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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040988/unique-characteristics-associated-with-sustained-liver-damage-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#1
Masashi Kono, Naoshi Nishida, Satoru Hagiwara, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Tadaaki Arizumi, Kosuke Minaga, Ken Kamata, Yoriaki Komeda, Toshiharu Sakurai, Mamoru Takenaka, Masahiro Takita, Norihisa Yada, Hiroshi Ida, Yasunori Minami, Kazuomi Ueshima, Tomohiro Watanabe, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) dramatically improve the sustained virological response (SVR) of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. However, continuous liver damage after SVR may be a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We clarified pretreatment characteristics related to sustained liver damage after SVR. METHODS: A total of 286 CHC patients were treated with an interferon-free DAA regimen. Among them, 250 patients achieved SVR for 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12); these individuals were classified based on α-fetoprotein (AFP) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels posttreatment...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040965/distribution-of-cancer-mortality-rates-by-province-in-south-africa
#2
Felix Made, Kerry Wilson, Ruxana Jina, Nonhlanhla Tlotleng, Samantha Jack, Vusi Ntlebi, Tahira Kootbodien
INTRODUCTION: Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. METHODS: 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97)...
October 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040777/efficient-imaging-examining-the-value-of-ultrasound-in-the-diagnosis-of-traumatic-adult-brachial-plexus-injuries-a-systematic-review
#3
Brian Chin, Maleka Ramji, Forough Farrokhyar, James R Bain
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI) can result in debilitating sequelae of the upper extremity. Presently, therapeutic decisions are based on the mechanism of injury, serial physical examination, electromyography, nerve conduction, and imaging studies. While magnetic resonance imaging is the current imaging modality of choice for BPI, ultrasound is a promising newcomer that is inexpensive, accessible, and available at point of care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of traumatic adult BPI through a systematic review...
October 11, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040678/extended-models-for-nosocomial-infection-parameter-estimation-and-model-selection
#4
Alun Thomas, Karim Khader, Andrew Redd, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Makoto Jones, Tom Greene, Matthew Samore
We consider extensions to previous models for patient level nosocomial infection in several ways, provide a specification of the likelihoods for these new models, specify new update steps required for stochastic integration, and provide programs that implement these methods to obtain parameter estimates and model choice statistics. Previous susceptible-infected models are extended to allow for a latent period between initial exposure to the pathogen and the patient becoming themselves infectious, and the possibility of decolonization...
October 12, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040577/metabolomics-of-postprandial-plasma-alterations-a-comprehensive-japanese-study
#5
Takeo Moriya, Yoshinori Satomi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi
While endogenous metabolites in plasma can be used as clinical biomarkers, intra-day variations should be carefully considered. The postprandial effect is a large contributing factor and is dependent on regional features (e.g., meals, ethnicity). Thus, for clinical application, regional-specific postprandial baseline data are required. In this study, 10 healthy Japanese volunteers of different ages and genders ate the same meal, and blood samples were taken 30 min before and one hour after the meal challenge...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040571/patient-centered-early-pregnancy-care-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-studies-on-the-perspectives-of-women-and-their-partners
#6
M M J van den Berg, E A F Dancet, T Erlikh, F van der Veen, M Goddijn, P J Hajenius
BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy complications, defined as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, affect the physical and psychological well-being of intended parents. Research in this field so far has focused mainly on improving accuracy of diagnostic tests and safety and effectiveness of therapeutic management. An overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners is missing. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This systematic review aims to provide an overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners faced with early pregnancy complications and to identify potential targets for improvement in early pregnancy healthcare...
