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Sudden death syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047226/babies-in-boxes-and-the-missing-links-on-safe-sleep-human-evolution-and-cultural-revolution
#1
REVIEW
Melissa Bartick, Cecília Tomori, Helen L Ball
Concerns about bedsharing as a risk for sudden infant death syndrome and other forms of sleep-associated infant death have gained prominence as a public health issue. Cardboard "baby boxes" are increasingly promoted to prevent infant death through separate sleep, despite no proof of efficacy. However, baby boxes disrupt "breastsleeping" (breastfeeding with co-sleeping) and may undermine breastfeeding. Recommendations enforcing separate sleep are based on 20th century Euro-American social norms for solitary infant sleep and scheduled feedings via bottles of cow's milk-based formula, in contrast to breastsleeping, an evolutionary adaptation facilitating the survival of mammalian infants for millennia...
October 18, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046318/central-serotonin-and-the-control-of-arterial-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-infant-rats-influence-of-sleep-state-and-sex
#2
Jennifer L Magnusson, Kevin James Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is associated with serotonin (5-HT) neuron abnormalities. There is evidence of autonomic dysfunction during sleep in infants eventually succumbing to SIDS, as well as cardiovascular collapse prior to death. Neonatal rodents deficient in central 5-HT display hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that central 5-HT reduces cardiac vagal tone and increases sympathetic vascular tone and, given the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons, that these effects are greater in quiet sleep (QS) than in active sleep (AS)...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042423/low-prevalence-of-inappropriate-shocks-in-patients-with-inherited-arrhythmia-syndromes-with-the-subcutaneous-implantable-defibrillator-single-center-experience-and-long-term-follow-up
#3
Boris Rudic, Erol Tülümen, Veronika Berlin, Susanne Röger, Ksenija Stach, Volker Liebe, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Christina Dösch, Theano Papavassiliu, Ibrahim Akin, Martin Borggrefe, Jürgen Kuschyk
BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of patients with transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) experience lead-associated complications and may suffer from high complication rates when lead extraction is indicated. Subcutaneous ICD may represent a feasible alternative; however, the efficacy of the subcutaneous ICD in the detection and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hereditary arrhythmia syndromes has not been fully evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with primary hereditary arrhythmia syndromes who fulfilled indication for defibrillator placement were eligible for enrollment...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036559/the-brisk-standing-test-for-long-qt-syndrome-in-prepubertal-school-children-defining-normal
#4
L H P M Filippini, P G Postema, K Zoubin, B J M Hermans, N A Blom, T Delhaas, A A M Wilde
Aims: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is associated with malignant arrhythmias and sudden death from birth to advanced age. Prolongation of the QT-interval, may however be concealed on standard electrocardiograms (ECG). The brisk-standing-test (BST) was developed to guide LQTS-diagnosis and treatment in adults. We hypothesized that the BST may be used in prepubertal children to identify LQTS subjects. Accordingly, reference values for the BST should be available to prevent incorrect diagnosis and treatment of LQTS...
October 3, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033053/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-recessive-kcnq1-mutation-associated-with-romano-ward-long-qt-syndrome-in-two-iranian-families
#5
Zahra Zafari, Mohammad Dalili, Sirus Zeinali, Siamak Saber, Amir Farjam Fazeli Far, Mohammad Taghi Akbari
BACKGROUND: One of the foremost causes of sudden cardiac death in the young is an inherent cardiac arrhythmia known as Long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Whereas heterozygous mutations typically lead to the Romano-Ward type of LQTS, We have provided a further evidence for the recessive transmission of a novel KCNQ1 gene mutation in two consanguineous families for the first time in Iran. METHODS: Next generation sequencing, DNA Sanger sequencing and haplotype analysis were performed for genotype determination...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030919/baseline-fragmented-qrs-increases-the-risk-of-major-arrhythmic-events-in-brugada-syndrome-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Pattara Rattanawong, Tanawan Riangwiwat, Narut Prasitlumkum, Nath Limpruttidham, Napatt Kanjanahattakij, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Wasawat Vutthikraivit, Eugene H Chung
BACKGROUND: Fragmented QRS reflects disturbances in the myocardium predisposing the heart to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Recent studies suggest that fragmented QRS (fQRS) is associated with major arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature has not been done. We assessed the association between fQRS and major arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome by a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis. METHODS: We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to May 2017...
