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Personalized risk prediction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443607/novel-approaches-for-the-promotion-of-physical-activity-and-exercise-for-prevention-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
R Arena, M Sagner, N M Byrne, A D Williams, A McNeil, S J Street, A P Hills
Despite increased evidence for the importance of lifestyle modification, physical activity and diet in diabetes prevention and management, habitual physical activity levels have declined in recent decades in China and India. Further, other risk factors for type 2 diabetes, including overweight, obesity and physical inactivity, have also worsened. Here we present evidence for the importance of physical activity and exercise in the amelioration of type 2 diabetes and propose a novel approach to address the challenge of improving lifestyle behaviors in China and India-Movement is Medicine and a P4 (predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) approach...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443477/psychotherapist-trainees-professional-self-doubt-and-negative-personal-reaction-changes-during-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-association-with-patient-progress
#2
Patrizia Odyniec, Thomas Probst, Jürgen Margraf, Ulrike Willutzki
OBJECTIVE: This study examined psychotherapist trainees' experiences of "professional self-doubt" (PSD) and "negative personal reaction" (NPR) during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and their associations with patients' symptoms and interpersonal problems. METHOD: Forty therapists treating 621 patients were analyzed. Patients' symptoms and interpersonal problems were collected repeatedly during therapy. Data about patients' interpersonal problems were available only for 106 patients and 18 therapists...
April 26, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442506/genome-wide-association-studies-of-chemotherapeutic-toxicities-genomics-of-inequality
#3
Brandon Mapes, Omar El Charif, Shereen Al-Sawwaf, M Eileen Dolan
With an estimated global population of cancer survivors exceeding 32 million and growing, there is a heightened awareness of the long-term toxicities resulting from cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. Unexplained heterogeneity in the persistence and development of toxicities, as well as an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms have generated a growing need for the identification of predictive pharmacogenomic markers. Early studies addressing this need used a candidate gene approach; however, over the last decade, unbiased and comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided markers of phenotypic risk and potential targets to explore the mechanistic and regulatory pathways of biological functions associated with chemotherapeutic toxicity...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438788/associations-between-persistent-organic-pollutants-type-2-diabetes-diabetic-nephropathy-and-mortality
#4
Brian A Grice, Robert G Nelson, Desmond E Williams, William C Knowler, Clinton Mason, Robert L Hanson, Kai McKeever Bullard, Meda E Pavkov
OBJECTIVE: Relationships were examined between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and incident type 2 diabetes, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 300 persons without diabetes had baseline examinations between 1969 and 1974; 149 developed diabetes (cases) and 151 remained non-diabetic (controls) during 8.0 and 23.1 years of follow-up, respectively. POPs were measured at baseline. ORs for diabetes were computed by logistic regression analysis...
April 24, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433549/influence-of-negative-life-events-and-widowhood-on-risk-for-dementia
#5
Lotte Gerritsen, Hui-Xin Wang, Chandra A Reynolds, Laura Fratiglioni, Margaret Gatz, Nancy L Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of negative life events and widowhood on the incidence of dementia. METHODS: Data were from four Swedish longitudinal cohort studies with a total of nearly 2,000 participants and 8-25 years of follow-up. Seven stressful events were examined for which data were available in all cohorts. Clinical dementia diagnoses were made through medical and psychological examinations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between life events and dementia, adjusting for lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430339/characterization-of-a-rare-nonpathogenic-sequence-variant-c-1905c-t-of-the-dihydropyrimidine-dehydrogenase-gene-dpyd
#6
Raffaele Palmirotta, Domenica Lovero, Erica Silvestris, Claudia Carella, Claudia Felici, Davide Quaresmini, Paola Cafforio, Franco Silvestris
BACKGROUND: In the era of precision medicine, the suitability of fluoropyrimidine therapies in clinical oncology can be checked by pharmacogenetic investigations of single patients, thus optimizing resources and indicating the appropriate drugs to personalize their chemotherapy. For example, the presence of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) polymorphisms in cancer patients may lead to adverse effects when adopting fluoropyrimidine-based therapies. METHODS: We detected in a cancer patient a rare germline synonymous heterozygous variant of DPYD (c...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429955/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-predict-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-a-population-based-cohort
