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Sudden death syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243157/why-is-a-prone-sleeping-position-dangerous-for-certain-infants
#1
Roger W Byard, Fiona Bright, Robert Vink
The prone (face down) sleeping position is known to be associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy (sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), however, the reasons for this are unclear. Suggested mechanisms have involved suffocation from occlusion of the external airways by soft bedding/pillows or from flattening of the nose with backward displacement of the tongue, rebreathing of carbon dioxide, blunting of arousal responses with decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation, diaphragmatic splinting or fatigue, lowering of vasomotor tone with tachycardia, nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, overheating, alteration of sleep patterns, compromise of cerebral blood flow and upper airway obstruction from distortion of nasal cartilages...
December 14, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242100/takotsubo-is-not-a-cardiomyopathy
#2
Francesco Pelliccia, Gianfranco Sinagra, Perry Elliott, Guido Parodi, Cristina Basso, Paolo G Camici
Unraveling the mechanisms underlying Takotsubo (TTS) leads to question the current inclusion of the condition within the spectrum of cardiomyopathies. Indeed, the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of TTS clearly differ from cardiomyopathies, i.e. diseases of heart muscle unexplained by abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease, which cannot recover spontaneously and may cause sudden death often in minimally symptomatic individuals or result in a gradual deterioration in ventricular function and end-stage heart failure...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241647/safety-of-currently-licensed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-vaccines-in-the-united-states-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-2005-2015
#3
Penina Haber, Pedro L Moro, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Beth Hibbs, Sarah F Schillie, Noele P Nelson, Rongxia Li, Brock Stewart, Maria V Cano
INTRODUCTION: Currently four recombinant hepatitis B (HepB) vaccines are in use in the United States. HepB vaccines are recommended for infants, children and adults. We assessed adverse events (AEs) following HepB vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of AEs following single antigen HepB vaccine and HepB-containing vaccines (either given alone or with other vaccines), from January 2005 - December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241489/hydroquinidine-prevents-life-threatening-arrhythmic-events-in-patients-with-short%C3%A2-qt%C3%A2-syndrome
#4
Andrea Mazzanti, Riccardo Maragna, Gaetano Vacanti, Anna Kostopoulou, Maira Marino, Nicola Monteforte, Raffaella Bloise, Katherine Underwood, Valentina Tibollo, Eleonora Pagan, Carlo Napolitano, Riccardo Bellazzi, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Silvia G Priori
BACKGROUND: Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare and life-threatening arrhythmogenic syndrome characterized by abbreviated repolarization. Hydroquinidine (HQ) prolongs the QT interval in SQTS patients, although whether it reduces cardiac events is currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether long-term treatment with HQ reduces the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmic events (LAE) (cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death) in SQTS patients. METHODS: In this cohort study on consecutive SQTS patients, 2 analyses were performed: 1) a matched-period analysis for the occurrence of LAE in 17 SQTS patients who received long-term HQ; and 2) a comparison of the annual incidence of LAE off- and on-HQ in 16 SQTS patients who survived a cardiac arrest...
December 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239886/acute-coronary-artery-dissection-a-review-of-the-literature-and-current-evidence
#5
Syed Raza Shah, Richard Alweis
Acute coronary artery dissection is a rare, complex disease occurring particularly in young women without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology and treatment are different from acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque rupture or erosion. Its clinical presentation may vary from unstable angina to sudden cardiac death. Hence, early detection is crucial to manage the dissection and reduce the mortality and morbidity rates. Most coronary dissections will heal spontaneously, and conservative treatment is recommended for uncomplicated cases...
