 11 million people). We estimated the age-sex standardised annual amputation rate (first per year) in the populations with and without diabetes for major and minor LEAs, and the corresponding relative risks...
June 16, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909283/synergistic-environmental-exposures-and-the-airways-capturing-complexity-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
Chris Carlsten
Paradoxically, the vast majority of research models intended to understand the relationship between exogenous exposures and lung disease are reduced to a single inhalant. This is understandable given the practical challenges of investigation, but is problematic in terms of translation to the real-world human condition. Furthermore, use of data from such models can lead to under-estimation of effect, which may adversely impact regulatory imperatives to protect public health based on the most robust information...
June 14, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909200/epigenetic-control-of-variation-and-stochasticity-in-metabolic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ilaria Panzeri, John Andrew Pospisilik
BACKGROUND: The alarming rise of obesity and its associated comorbidities represents a medical burden and a major global health and economic issue. Understanding etiological mechanisms underpinning susceptibility and therapeutic response is of primary importance. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic diseases are complex trait disorders with only partial genetic heritability, indicating important roles for environmental programing and epigenetic effects. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: We will highlight some of the reasons for the scarce predictability of metabolic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908361/incidence-of-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-new-users-of-low-dose-aspirin
#4
Lucía Cea Soriano, Angel Lanas, Montse Soriano-Gabarró, Luis A García Rodríguez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data on the incidence of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and LGIB) from observational studies of low-dose aspirin users. We aimed to estimate incidence rates of UGIB and LGIB in a large cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin in the United Kingdom, with sub-analyses of hospitalization status and fatalities. METHODS: We performed a population-based study of 199,079 new users of low-dose aspirin (median age, 64...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907914/asylum-seekers-in-a-time-of-record-forced-global-displacement-the-role-of-physicians
#5
Katherine C McKenzie, Jon Bauer, P Preston Reynolds
In 2016, over 65 million individuals were displaced from their homes due to human rights abuses, and 262,000 people applied for asylum in the USA. Individuals who have experienced persecution are present in many primary and specialty clinics. A medical forensic evaluation can increase the likelihood of a successful asylum case. This paper reviews the legal framework for asylum and the contribution forensic evaluations can make to this vulnerable population. Physicians without asylum expertise can help these patients by recognizing their legal right to residential protection and referring them to lawyers and physicians with expert skills...
June 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907343/dietary-supplement-use-in-a-large-representative-sample-of-the-us-armed-forces
#6
Joseph J Knapik, Krista G Austin, Emily K Farina, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement (DS) use is prevalent among the US Armed Forces personnel, but representative cross-service comparisons and characteristics of personnel using DSs are limited. OBJECTIVE: Examine DS use and characteristics associated with use in a representative sample of US Armed Forces personnel (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) using data from the 2011 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sample of service members (SMs) was contacted and asked to complete a questionnaire assessing personal characteristics and DS use...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907336/functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multicentre-study-evaluating-the-clinical-perspective
#7
Maite Barrios, Juana Gómez-Benito, Oscar Pino, Emilio Rojo, Georgina Guilera
Using the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference, this study identifies the most common problems of functioning and the environmental factors that are experienced by patients with schizophrenia. An empirical cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted. Data were collected using a case record form, rated by health professionals, that contained 133 ICF categories and which also gathered clinical and sociodemographic information. A total of 127 patients with schizophrenia participated...
