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Precision medicine risk prediction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901647/a-decade-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-risk-models-what-have-we-learned-from-them-and-where-are-we-going
#1
Michael Zhang, Paul N Baird
The genomic revolution has revealed the complexity of multifactorial diseases, making the development of effective diagnostics extremely challenging. In turn, the prospect of precision medicine as applied through targeted therapeutic treatments continues to remain largely elusive. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as a complex disease falls under this category, despite it being one of the most well characterized multifactorial diseases. This reflects both the extent of identified genetic components and known environmental risk factors...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899774/-a-review-multigene-assays-for-clinical-utility-in-breast-cancer
#2
Kazuhiro Araki, Yoshinori Ito
Multigene assays that simultaneously measure the expression of various breast cancer genes have been developed to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. The efficacy of adjuvant therapies depends on the recurrence risk for an individual patient. As a result, accurate prediction of the recurrence risk is vital for precise adjuvant chemotherapy in individual breast cancer patients. The recurrence risk as typically assessed by conventional examination of histological data of immuno-histological biomarkers(ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67)is not sufficient to select subsets of patients...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881558/the-american-heart-association-s-new-institute-for%C3%A2-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#3
Steven R Houser
"One size does not fit all." These 6 simple words represent the fundamental concept driving an unprecedented initiative of the American Heart Association, the Institute for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine. In the field of heart disease and stroke research, we have seen enormous knowledge advances in recent decades, all of which have led to breakthroughs in our ability to treat and prevent these illnesses. We celebrate these advances because they are allowing us to save and improve more lives than ever before...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864403/using-group-data-to-treat-individuals-understanding-heterogeneous-treatment-effects-in-the-age-of-precision-medicine-and-patient-centred-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Issa J Dahabreh, Rodney Hayward, David M Kent
Although often conflated, determining the best treatment for an individual (the task of a doctor) is fundamentally different from determining the average effect of treatment in a population (the purpose of a trial). In this paper, we review concepts of heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE) essential in providing the evidence base for precision medicine and patient-centred care, and explore some inherent limitations of using group data (e.g. from a randomized trial) to guide treatment decisions for individuals...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819294/big-genomics-and-clinical-data-analytics-strategies-for-precision-cancer-prognosis
#5
Ghim Siong Ow, Vladimir A Kuznetsov
The field of personalized and precise medicine in the era of big data analytics is growing rapidly. Previously, we proposed our model of patient classification termed Prognostic Signature Vector Matching (PSVM) and identified a 37 variable signature comprising 36 let-7b associated prognostic significant mRNAs and the age risk factor that stratified large high-grade serous ovarian cancer patient cohorts into three survival-significant risk groups. Here, we investigated the predictive performance of PSVM via optimization of the prognostic variable weights, which represent the relative importance of one prognostic variable over the others...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807747/text-mining-for-precision-medicine-bringing-structure-to-ehrs-and-biomedical-literature-to-understand-genes-and-health
#6
Michael Simmons, Ayush Singhal, Zhiyong Lu
The key question of precision medicine is whether it is possible to find clinically actionable granularity in diagnosing disease and classifying patient risk. The advent of next-generation sequencing and the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have provided clinicians and researchers a wealth of data and made possible the precise characterization of individual patient genotypes and phenotypes. Unstructured text-found in biomedical publications and clinical notes-is an important component of genotype and phenotype knowledge...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786179/the-road-to-precision-psychiatry-translating-genetics-into-disease-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Michael J Gandal, Virpi Leppa, Hyejung Won, Neelroop N Parikshak, Daniel H Geschwind
Hundreds of genetic loci increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been identified. This success, perhaps paradoxically, has posed challenges for therapeutic development, which are amplified by the highly polygenic and pleiotropic nature of these genetic contributions. Success requires understanding the biological impact of single genetic variants and predicting their effects within an individual. Comprehensive functional genomic annotation of risk loci provides a framework for interpretation of neurobiological impact, requiring experimental validation with in vivo or in vitro model systems...
October 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768772/de-novo-transcriptomes-of-forsythia-koreana-using-a-novel-assembly-method-insight-into-tissue-and-species-specific-expression-of-lignan-biosynthesis-related-gene
#8
Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata, Erika Matsumoto, Shin Matsubara, Eiichiro Ono, Honoo Satake
Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765959/machine-learning-and-decision-support-in-critical-care
#9
Alistair E W Johnson, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Shamim Nemati, Katherine E Niehaus, David A Clifton, Gari D Clifford
Clinical data management systems typically provide caregiver teams with useful information, derived from large, sometimes highly heterogeneous, data sources that are often changing dynamically. Over the last decade there has been a significant surge in interest in using these data sources, from simply re-using the standard clinical databases for event prediction or decision support, to including dynamic and patient-specific information into clinical monitoring and prediction problems. However, in most cases, commercial clinical databases have been designed to document clinical activity for reporting, liability and billing reasons, rather than for developing new algorithms...
February 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746980/translation-from-the-data-of-clinical-trials-to-precision-medicine-limitation-of-the-current-risk-score-for-predicting-coronary-thrombosis-and-major-bleeding
#10
COMMENT
Jong-Hwa Ahn, Jeong Yoon Jang, Young-Hoon Jeong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746310/personalized-medicine-prediction-of-disease-vulnerability-in-mood-disorders
#11
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737677/china-suboptimal-health-cohort-study-rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#12
Youxin Wang, Siqi Ge, Yuxiang Yan, Anxin Wang, Zhongyao Zhao, Xinwei Yu, Jing Qiu, Mohamed Ali Alzain, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Manshu Song, Jie Zhang, Yong Zhou, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723726/renal-injury-in-neonates-use-of-omics-for-developing-precision-medicine-in-neonatology
#13
REVIEW
Mandar S Joshi, Kelsey A Montgomery, Peter J Giannone, John A Bauer, Mina H Hanna
Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality along with increased healthcare costs. Advances in medicine have enhanced survival for preterm infants but the overall incidence of major morbidities has changed very little. Abnormal renal development is an important consequence of premature birth. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal period is multifactorial and may increase lifetime risk of chronic kidney disease.Traditional biomarkers in newborns suffer from considerable confounders, limiting their use for early identification of AKI...
