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Personalized risk prediction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818717/the-effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-risk-of-developing-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#1
Ahmed N Hassan, Bernard Le Foll, Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. METHODS: We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818420/predicting-sexual-assault-perpetration-in-the-u-s-army-using-administrative-data
#2
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration. METHODS: This study investigated administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration among the 821,807 male Army soldiers serving 2004-2009...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818096/immunohistochemical-prognostic-markers-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review
#3
Chunni Wang, Jingnan Wang, Zhaoli Chen, Yibo Gao, Jie He
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy, with a high incidence and poor prognosis. In the past several decades, hundreds of proteins have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of ESCC, but none has been widely accepted to guide clinical care. This study aimed to identify proteins with great potential for predicting prognosis of ESCC. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on immunohistochemical (IHC) prognostic markers of ESCC according to the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines...
August 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#4
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815129/sdt-a-tree-method-for-detecting-patient-subgroups-with-personalized-risk-factors
#5
Xiangrui Li, Dongxiao Zhu, Ming Dong, Milad Zafar Nezhad, Alexander Janke, Phillip D Levy
Eradicating health disparity is a new focus for precision medicine research. Identifying patient subgroups is an effective approach to customized treatments for maximizing efficiency in precision medicine. Some features may be important risk factors for specific patient subgroups but not necessarily for others, resulting in a potential divergence in treatments designed for a given population. In this paper, we propose a tree-based method, called Subgroup Detection Tree (SDT), to detect patient subgroups with personalized risk factors...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812439/evaluating-disease-prediction-models-using-a-cohort-whose-covariate-distribution-differs-from-that-of-the-target-population
#6
Scott Powers, Valerie McGuire, Leslie Bernstein, Alison J Canchola, Alice S Whittemore
Personal predictive models for disease development play important roles in chronic disease prevention. The performance of these models is evaluated by applying them to the baseline covariates of participants in external cohort studies, with model predictions compared to subjects' subsequent disease incidence. However, the covariate distribution among participants in a validation cohort may differ from that of the population for which the model will be used. Since estimates of predictive model performance depend on the distribution of covariates among the subjects to which it is applied, such differences can cause misleading estimates of model performance in the target population...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810983/evaluation-of-a-novel-field-expedient-musculoskeletal-readiness-screening-tool-in-an-army-basic-training-population
#7
Darren Hearn, Daniel Rhon, Donald Goss, Mark Thelen
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries present a significant challenge to military readiness accounting for over 29% of ambulatory medical visits and 25 million limited duty days across the U.S. Army. Although U.S. Military Health Systems perform periodic general health and deployment assessments, there is no validated tool to determine when a service member is at increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury. METHOD: 292 U.S. Army basic training recruits completed a novel injury screening test called the Musculoskeletal Readiness Screening Tool (MRST)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#8
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810502/brief-report-how-short-is-too-short-an-ultra-brief-measure-of-the-big-five-personality-domains-implicates-agreeableness-as-a-risk-for-all-cause-mortality
#9
Benjamin P Chapman, Ari J Elliot
Controversy exists over the use of brief Big Five scales in health studies. We investigated links between an ultra-brief measure, the Big Five Inventory-10, and mortality in the General Social Survey. The Agreeableness scale was associated with elevated mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.26, p = .017). This effect was attributable to the reversed-scored item "Tends to find fault with others," so that greater fault-finding predicted lower mortality risk. The Conscientiousness scale approached meta-analytic estimates, which were not precise enough for significance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810365/will-personal-values-predict-the-development-of-smoking-and-drinking-behaviors-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-children-and-adolescents-in-taiwan
#10
Hsi-Ping Nieh, Wen-Chi Wu, Dih-Ling Luh, Lee-Lan Yen, Baai-Shyun Hurng, Hsing-Yi Chang
This study examined how personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors in adolescence. The longitudinal data of 1545 adolescents over a 6-year period were analyzed. The results showed that adolescents who valued health and academics had similarly lower odds of reporting cigarette and alcohol use and those who valued friends had significantly higher odds. While the odds increased over time, the trend on alcohol use lessened for adolescents who valued academics, while the trend accelerated for those who valued friends...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#11
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805827/transcriptional-risk-scores-link-gwas-to-eqtls-and-predict-complications-in-crohn-s-disease
#12
Urko M Marigorta, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey S Hyams, Kajari Mondal, Jarod Prince, Thomas D Walters, Anne Griffiths, Joshua D Noe, Wallace V Crandall, Joel R Rosh, David R Mack, Richard Kellermayer, Melvin B Heyman, Susan S Baker, Michael C Stephens, Robert N Baldassano, James F Markowitz, Mi-Ok Kim, Marla C Dubinsky, Judy Cho, Bruce J Aronow, Subra Kugathasan, Greg Gibson
Gene expression profiling can be used to uncover the mechanisms by which loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathology. Given that most GWAS hits are in putative regulatory regions and transcript abundance is physiologically closer to the phenotype of interest, we hypothesized that summation of risk-allele-associated gene expression, namely a transcriptional risk score (TRS), should provide accurate estimates of disease risk. We integrate summary-level GWAS and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data with RNA-seq data from the RISK study, an inception cohort of pediatric Crohn's disease...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805407/stressor-related-drinking-and-future-alcohol-problems-among-university-students
#13
Michael A Russell, David M Almeida, Jennifer L Maggs
Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models...
