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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457923/flipping-social-determinants-on-its-head-medical-student-perspectives-on-the-flipped-classroom-and-simulated-patients-to-teach-social-determinants-of-health
#1
N Gostelow, J Barber, F Gishen, A Berlin
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. INNOVATION: A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457844/effect-of-type-d-personality-on-smoking-status-and-their-combined-impact-on-outcome-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Egidio Imbalzano, Marco Vatrano, Sebastiano Quartuccio, Roberto Ceravolo, Vincenzo Antonio Ciconte, Paola Rotella, Renato Pardeo, Giovanni Trapani, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Rossella Costantino, Antonino Saitta, Giuseppe Mandraffino
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is correlated with several psychological, social, biological, and pharmacological aspects. The combined tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression of these emotions is indicated as "type D personality," an independent risk marker for clinical outcome in cardiac disease. Despite this effect of type D personality on cardiovascular disease, it is still unclear whether this personality trait may influence smoking cessation after a myocardial infarction...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457743/a-framework-for-complexity-in-palliative-care-a-qualitative-study-with-patients-family-carers-and-professionals
#3
Sophie Pask, Cathryn Pinto, Katherine Bristowe, Liesbeth van Vliet, Caroline Nicholson, Catherine J Evans, Rob George, Katharine Bailey, Joanna M Davies, Ping Guo, Barbara A Daveson, Irene J Higginson, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Palliative care patients are often described as complex but evidence on complexity is limited. We need to understand complexity, including at individual patient-level, to define specialist palliative care, characterise palliative care populations and meaningfully compare interventions/outcomes. AIM: To explore palliative care stakeholders' views on what makes a patient more or less complex and insights on capturing complexity at patient-level. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews, analysed using Framework analysis...
February 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457582/green-leafy-and-cruciferous-vegetable-consumption-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-singapore-chinese-health-study-and-meta-analysis
#4
Guo-Chong Chen, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Li-Qiang Qin, Rob M van Dam
Several previous prospective studies suggest that consumption of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between consumption of different types of vegetables in relation to T2D risk in an Asian Population. We included 45 411 participants (age range: 45-74 years) of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) free of diabetes, cancer or CVD at baseline (1993-1998). Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Physician-diagnosed incident diabetes was reported at follow-up I (1999-2004) and II (2006-2010) interviews...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#5
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457230/impact-of-hand-eczema-on-quality-of-life-metropolitan-versus-non-metropolitan-areas
#6
Line B Nørreslet, Tove Agner, Jennifer A Sørensen, Niels E Ebbehøj, Jens P Bonde, Maja H Fisker
BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between disease severity and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in patients with hand eczema is well established, but modifying effects of demographic variables have been less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To identify the influence of metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence on the relationship between disease severity and HR-QoL in patients with occupational hand eczema. METHODS: The city of Copenhagen and the rest of Zealand were defined as metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457142/cross-country-association-of-press-freedom-and-lgbt-freedom-with-prevalence-of-persons-living-with-hiv-implication-for-global-strategy-against-hiv-aids
#7
Xinguang Chen, Amy L Elliott, Shuang Wang
Background: Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level. Methods: Data were the number of persons living with HIV (PLWH, n = 35,468,911) for 148 countries during 2011-15, press freedom index (PFI) determined by the Reporters Without Borders, and LGBT freedom index (LGBT-FI) based on laws regulating same-sex relationships and expression...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456888/an-observational-study-on-risk-of-secondary-cancers-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-the-tki-era-in-the-united-states
#8
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Abhinav Binod Chandra
Introduction: The treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. This study was conducted to examine the risk of secondary cancers (SCs) in the CML patients who were diagnosed and treated in the TKI era in the United States. Methods: The surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to identify CML patients who were diagnosed and received treatment during January 2002-December 2014...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456338/study-of-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-in-participants-with-regular-intake-of-lathyrus-but-no-spastic-paraparesis
#9
Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia, Abhishek Pathak, Smriti Singh, Deepika Joshi, Vijay Nath Mishra
Background and Purpose: Neurolathyrism is now a disease of the past and also the causative agent, Lathyrus sativus (Khesari Pulse or keerai in Local Hindi and Bhojpuri language) has now been proven to be harmless and has become part of the usual diet. Materials and Methods: The population at risk was screened and studied for demography, economic status, knowledge about Khesari pulse, awareness about so-called harmful effects of Khesari pulse intake in humans, and the effects of ban of Khesari pulse on the population which is using Lathyrus (Khesari) as a major source of pulse since the past 4 years through a questionnaire of three pages...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456307/awareness-knowledge-and-attitude-of-patients-toward-dental-implants-a-questionnaire-based-prospective-study
#10
Rajesh Hosadurga, Tenneti Shanti, Shashikanth Hegde, Rajesh Shankar Kashyap, Suryanarayan Maiya Arunkumar
Background: In developing nations like India awareness and education about dental implants as a treatment modality is still scanty. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of patients toward dental implants as a treatment modality among the general population and to assess the influence of personality characteristics on accepting dental implants as a treatment modality in general and as well as treatment group. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire-based survey was conducted on 500 randomly selected participants attending the outpatient department...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455896/layered-stigma-co-occurring-depression-and-obesity-in-the-public-eye
#11
Claudia Luck-Sikorski, Georg Schomerus, Thomas Jochum, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVES: Obesity and depression are common conditions in the general public and show a high level of co-morbidity. Both conditions are stigmatized, i.e., associated with negative attitudes and discrimination. Previous research shows that devalued conditions can overlap or combine to produce a layered stigma which is associated with more negative health outcomes than either single devalued condition alone. This study therefore set out to investigate the double stigma of obesity and depression...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455692/a-non-invasive-assessment-of-skin-carotenoid-status-through-reflection-spectroscopy-is-a-feasible-reliable-and-potentially-valid-measure-of-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-a-diverse-community-sample