December 12, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238365/spontaneous-type-1-pattern-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-brugada-syndrome-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ahmed Bayoumy, Meng-Qi Gong, Ka Hou Christien Li, Sunny Hei Wong, William Kk Wu, Guang-Ping Li, George Bazoukis, Konstantinos P Letsas, Wing Tak Wong, Yun-Long Xia, Tong Liu, Gary Tse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236216/long-term-outcomes-of-a%C3%A2-caucasian-cohort-presenting-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-or-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-coronary-spasm
#7
W Vlastra, M Piek, M A van Lavieren, M E J C Hassell, B E Claessen, G W Wijntjens, T P van de Hoef, K D Sjauw, M A Beijk, R Delewi, J J Piek
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery spasm may be the underlying mechanism in up to 10% of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Asian individuals exhibit a 3-times greater incidence of spasm than Caucasians; this is likely due to different types of mechanisms. Consequently, solid data is limited about the long-term prognosis in Caucasian patients presenting with ACS and/or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by coronary spasm. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2015, thirty Caucasian patients with coronary artery spasm presenting with ACS (N = 29) and/or OHCA (N = 11) were enrolled in this prospective registry...
December 13, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235984/deaths-leading-causes-for-2015
#8
Melonie Heron
Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes...
November 2017: National Vital Statistics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234865/electromechanical-heterogeneity-in-the-heart-a%C3%A2-key-to-long-qt-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
F F Dressler, J Brado, K E Odening
In the healthy heart, physiological heterogeneities in structure and in electrical and mechanical activity are crucial for normal, efficient excitation and pumping. Alterations of heterogeneity have been linked to arrhythmogenesis in various cardiac disorders such as long QT syndrome (LQTS). This inherited arrhythmia disorder is caused by mutations in different ion channel genes and is characterized by (heterogeneously) prolonged cardiac repolarization and increased risk for ventricular tachycardia, syncope and sudden cardiac death...
December 12, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231011/-research-progress-of-the-relationship-between-sunds-and-osahs
#10
REVIEW
Y D Wu, L Y Zhang, J D Cheng
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) is always a difficulty in forensic medicine researches. Although the development of molecular genetics promotes the etiologic study of SUNDS, the pathogenesis of most such cases is still unclear. Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is one of the common forms of sleep disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common. In recent years, some domestic and international researches show that OSAHS is related to the development of cardiovascular disease, which may cause cardiac arrhythmia, even sudden death...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225848/delayed-diagnosis-of-brugada-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-aborted-sudden-cardiac-death-and-initial-negative-flecainide-challenge
#11
Samuel Chauveau, Olivier Le Vavasseur, Philippe Chevalier
A negative flecainide challenge does not rule out Brugada syndrome even in the presence of nonfatal cardiac arrest as the first manifestation of the disease. This should prompt clinicians to ensure long-term ECG follow-up and consider repeating a drug test with another sodium channel blocker.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224925/incidence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#12
Benjamin Moore, Christopher Yu, Irina Kotchetkova, Rachael Cordina, David S Celermajer
BACKGROUND: The life expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has significantly improved in recent decades, with non-cardiovascular causes of death now competing with traditional cardiovascular causes. The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), a devastating event, still remains elevated above that of the general population. METHODS: We reviewed 2935 patients in our adult CHD database (age≥16years, seen at least once in our centre) and documented all cases of SCD between 2000-2015...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221913/facial-asymmetry-correction-with-moulded-helmet-therapy-in-infants-with-deformational-skull-base-plagiocephaly
#13
Matthias Kreutz, Brigitte Fitze, Christoph Blecher, Augello Marcello, Ruben Simon, Rebecca Cremer, Hans-Florian Zeilhofer, Christoph Kunz, Johannes Mayr
PURPOSE: The recommendation issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the early 1990s to position infants on their back during sleep to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dramatically reduced the number of deaths due to SIDS but has also markedly increased the prevalence of positional skull deformation in infants. Deformation of the base of the skull occurs predominantly in very severe deformational plagiocephaly and is accompanied by facial asymmetry, as well as an altered ear position, called ear shift...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215340/a-report-of-brugada-syndrome-presenting-with-cardiac-arrest-triggered-by-verapamil-intoxication
#14