August 14, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805400/anxiety-and-depression-as-bidirectional-risk-factors-for-one-another-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#14
Nicholas C Jacobson, Michelle G Newman
Not only do anxiety and depression diagnoses tend to co-occur, but their symptoms are highly correlated. Although a plethora of research has examined longitudinal associations between anxiety and depression, these data have not yet been effectively synthesized. To address this need, the current study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 66 studies involving 88,336 persons examining the prospective relationship between anxiety and depression at both symptom and disorder levels. Using mixed-effect models, results suggested that all types of anxiety symptoms predicted later depressive symptoms (r = ...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803953/fibrosis-stage-but-not-nash-predicts-mortality-and-time-to-development-of-severe-liver-disease-in-biopsy-proven-nafld
#15
Hannes Hagström, Patrik Nasr, Mattias Ekstedt, Ulf Hammar, Per Stål, Rolf Hultcrantz, Stergios Kechagias
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly common in the general population, but identifying patients with increased risk for mortality and liver-specific morbidity remains a challenge. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is thought to enhance this risk; therefore, resolution of NASH is a major endpoint in current pharmacologic studies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 646 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Each case was matched for age, sex and municipality to ten controls...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797822/mental-health-nurses-emotions-exposure-to-patient-aggression-attitudes-to-and-use-of-coercive-measures-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#16
Rahul Jalil, Jorg W Huber, Judith Sixsmith, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: Mental health nurses are exposed to patient aggression, and required to manage and de-escalate aggressive incidents; coercive measures such as restraint and seclusion should only be used as a last resort. An improved understanding of links between nurses' exposure to aggression, attitudes to, and actual involvement in, coercive measures, and their emotions (anger, guilt, fear, fatigue, sadness), could inform preparation and education for prevention and management of violence...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797781/prognostic-scoring-systems-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-where-do-we-stand
#17
REVIEW
Rashmika Potdar, Gabor Varadi, Joshua Fein, Myriam Labopin, Arnon Nagler, Roni Shouval
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment for many hematologic disorders. Maximizing the benefit of transplantation for disease control while minimizing the risk for associated complications remains the field's leading challenge. This has prompted the development of multiple prognostic scoring systems over the last two decades. Prognostic scores can be used for informed decision making, better patient counseling, design of interventional trials and analysis of prospective and retrospective data...
August 7, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797024/cha2ds2-vasc-score-warfarin-use-and-risk-for-thromboembolic-events-among-hiv-infected-persons-with-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Katherine Hsin-Yu Chau, Rebecca Scherzer, Carl Grunfeld, Priscilla Ying Hsue, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the HIV-infected population is growing, but the ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc score to predict thromboembolic (TE) risk is unknown in this population. SETTING: Within the Veterans Affairs HIV Clinical Case Registry, 914 patients had an atrial fibrillation diagnosis between 1997 and 2011 and no previous TE events. METHODS: We compared TE incidence by CHA2DS2-VASc scores and stratified by warfarin use...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797021/personalized-risk-index-for-neurocognitive-decline-among-people-with-well-controlled-hiv-infection
#19
Tracy Yuen, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Nancy Mayo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. METHODS: As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796930/recurrence-associated-gene-signature-optimizes-recurrence-free-survival-prediction-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Xianglong Tian, Xiaoqiang Zhu, Tingting Yan, Chenyang Yu, Chaoqin Shen, Ye Hu, Jie Hong, Haoyan Chen, Jing-Yuan Fang
High throughput gene expression profiling has showed great promise in providing insight into molecular mechanisms. Metastasis-related mRNAs may potentially enrich genes with the ability to predict cancer recurrence,therefore we attempted to build a recurrence-associated gene signature to improve prognostic prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified 2848 differentially expressed mRNAs by analyzing CRC tissues with or without metastasis. For the selection of prognostic genes, a LASSO Cox regression model was employed...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Oncology
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