November 9, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701436/hemaclass-org-online-one-by-one-microarray-normalization-and-classification-of-hematological-cancers-for-precision-medicine
#14
Steffen Falgreen, Anders Ellern Bilgrau, Rasmus Froberg Brøndum, Lasse Hjort Jakobsen, Jonas Have, Kasper Lindblad Nielsen, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Julie Støve Bødker, Alexander Schmitz, Ken H Young, Hans Erik Johnsen, Karen Dybkær, Martin Bøgsted
BACKGROUND: Dozens of omics based cancer classification systems have been introduced with prognostic, diagnostic, and predictive capabilities. However, they often employ complex algorithms and are only applicable on whole cohorts of patients, making them difficult to apply in a personalized clinical setting. RESULTS: This prompted us to create hemaClass.org, an online web application providing an easy interface to one-by-one RMA normalization of microarrays and subsequent risk classifications of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into cell-of-origin and chemotherapeutic sensitivity classes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672137/personalised-medicine-for-multiple-sclerosis-care
#15
Arie Gafson, Matt J Craner, Paul M Matthews
Treatments with a range of efficacy and risk of adverse events have become available for the management of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, now the heterogeneity of clinical expression and responses to treatment pose major challenges to improving patient care. Selecting and managing the drug best balancing benefit and risk demands a new focus on the individual patient. Personalised medicine for MS is based on improving the precision of diagnosis for each patient in order to capture prognosis and provide an evidence-based framework for predicting treatment response and personalising patient monitoring...
September 26, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666015/steroid-induced-ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-focus-on-pharmacogenomics-and-implications-for-precision-medicine
#16
M Elizabeth Fini, Stephen G Schwartz, Xiaoyi Gao, Shinwu Jeong, Nitin Patel, Tatsuo Itakura, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Rohit Varma, W Daniel Stamer
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is called steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH); this can lead to steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). Glucocorticoids initiate signaling cascades ultimately affecting expression of hundreds of genes; this provides the potential for a highly personalized pharmacological response. Studies attempting to define genetic risk factors were undertaken early in the history of glucocorticoid use, however scientific tools available at that time were limited and progress stalled...
September 22, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649826/from-personalized-to-precision-medicine-the-ethical-and-social-implications-of-rhetorical-reform-in-genomic-medicine
#17
Eric Juengst, Michelle L McGowan, Jennifer R Fishman, Richard A Settersten
Since the late 1980s, the human genetics and genomics research community has been promising to usher in a "new paradigm for health care"-one that uses molecular profiling to identify human genetic variants implicated in multifactorial health risks. After the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, a wide range of stakeholders became committed to this "paradigm shift," creating a confluence of investment, advocacy, and enthusiasm that bears all the marks of a "scientific/intellectual social movement" within biomedicine...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585383/current-controversies-in-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Dave Singh, Nicolas Roche, David Halpin, Alvar Agusti, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Fernando J Martinez
Clinical phenotyping is currently used to guide pharmacological treatment decisions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a personalized approach to care. Precision medicine integrates biological (endotype) and clinical (phenotype) information for a more individualized approach to pharmacotherapy, to maximize the benefit versus risk ratio. Biomarkers can be used to identify endotypes. To evolve toward precision medicine in COPD, the most appropriate biomarkers and clinical characteristics that reliably predict treatment responses need to be identified...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545504/transcriptome-profiling-of-patient-specific-human-ipsc-cardiomyocytes-predicts-individual-drug-safety-and-efficacy-responses-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Elena Matsa, Paul W Burridge, Kun-Hsing Yu, John H Ahrens, Vittavat Termglinchan, Haodi Wu, Chun Liu, Praveen Shukla, Nazish Sayed, Jared M Churko, Ningyi Shao, Nicole A Woo, Alexander S Chao, Joseph D Gold, Ioannis Karakikes, Michael P Snyder, Joseph C Wu
Understanding individual susceptibility to drug-induced cardiotoxicity is key to improving patient safety and preventing drug attrition. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) enable the study of pharmacological and toxicological responses in patient-specific cardiomyocytes (CMs) and may serve as preclinical platforms for precision medicine. Transcriptome profiling in hiPSC-CMs from seven individuals lacking known cardiovascular disease-associated mutations and in three isogenic human heart tissue and hiPSC-CM pairs showed greater inter-patient variation than intra-patient variation, verifying that reprogramming and differentiation preserve patient-specific gene expression, particularly in metabolic and stress-response genes...
September 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541161/the-potential-of-radiomic-based-phenotyping-in-precision-medicine-a-review
#20
Hugo J W L Aerts
Importance: Advances in genomics have led to the recognition that tumors are populated by distinct genotypic subgroups that drive tumor development and progression. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of solid tumors has been a critical barrier to the development of precision medicine approaches because the standard approach to tumor sampling, often invasive needle biopsy, is unable to fully capture the spatial state of the tumor. Image-based phenotyping, which represents quantification of the tumor phenotype through medical imaging, is a promising development for precision medicine...
August 18, 2016: JAMA Oncology
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