Kahraman Yakut, İlkay Erdoğan, Birgül Varan, İlyas Atar
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome is a disease characterized by a specific electrocardiographic pattern and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We present this case with the updated literature to emphasise the need to consider the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome in patients admitted to the emergency ward with sudden cardiac arrest. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency ward with complaints of weakness and abdominal pain, and she had four cardiac arrests during her evaluation period...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214556/influence-of-genetic-modifiers-on-sudden-cardiac-death-cases
#15
Tina Jenewein, Thomas Neumann, Damir Erkapic, Malte Kuniss, Marcel A Verhoff, Gerhard Thiel, Silke Kauferstein
Sequence variants in the ion channel genes KCNH2 and SCN5A may cause the cardiac disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS). This disorder is associated with incomplete penetrance and variable expression in KCNH2- or SCN5A-mutation carriers. Common genetic variants, if associated with a mutation, may affect the severity of this cardiac disorder. This study identified rare mutations in the cardiac ion channel genes KCNH2 and SCN5A in a SCD case, as well as in a LQTS-affected family with a history of SCD. Moreover, common variants were found to occur together within the same genes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209584/sudden-death-from-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-due-to-polyarteritis-nodosa
#16
Cyrus M Munguti, Paul M Ndunda, Tabitha M Muutu
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an emerging and rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. While it was previously reported among young females with fibromuscular dysplasia, new literature indicates that this condition could occur in older populations. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) causes systemic necrotizing vasculitis which typically affects small to medium-sized muscular arteries and could affect the coronary arteries. A few case reports of PAN causing acute coronary artery disease have been reported in the literature...
October 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208338/risky-behaviors-of-mothers-with-infants-on-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-in-turkey
#17
Çiğdem Erdoğan, Türkan Turan
PURPOSE: Sudden infant death syndrome is the most common cause of death during the post-neonatal period. Factors such as sleeping position, bed sharing, pillow use, smoking during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period constitute risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome. This study aims to identify the risky behaviors of mothers with infants that may put their children at risk for sudden infant death syndrome. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206359/parent-infant-co-sleeping-and-the-implications-for-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#18
Joanne Straw, Pat Jones
In 2015 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated its 2006 guideline to clarify the association between parent infant co-sleeping and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The practice of co-sleeping is a topic of continuing controversy and debate. Rather than highlighting the risks, the emphasis of the NICE guideline is to provide parents with balanced information so that they can make informed decisions about where their babies sleep. This contradicts previous public health messages on co-sleeping that discourages parents from the practice...
December 5, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205672/repetitive-incessant-electrical-storm-triggered-by-early-repolarization
#19
Sofia Chatzidou, Evangelos Repasos, Sotiris Plastiras, Christos Kontogiannis, Marinos Kosmopoulos, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Ioannis Paraskevaidis, Stelios Rokas
Early repolarization syndrome (ERS) was originally considered a normal variant with benign outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that it can be linked to a considerable risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We report a case with an extraordinary, extremely malignant clinical expression of ERS refractory to all antiarrhythmic drugs including quinidine. This case demonstrates real-time changes of dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG) preceding a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT)-ventricular fibrillation (VF) and possible external factors triggering arrhythmia onset...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201009/in-vitro-and-in-silico-risk-assessment-in-acquired-long-qt-syndrome-the-devil-is-in-the-details
#20
REVIEW
William Lee, Monique J Windley, Jamie I Vandenberg, Adam P Hill
Acquired long QT syndrome, mostly as a result of drug block of the Kv11. 1 potassium channel in the heart, is characterized by delayed cardiac myocyte repolarization, prolongation of the T interval on the ECG, syncope and sudden cardiac death due to the polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP). In recent years, efforts are underway through the Comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmic assay (CiPA) initiative, to develop better tests for this drug induced arrhythmia based in part on in silico simulations of pharmacological disruption of repolarization...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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