October 14, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024690/sodium-channel-current-loss-of-function-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-from-a-brugada-syndrome-patient
#7
Elisabet Selga, Franziska Sendfeld, Rebecca Martinez-Moreno, Claire N Medine, Olga Tura-Ceide, Sir Ian Wilmut, Guillermo J Pérez, Fabiana S Scornik, Ramon Brugada, Nicholas L Mills
Brugada syndrome predisposes to sudden death due to disruption of normal cardiac ion channel function, yet our understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms is incomplete. Commonly used heterologous expression models lack many characteristics of native cardiomyocytes and, in particular, the individual genetic background of a patient. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM) may uncover cellular phenotypical characteristics not observed in heterologous models...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020354/the-definition-of-the-brugada-syndrome
#8
Juan Sieira, Pedro Brugada
Brugada syndrome (BS) is an inherited disease characterized by a coved-type ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), in the absence of structural abnormalities. The cornerstone of BS diagnosis and definition, is its characteristic ECG pattern that can be present spontaneously or unmasked by drugs. Brugada syndrome was first described 25 years ago; paradoxically, in an era of great technological development, a new syndrome was described with a technology developed almost a century before...
August 31, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016800/the-prognostic-impact-of-single-extra-stimulus-on-programmed-ventricular-stimulation-in-brugada-patients-without-previous-cardiac-arrest-multi-centre-study-in-japan
#9
Masahiko Takagi, Yukio Sekiguchi, Yasuhiro Yokoyama, Naohiko Aihara, Masayasu Hiraoka, Kazutaka Aonuma
Aims: The prognostic value of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) remains controversial. One of the reasons for discrepant results may be due to the selection of stimulation protocol. We evaluated the prognostic value of a positive PES result (PES+) according to the inducible pacing sites and the number of extra-stimuli in BrS patients without previous cardiac arrest (CA). Methods and results: We enrolled 224 consecutive BrS patients without previous CA (mean age 51 ± 14 years, 209 males), who underwent PES with the identical protocol...
June 16, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016797/multiple-clinical-profiles-of-families-with-the-short-qt-syndrome
#10
D Akdis, A M Saguner, A Medeiros-Domingo, A Schaller, C Balmer, J Steffel, C Brunckhorst, F Duru
Aims: Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare cardiac channelopathy characterized by a shortened corrected QT (QTc)-interval that can lead to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical phenotypes and long-term outcomes of three families harbouring genetic mutations associated with the SQTS. Methods and results: Clinical data included medical history, physical examination, 12-lead ECG, 24-h Holter-ECG, and transthoracic echocardiography from three index patients and their first-degree relatives...
July 19, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994463/prognosis-risk-stratification-and-management-of-asymptomatic-individuals-with-brugada-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Konstantinos P Letsas, Dimitrios Asvestas, Adrian Baranchuk, Tong Liu, Stamatis Georgopoulos, Michael Efremidis, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, George Bazoukis, Gary Tse, Antonios Sideris, Masahiko Takagi, Joachim R Ehrlich
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a primary electrical disease associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. The prognosis, risk stratification and management of asymptomatic individuals remain the most controversial issues in BrS. Furthermore, the decision to manage asymptomatic patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator should be made after weighing the potential individual risk of future arrhythmic events against the risk of complications associated with the implant and follow-up of patients living with such devices, and the accompanying impairment of the quality of life...
October 10, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992755/drug-mediated-shortening-of-action-potentials-in-lqts2-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#12
Gary Duncan, Karl Firth, Vinoj George, Minh Duc Hoang, Andrew Staniforth, Godfrey Smith, Chris Denning
Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are now a well-established modality for modelling genetic disorders of the heart. This is especially so for long QT syndrome (LQTS), which is caused by perturbation of ion channel function, and can lead to fainting, malignant arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. LQTS2 is caused by mutations in KCNH2, a gene whose protein product contributes to IKr (also known as HERG), which is the predominant repolarising potassium current in CMs...