June 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907122/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-clade-e-head-lice-collected-from-niger-s-refugees-in-algeria
#8
Meriem Louni, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Nassima Mana, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Idir Bitam, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUND: Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Phylogenetically, they occur in five divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, C and E), each having a particular geographical distribution. Recent studies have revealed that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Here, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of head lice collected from Niger's refugees (migrant population) arriving in Algeria, northern Africa, and to look for louse-borne pathogens...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907110/differences-in-triage-category-priority-level-and-hospitalization-rate-between-young-old-and-old-old-patients-visiting-the-emergency-department
#9
Sarah Vilpert, Stéfanie Monod, Hélène Jaccard Ruedin, Jürgen Maurer, Lionel Trueb, Bertrand Yersin, Christophe Büla
BACKGROUND: Emergency Department (ED) are challenged by the increasing number of visits made by the heterogeneous population of elderly persons. This study aims to 1) compare chief complaints (triage categories) and level of priority; 2) to investigate their association with hospitalization after an ED visit; 3) to explore factors explaining the difference in hospitalization rates among community-dwelling older adults aged 65-84 vs 85+ years. METHODS: All ED visits of patients age 65 and over that occurred between 2005 and 2010 to the University of Lausanne Medical Center were analyzed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906457/enhanced-perception-of-pitch-changes-in-speech-and-music-in-early-blind-adults
#10
Laureline Arnaud, Vincent Gracco, Lucie Ménard
It is well known that congenitally blind adults have enhanced auditory processing for some tasks. For instance, they show supra-normal capacity to perceive accelerated speech. However, only a few studies have investigated basic auditory processing in this population. In this study, we investigated if pitch processing enhancement in the blind is a domain-general or domain-specific phenomenon, and if pitch processing shares the same properties as in the sighted regarding how scores from different domains are associated...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906432/cuban-epidemic-optic-neuropathy-1991-1993-and-jos%C3%A3-saramago-s-novel-blindness-1995
#11
Robert M Feibel, Jennifer Arch
PURPOSE: This article reviews the history of Cuban Epidemic Optic Neuropathy (1991-1993), which caused visual loss, peripheral neuralgias, and other neurological symptoms in over 50,000 persons, an incidence of almost 0.5% of the entire population. The clinical findings, etiology, and treatment are described. We then relate the Cuban epidemic to the fictional epidemic of contagious blindness depicted by Nobel Laureate José Saramago in his 1995 novel Blindness. This novel describes an unnamed modern city in which all inhabitants, except the ophthalmologist's wife, are affected with a white, not black, blindness...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906431/cataract-surgical-coverage-and-visual-acuity-outcomes-in-rural-china-in-2014-and-comparisons-with-the-2006-china-nine-province-survey
#12
Jialiang Zhao, Xiao Xu, Leon B Ellwein, Huaijin Guan, Mingguang He, Ping Liu, Jianhua Lv, Xunlun Sheng, Peizeng Yang, Jinglin Yi, Ning Cai, Mei Yang, Guangming Jin, Fei Leng, Fengrong Li, Yanping Li, Hong Lu, Wenqiang Shao, Shengfang Song, Yuansheng Yuan, Wenjuan Zhuang, Lei An
PURPOSE: Estimate surgical coverage of cataract-related vision impairment and blindness and visual acuity outcomes in operated eyes in rural China in 2014 with comparisons with the 2006 Nine-Province Survey. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Geographical cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting residents from a rural county or semi-rural district within 9 provinces: Beijing, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hebei, Ningxia, Chongqing and Yunnan...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906262/exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-accelerated-dna-methylation-aging
#13
Jun Li, Xiaoyan Zhu, Kuai Yu, Haijing Jiang, Yizhi Zhang, Biqi Wang, Xuezhen Liu, Siyun Deng, Jie Hu, Qifei Deng, Huizhen Sun, Huan Guo, Xiaomin Zhang, Weihong Chen, Jing Yuan, Meian He, Yansen Bai, Xu Han, Bing Liu, Chuanyao Liu, Yanjun Guo, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Zhang, Frank B Hu, Wenjing Gao, Liming Li, Mark Lathrop, Catherine Laprise, Liming Liang, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: Aging is related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and is affected by environmental factors. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with adverse health outcomes; but the association of such exposure with DNA methylation aging, a novel aging marker, is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association of PAH exposure with methylation aging. METHODS: We trained and validated a methylation age predictor suitable for Chinese populations using whole blood methylation data in 989 Chinese and 160 Caucasians...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905670/behavioral-measures-of-listening-effort-in-school-age-children-examining-the-effects-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-hearing-loss-and-amplification
#14
Ronan McGarrigle, Samantha J Gustafson, Benjamin W Y Hornsby, Fred H Bess
OBJECTIVES: Increased listening effort in school-age children with hearing loss (CHL) could compromise learning and academic achievement. Identifying a sensitive behavioral measure of listening effort for this group could have both clinical and research value. This study examined the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), hearing loss, and personal amplification on 2 commonly used behavioral measures of listening effort: dual-task visual response times (visual RTs) and verbal response times (verbal RTs)...