#12
Stephanie Bell Jilcott Pitts, Lisa Jahns, Qiang Wu, Nancy E Moran, Ronny A Bell, Kimberly P Truesdale, Melissa N Laska
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of reflection spectroscopy (RS) to assess skin carotenoids in a racially diverse sample. DESIGN: Study 1 was a cross-sectional study of corner store customers (n 479) who completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Screener as well as RS measures. Feasibility was assessed by examining the time it took to complete three RS measures, reliability was assessed by examining the variation between three RS measures, and validity was examined by correlation with self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455443/narcissistic-implications-in-gambling-disorder-the-mediating-role-of-emotion-dysregulation
#13
Guyonne Rogier, Patrizia Velotti
Gambling Disorder (GD) is a complex psychopathology involving a numbers of cognitive, behavioral, emotional and neurobiological determinants. Previous research suggests that GD may frequently co-occur with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. However, there is still a lack of study investigating Pathological Narcissism (PN) in both its vulnerable and grandiose facets among clinical population. Moreover, emotional dysregulation is commonly thought to underlie GD albeit research on this topic remains poor. The present study aims to investigate the role of both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism in relation to GD as well as the mediator role played by emotion dysregulation in such link...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455310/germans-learn-how-to-save-lives-a-nationwide-cpr-education-initiative
#14
Manuela Malsy, Richard Leberle, Bernhard Graf
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany and the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Yet, the percentage of people providing first aid in the case of sudden cardiac arrest in Germany is alarmingly low by international comparison. Training Germans or reminding them of the simple but effective steps of resuscitation, so that everybody can save a live in an emergency. METHODS: For the campaign 'Resuscitation Week', physicians and paramedics trained passers-by in cardiovascular resuscitation free of charge...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455040/a-simple-method-for-calculating-the-likelihood-ratio-in-a-kinship-test-using-x-chromosomal-markers-incorporating-linkage-linkage-disequilibrium-and-mutation
#15
Mamiko Fukuta, Mohammed Hassan Gaballah, Hideaki Kato, Yasuhiro Aoki
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are useful for personal identification and kinship tests. However, it has not yet been fully established how to incorporate linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) into the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR). In this paper, we describe a simple calculation method of LR for X-STRs that incorporated linkage, LD, and mutations. Initially, Japanese population data of 27 X-STRs (DXS6807, DXS9902, DXS6795, DXS6810, DXS10076, DXS10077, DXS10078, DXS10162, DXS10163, DXS10164, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS10103, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS8377, DXS10147, and DXS7423) were collected from 748 unrelated individuals to estimate the influence of LD...
February 12, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454821/mortality-in-single-fathers-compared-with-single-mothers-and-partnered-parents-a-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Simone Vigod, Cindy Lau, John Cairney, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Single parent families, including families headed by single fathers, are becoming increasingly common around the world. Previous evidence suggests that single parenthood is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased mortality; however, most studies have focused on single mothers, with little known about the health of single fathers. This study aimed to examine mortality in a large population-based sample of Canadian single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered fathers and mothers...
February 14, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454820/il12b-il23a-il23r-and-hla-c-06-genetic-variants-in-psoriasis-susceptibility-and-response-to-treatment
#17
Adriana Bojko, Roksana Ostasz, Monika Białecka, Adam Klimowicz, Damian Malinowski, Robert Budawski, Piotr Bojko, Marek Droździk, Mateusz Kurzawski
The role of interleukin-23 is crucial in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and IL23A, IL12B and IL23R genetic variants have been associated with the disease in genome-wide association studies. In the current paper we have conducted a confirmation study of the abovementioned genetic factors in a case-control analysis of 507 psoriatic patients and 396 controls from a Polish population, and subsequently analyzed the impact of genetic variants on response to topical and NB-UVB therapy in a subset of 306 patients. Case-control analysis revealed an association of IL12B rs3212227 and IL23R rs11209026 minor allele carrier status with reduced odds for psoriasis (OR = 0...
February 15, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454697/symposium-review-building-a-better-cow-the-australian-experience-and-future-perspectives
#18
J E Pryce, T T T Nguyen, M Axford, G Nieuwhof, M Shaffer
Genomic selection has led to opportunities for developing new breeding values that rely on phenotypes in dedicated reference populations of genotyped cows. In Australia, it has been applied to 2 novel traits: feed efficiency, which was released in 2015 as feed saved breeding values, and heat tolerance genomic breeding values, released for the first time in 2017. Feed saved is already included in the national breeding objective, which is focused on profitability and designed to be in line with farmer preferences...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454389/recruitment-of-racial-and-ethnic-minorities-to-clinical-trials-conducted-within-specialty-clinics-an-intervention-mapping-approach
#19
Rossybelle P Amorrortu, Mariana Arevalo, Sally W Vernon, Arch G Mainous, Vanessa Diaz, M Diane McKee, Marvella E Ford, Barbara C Tilley
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to increase diversity in clinical trials, racial/ethnic minority groups generally remain underrepresented, limiting researchers' ability to test the efficacy and safety of new interventions across diverse populations. We describe the use of a systematic framework, intervention mapping (IM), to develop an intervention to modify recruitment behaviors of coordinators and specialist investigators with the goal of increasing diversity in trials conducted within specialty clinics...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454115/traumatic-spinal-injury-global-epidemiology-and-worldwide-volume
#20
Ramesh Kumar, Jaims Lim, Rania A Mekary, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Salman Y Sharif, Enrique Osorio-Fonseca, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous and/or neurological structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies published from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank income groups using random effect models...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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