October 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984650/diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-long-qt-syndrome
#13
Christian Steinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an overview over the substantial advances in the diagnosis and management of Long-QT syndrome since its first description 60 years ago. RECENT FINDINGS: LQT syndrome remains the most common inherited arrhythmia and is a leading cause for sudden unexplained death accounting for up to 20-25% of cases. Rapid progress of genetic technology over the past 2 decades has significantly improved our understanding of molecular and genetic mechanisms of LQT...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984287/the%C3%A2-lifevest-wearable-defibrillator-for-noninvasive-prevention-of-sudden-arrhythmic-death-syndrome-the%C3%A2-first-polish-case-of-an-adequate-lifevest-intervention
#14
Michał Chudzik, Łukasz Szyda, Bożena Urbanek, Jerzy K Wranicz, Jarosław D Kasprzak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980288/novel-and-heteroplasmic-mutations-in-mitochondrial-trna-genes-in-brugada-syndrome
#15
Mahsasadat Fallah Tafti, Mehri Khatami, Shiva Rezaei, Mohammad Mehdi Heidari, Mehdi Hadadzadeh
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare cardiac arrhythmia characterized by sudden death associated with electrocardiogram patterns characterized by incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevations in the anterior precordial leads. This syndrome predominantly is seen in younger males with structurally normal hearts. Mitochondrial variants particularly mt-tRNA mutations, are hot spots that lead to cardiological disorders. Previous studies have shown that mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes play an important causal or modifying role in BrS...
October 5, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971108/hydatid-cyst-of-the-interventricular-septum
#16
Endale Tefera, Joseph Knapp, Michael Teodori
While cardiac involvement is not a common presentation in human echinococcosis, it may lead to life-threatening complications including cyst rupture; anaphylactic shock; tamponade; pulmonary, cerebral or peripheral arterial embolism; acute coronary syndrome; dysrhythmias; infection; ventricular or valvular dysfunction, as well as sudden death. Here we report a 9-year old girl who was diagnosed to have hydatid cyst of the interventricular septum four years after diagnosis and medical treatment of pulmonary hydatidosis...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970693/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-neonate-due-to-possible-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury
#17
Arti Maria, Sheetal Agarwal, Anu Sharma
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a potentially life-threatening complication of blood component transfusion. It is relatively underdiagnosed entity in neonates with scant literature. We report a case of TRALI in a preterm neonate developing acute respiratory distress within 6 h of blood product transfusion in the absence of preexisting lung disease. Prompt ventilator and supportive management were instituted. The baby showed clinical and radiological improvement within 12 h; however, he succumbed to death due to acute massive pulmonary hemorrhage 36 h later...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967023/grape-pomace-reduced-reperfusion-arrhythmias-in-rats-with-a-high-fat-fructose-diet
#18
Diahann J Perdicaro, Cecilia Rodriguez Lanzi, Ariel R Fontana, Andrea Antoniolli, Patricia Piccoli, Roberto M Miatello, Emiliano R Diez, Marcela A Vazquez Prieto
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in humans, but animal models are needed for the study of this association. Grape pomace (GP), obtained from the winemaking process, contains phenolic compounds with potential cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet facilitates the occurrence of arrhythmias during the reperfusion, and if a GP supplementation could counteract these effects. Wistar rats were fed with control (Ctrl), HFF diet and HFF plus GP (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)) for six weeks...
October 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966307/low-serum-levels-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-are-risk-factors-for-cardiogenic-syncope-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#19
Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Daiju Fukuda, Takayuki Ise, Muneyuki Kadota, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Takeshi Tobiume, Koji Yamaguchi, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masashi Akaike, Masataka Sata
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antiarrhythmic effects, possibly via modulation of the cardiac ion channels. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether low serum levels of n-3 PUFAs are risk factors for ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 62 men with BrS and evaluated their serum levels of EPA and DHA, and the risk factors for sudden cardiac death, including a history of cardiogenic syncope...
October 21, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965169/voltage-gated-sodium-channel-%C3%AE-subunits-and-their-related-diseases
#20
Alexandra A Bouza, Lori L Isom
Voltage-gated sodium channels are protein complexes comprised of one pore forming α subunit and two, non-pore forming, β subunits. The voltage-gated sodium channel β subunits were originally identified to function as auxiliary subunits, which modulate the gating, kinetics, and localization of the ion channel pore. Since that time, the five β subunits have been shown to play crucial roles as multifunctional signaling molecules involved in cell adhesion, cell migration, neuronal pathfinding, fasciculation, and neurite outgrowth...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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