October 11, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040214/untreated-relative-hypotension-measured-as-perfusion-pressure-deficit-during-management-of-shock-and-new-onset-acute-kidney-injury-a-literature-review
#7
Rakshit Panwar
Maintaining an optimal blood pressure (BP) during shock is a fundamental tenet of critical care. Optimal BP targets maybe different for different patients. In current practice, too often, uniform BP targets are pursued which may result in inadvertently accepting a degree of untreated relative hypotension i.e., the deficit between patients' usual pre-morbid basal BP and the achieved BP, during vasopressor support. Relative hypotension is a common but an under-recognized and an under-treated sign among patients with potential shock state...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040110/racial-differences-in-palliative-care-use-after-stroke-in-majority-white-minority-serving-and-racially-integrated-u-s-hospitals
#8
Roland Faigle, Wendy C Ziai, Victor C Urrutia, Lisa A Cooper, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic differences in palliative care resource use after stroke have been recognized, but it is unclear whether patient or hospital characteristics drive this disparity. We sought to determine whether palliative care use after intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke differs between hospitals serving varying proportions of minority patients. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient hospital admissions from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011...
October 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040009/ocular-involvement-in-patients-with-fungemia-in-an-urban-tertiary-care-center
#9
Kenneth W Price, Edmund Tsui, Irene Barbazetto, Lisa Park
PURPOSE: To illustrate the rate of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with fungemia and evaluate the importance of screening in a public city hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all inpatient ophthalmology consults for fungemia from 2010 to 2015. Clinical histories, ocular examinations, and microbial cultures were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 95 patients (mean age 51.6 years, 75% male) with fungemia, 9/95 (9.5%) demonstrated intraocular involvement...
October 17, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039984/financial-barriers-and-lapses-in-treatment-and-care-of-hiv-infected-adults-in-a-southern-state-in-the-united-states
#10
David A Wohl, Rita K Kuwahara, Kamran Javadi, Christine Kirby, David L Rosen, Sonia Napravnik, Claire Farel
Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence has largely been considered from the perspective of an individual's behavior with less attention given to potential structural causes for lapses in treatment, such as the cost of medications and care. HIV medication expense is typically covered by third party payers. However, private insurance premiums and deductibles may rise, or policies terminated such as with a change in employment. Likewise, a patient's eligibility for publicly funded coverage like state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) or Medicaid can also be lost...
October 17, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037014/deep-into-the-brain-artificial-intelligence-in-stroke-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Eun-Jae Lee, Yong-Hwan Kim, Namkug Kim, Dong-Wha Kang
Artificial intelligence (AI), a computer system aiming to mimic human intelligence, is gaining increasing interest and is being incorporated into many fields, including medicine. Stroke medicine is one such area of application of AI, for improving the accuracy of diagnosis and the quality of patient care. For stroke management, adequate analysis of stroke imaging is crucial. Recently, AI techniques have been applied to decipher the data from stroke imaging and have demonstrated some promising results. In the very near future, such AI techniques may play a pivotal role in determining the therapeutic methods and predicting the prognosis for stroke patients in an individualized manner...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036846/perceptions-of-sexuality-in-individuals-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-their-treating-clinicians
#12
Mona Shahbazi, Shara Holzberg, Saeyoan Thirunavukkarasu, Gioia Ciani
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) may not affect an individual's sexual function directly, but it can indirectly impact their sexual activity. Sexual partners often become caregivers, diminishing sexuality within a relationship. This can result in decline of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the perspectives of individuals with ALS and their treating clinicians regarding the importance of sexuality in rehabilitation within a multidisciplinary ALS center...