June 13, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905595/radiation-doses-from-the-norwegian-diet
#15
Mari Komperød, Lavrans Skuterud
Ingestion doses between and within countries are expected to vary significantly due to differences in dietary habits and geographical variations in radionuclide concentrations. This paper presents the most comprehensive assessment to date of the effective radiation dose from the Norwegian diet, from natural as well as anthropogenic radionuclides. Ingestion doses to the Norwegian public are calculated using national dietary statistics and the most relevant radionuclide concentration data for the various food products...
June 13, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905556/association-between-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-cognitive-dysfunction-cross-sectional-study-among-the-population-of-the-turkestan-region
#16
K Madenbay, Zh Shalkharova, Zh Shalkharova, G Nuskabayeva, K Sadykova
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) being a risk factor for many vascular pathologic processes is associated with cognitive dysfunction with vascular genesis. Objective - to study the relationship between clinical and metabolic indicators and the presence of cognitive dysfunction in persons with MetS. A transverse study was conducted in the Turkestan region of Southern Kazakhstan during which a general clinical, laboratory examination and evaluation of cognitive function was performed in 639 patients. To assess the relationship between the MetS, its individual components and cognitive function with Mini Mental State Examination test (MMSE) multinominal logistic regression analysis was used...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905027/increased-risk-of-bone-tumors-after-growth-hormone-treatment-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-france
#17
Amélie Poidvin, Jean-Claude Carel, Emmanuel Ecosse, Dominique Levy, Jean Michon, Joël Coste
The association between growth hormone (GH) treatment and cancer risk has not been thoroughly evaluated and there are questions about any increased risk of bone tumors. We examined cancer risk and especially bone tumor risk in a population-based cohort study of 6874 patients treated with recombinant GH in France for isolated GH deficiency, short stature associated with low birth weight or length or idiopathic short stature. Adult mortality and morbidity data obtained from national databases and from questionnaires...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904991/the-colorectal-surgeon-s-personality-may-influence-the-rectal-anastomotic-decision
#18
S J Moug, N Henderson, C N Tiernan, J Bisset, E Ferguson, D Harji, C Maxwell-Armstrong, E MacDermid, A G Acheson, R J C Steele, N S Fearnhead
AIM: Colorectal surgeons regularly make the decision to anastomose, defunction or form an end colostomy when performing rectal surgery. This study aimed to define personality traits of colorectal surgeons and explore any influence of such traits on the decision to perform a rectal anastomosis. METHOD: 50 attendees of The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland 2016 conference participated. After written consent, all underwent personality testing: alexithymia (inability to understand emotions); type of thinking process (intuitive versus rational) and personality traits (extraversion; agreeableness; openness; emotional stability; conscientiousness)...
June 14, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904626/the-use-of-estrone-3-glucuronide-and-pregnanediol-3-glucuronide-excretion-rates-to-navigate-the-continuum-of-ovarian-activity
#19
REVIEW
Leonard F Blackwell, Delwyn G Cooke, Simon Brown
The patterns of a woman's normal ovarian activity can take many forms from childhood to menopause. These patterns lie on a continuum ranging from no ovarian activity to a fully fertile ovulatory cycle, but among the other defined patterns are cycles with anovulatory ovarian activity, including luteinized unruptured follicles (LUFs), and ovulatory cycles with deficient or short luteal phases. For any woman, these patterns can occur in any order, and one can merge into the next, without an intervening bleed, or be missed entirely...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904446/secondary-salivary-gland-malignancy-in-thyroid-cancer-a-united-states-population-based-study
#20
Eliza Sharma, Suyash Dahal, Pratibha Sharma, Abani Bhandari, Vishal Gupta, Sumit Dahal
Background: There is an increased risk of second primary malignancies with thyroid cancer. However, the risk and characters of secondary salivary gland malignancy (sSGM) in patients with thyroid cancer have not been evaluated before. Methods: We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 registry to identify thyroid cancer patients from 1973 to 2014. We then calculated the risk of sSGM using standardized incidence ratio and excess risk. Separately, all cases of primary salivary gland malignancy (pSGM) diagnosed between 1973 - 2014 were extracted from the SEER 18 registry, and their characteristics compared with sSGM using independent samples t -test for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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