#7
Immi Kormi, Mikko T Nieminen, Aki S Havulinna, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa, Veikko Salomaa, Pirkko J Pussinen
Background Extracellular matrix degrading proteases and their regulators play an important role in atherogenesis and subsequent plaque rupture leading to acute cardiovascular manifestations. Design and methods In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 concentrations, the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-8/ tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and, for comparison, myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein concentrations for incident cardiovascular disease endpoints...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428756/neck-circumference-is-associated-with-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-men-but-not-women
#8
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Paul J Nestel, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Markus P Schlaich, Sarah E Phillips, Elisabeth A Lambert
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of NC to muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) within an overweight and obese population. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Un-medicated persons (72 men, 53 postmenopausal women) aged 56 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM) with body mass index (BMI) 32.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), were studied. NC was measured together with traditional anthropometric measures, supine blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, insulin, and glucose...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427475/protocol-a-systematic-review-of-studies-developing-and-or-evaluating-search-strategies-to-identify-prognosis-studies
#9
Nadia Corp, Joanne L Jordan, Jill A Hayden, Emma Irvin, Robin Parker, Andrea Smith, Danielle A van der Windt
BACKGROUND: Prognosis research is on the rise, its importance recognised because chronic health conditions and diseases are increasingly common and costly. Prognosis systematic reviews are needed to collate and synthesise these research findings, especially to help inform effective clinical decision-making and healthcare policy. A detailed, comprehensive search strategy is central to any systematic review. However, within prognosis research, this is challenging due to poor reporting and inconsistent use of available indexing terms in electronic databases...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426694/prediction-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort-using-a-set-of-risk-factors-from-pooled-cohort-risk-equations
#10
Zefeng Zhang, Cathleen Gillespie, Barbara Bowman, Quanhe Yang
The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association developed Pooled Cohort equations to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. It is unclear how well the equations predict ASCVD mortality in a nationally representative cohort. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and Linked Mortality through 2006 (n = 6,644). Among participants aged 40-79 years without ASCVD at baseline, we used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the 10-year probability of ASCVD death by sex and race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Mexican American (MA))...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425734/a-within-person-approach-to-risk-for-suicidal-ideation-and-suicidal-behavior-examining-the-roles-of-depression-stress-and-abuse-exposure
#11
Adam Bryant Miller, Tory Eisenlohr-Moul, Matteo Giletta, Paul D Hastings, Karen D Rudolph, Matthew K Nock, Mitchell J Prinstein
OBJECTIVE: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. METHOD: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425123/a-5-year-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-italian-alcoholics-hospital-admissions-and-overall-survival
#12
Gabriele Bardazzi, Ines Zanna, Marco Ceroti, Benedetta Bendinelli, Adriana Iozzi, Saverio Caini, Gabriella Nesi, Calogero Saieva
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-X criteria, can be potentially lethal, since they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aims to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424163/clinical-significance-of-somatic-mutation-in-unexplained-blood-cytopenia
#13
Luca Malcovati, Anna Gallì, Erica Travaglino, Ilaria Ambaglio, Ettore Rizzo, Elisabetta Molteni, Chiara Elena, Virginia Valeria Ferretti, Silvia Catricalà, Elisa Bono, Gabriele Todisco, Antonio Bianchessi, Elisa Rumi, Silvia Zibellini, Daniela Pietra, Emanuela Boveri, Clara Camaschella, Daniela Toniolo, Elli Papaemmanuil, Seishi Ogawa, Mario Cazzola
Unexplained blood cytopenias, in particular anemia, are often found in older persons. The relationship between these cytopenias and myeloid neoplasms like myelodysplastic syndromes is currently poorly defined. We studied a prospective cohort of patients with unexplained cytopenia with the aim to estimate the predictive value of somatic mutations for identifying subjects with, or at risk of developing a myeloid neoplasm. The study included a learning cohort of 683 consecutive patients investigated for unexplained cytopenia, and a validation cohort of 190 patients referred for suspected myeloid neoplasm...