October 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036821/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-is-not-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-a-northern-ireland-cohort
#13
Euan N Paterson, Michael A Williams, Peter Passmore, Giuliana Silvestri, Tom J MacGillivray, Alexander P Maxwell, Gareth J McKay
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence is increasing globally and typically progresses for several years prior to clinical presentation of dementia. Renal dysfunction and vascular disease have been reported in association with dementia in several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and may contribute to AD risk. Experimental and observational studies suggest amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance may be impaired in chronic kidney disease (CKD) indicating a mechanism for increased AD risk...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036780/morphine-use-in-cancer-care-a-survey-of-attitudes-and-perceptions-in-general-practice-patients
#14
Matthew Grant, Anna Ugalde, Serafino G Mancuso, Platon Vafiadis, Jennifer Philip
BACKGROUND: Morphine is widely prescribed for patients with cancer, although a number of attitudes have been cited as barriers to its use, including fear, addiction and associations with death. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of these beliefs, and assess the extent to which these attitudes exist in a general practice patient population that may require morphine in the future. METHODS: A 30-item survey was distributed through general practices in Victoria, Australia...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036661/the-impact-of-the-brazilian-family-health-strategy-and-the-conditional-cash-transfer-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-rio-de-janeiro-an-individual-level-analysis-of-secondary-data
#15
Betina Durovni, Valeria Saraceni, Mariana Soares Puppin, Wagner Tassinari, Oswaldo G Cruz, Solange Cavalcante, Claudia Medina Coeli, Anete Trajman
Background: Unsuccessful tuberculosis outcomes are frequent; bold policies are needed to end the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic to attain the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) by 2030. We examined the effect of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and its interactions with the conditional cash transfer programme (CTP) on TB outcomes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: We performed individual-based analyses of a database resulting from deterministic and probabilistic linkages of the TB information system, FHS registries and CTP payrolls...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036530/what-does-quality-maternity-care-mean-in-a-context-of-medical-pluralism-perspectives-of-women-in-nigeria
#16
Chimaraoke O Izugbara, Frederick Wekesah
User priorities regarding quality care in contexts of medical pluralism are poorly documented. Drawing on group and individual interviews with women, we interrogate ideas of quality maternity care in the context of Nigeria's medical pluralism. We found complex utilization patterns for conventional, complementary and alternative maternity care services as well as ideas of quality maternity care that stress effective coordination and integration of different typologies of maternity health services; socially sensitive and truthful providers; and socioeconomic, physical and parochial forms of safety...
October 5, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036208/transitioning-couple-s-voluntary-hiv-counseling-and-testing-cvct-from-stand-alone-weekend-services-into-routine-antenatal-and-vct-services-in-government-clinics-in-zambia-s-two-largest-cities
#17
Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A Canary, Nancy L Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, Susan A Allen
INTRODUCTION: Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. METHODS: Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036017/patient-reported-outcomes-in-asthma-clinical-trials
#18
Fulvio Braido, Ilaria Baiardini, Giorgio W Canonica
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an overview of the results of asthma clinical trials published in peer review journals in the last 18 months that evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs). RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 10 years, health care moved toward a patient-centered approach, which includes patients' perspectives reflecting the impact of a disease and its treatment. SUMMARY: Surprisingly, among the almost 300 clinical trials published in the last one and a half year, PRO evaluation was performed in only 20 studies, and none of them held in a real-life setting...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035874/parameter-selection-in-limited-data-cone-beam-ct-reconstruction-using-edge-preserving-total-variation-algorithms
#19
Manasavee Lohvithee, Ander Biguri, Manuchehr Soleimani
There are a number of powerful total variation (TV) regularization methods with great promises in limited data cone-beam CT reconstruction with an enhancement of image quality. These promising TV methods require careful selection of image reconstruction parameters for which there is no well established criteria. This pa- per presents a comprehensive valuation of parameter selection in a number of major TV-based reconstruction algorithms. The appropriate way of selecting the values for each individual parameter has been suggested...
October 16, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035706/serious-suicide-attempts-in-outpatients-with-multiple-substance-use-disorders
#20
R Icick, E Karsinti, J-P Lépine, V Bloch, G Brousse, F Bellivier, F Vorspan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health concern and suicide attempts (SA) are frequent and burdensome in people suffering from substance use disorders (SUDs). In particular, serious SAs are a preoccupying form of attempt, which remain largely overlooked in these populations, especially regarding basic risk factors such as gender, addictive comorbidity and substance use patterns. Thus, we undertook a gender-specific approach to identify the risk factors for serious SAs in outpatients with multiple SUDs...
September 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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