April 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422918/reassessing-the-cardiac-box-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-thoracic-gunshot-wounds-and-cardiac-injury
#14
Rashi Jhunjhunwala, Michael J Mina, Elizabeth I Roger, Christopher J Dente, Michael Heninger, Jacquelyn S Carr, Stacy D Dougherty, Rondi B Gelbard, Jeffrey M Nicholas, Amy D Wyrzykowski, David V Feliciano, Bryan C Morse
BACKGROUND: High energy missiles can cause cardiac injury regardless of entrance site. This study assesses the adequacy of the anatomic borders of the current "cardiac box" to predict cardiac injury. METHODS: Retrospective autopsy review was performed to identify patients with penetrating torso gunshot wounds 2011-2013. Using a circumferential grid system around the thorax, logistic regression analysis was performed to detect differences in rates of cardiac injury from entrance/exit wounds in the "cardiac box" vs...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421009/food-addiction-in-gambling-disorder-frequency-and-clinical-outcomes
#15
Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Roser Granero, Ines Wolz, Marta Baño, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Zaida Agüera, Anke Hinney, Carlos Diéguez, Felipe F Casanueva, Ashley N Gearhardt, Anders Hakansson, José M Menchón, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Background: The food addiction (FA) model is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. Available empirical evidence suggests that this condition may play an important role in the development and course of physical and mental health conditions such as obesity, eating disorders, and other addictive behaviors. However, no epidemiological data exist on the comorbidity of FA and gambling disorder (GD), or on the phenotype for the co-occurrence of GD+FA. Objectives: To determine the frequency of the comorbid condition GD+FA, to assess whether this comorbidity features a unique clinical profile compared to GD without FA, and to generate predictive models for the presence of FA in a GD sample...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417242/combined-use-of-the-multidimensional-prognostic-index-mpi-and-procalcitonin-serum-levels-in-predicting-1-month-mortality-risk-in-older-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap-a-prospective-study
#16
Alberto Pilotto, Simone Dini, Julia Daragjati, Manuela Miolo, Monica Maria Mion, Andrea Fontana, Mario Lo Storto, Martina Zaninotto, Alberto Cella, Paolo Carraro, Filomena Addante, Massimiliano Copetti, Mario Plebani
BACKGROUND: Several scores and biomarkers, i.e., procalcitonin (PCT), were proposed to stratify the mortality risk in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). AIM: Evaluating prognostic accuracy of PCT and Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) for 1-month mortality risk in older patients with CAP. METHODS: At hospital admission and at discharge, patients were evaluated by a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to calculate MPI. Serum PCT was measured at admission and 1, 3, and 5 days after hospital admission...
April 17, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417158/incidence-and-predictive-factors-of-internet-addiction-among-chinese-secondary-school-students-in-hong-kong-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Joseph T F Lau, Danielle L Gross, Anise M S Wu, Kit-Man Cheng, Mason M C Lau
PURPOSE: Internet use has global influences on all aspects of life and has become a growing concern. Cross-sectional studies on Internet addiction (IA) have been reported but causality is often unclear. More longitudinal studies are warranted. METHODS: We investigated incidence and predictors of IA conversion among secondary school students. A 12-month longitudinal study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese Secondary 1-4 students (N = 8286). Using the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS; cut-off >63), non-IA cases were identified at baseline...
April 17, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415879/depressive-symptom-trajectories-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-a-systematic-review
#18
Klaus Oliver Schubert, Scott R Clark, Linh K Van, Jane L Collinson, Bernhard T Baune
OBJECTIVE: In adolescents and young adults, depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and dynamic. For clinicians, it is difficult to determine whether a young person reporting depressive symptoms is at risk of developing ongoing mood difficulties or whether symptoms form part of a transient maturational process. Trajectory analyses of longitudinally assessed symptoms in large cohorts have the potential to untangle clinical heterogeneity by determining subgroups or classes of symptom course and their risk factors, by interrogating the impact of known or suspected risk factors on trajectory slope and intercept and by tracing the interrelation between depressive symptoms and other clinical outcomes over time...
May 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415870/longitudinal-changes-in-the-antecedent-and-early-manifest-course-of-bipolar-disorder-a-narrative-review-of-prospective-studies
#19
Andrea Pfennig, Karolina Leopold, Philipp Ritter, Anne Böhme, Emanuel Severus, Michael Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Prospective study designs ideally allow patients to be followed from the first manifestations of the illness or even from an at-risk stage. It can thus provide data on the predictive value of changes in clinical symptomatology, cognition or further biological markers to broaden our understanding of the etiopathology and symptomatic trajectory of bipolar disorders. The scope of this narrative review is to summarize evidence from prospectively collected data on psychopathological and other clinical and biological changes in the early developmental course of bipolar disorders...
May 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415743/survival-differences-of-cimp-subtypes-integrated-with-cna-information-in-human-breast-cancer
#20
Huihan Wang, Weili Yan, Shumei Zhang, Yue Gu, Yihan Wang, Yanjun Wei, Hongbo Liu, Fang Wang, Qiong Wu, Yan Zhang
CpG island methylator phenotype of breast cancer is associated with widespread aberrant methylation at specified CpG islands and distinct patient outcomes. However, the influence of copy number contributing to the prognosis of tumors with different CpG island methylator phenotypes is still unclear. We analyzed both genetic (copy number) and epigenetic alterations in 765 breast cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas data portal and got a panel of 15 biomarkers for copy number and methylation status evaluation...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
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