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Sudden death syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815190/giant-left-atrial-myxoma-masquerading-as-cough-syncope-syndrome
#1
Jennifer N Bowman, Jennifer M Treece, Pradnya Brijmohan Bhattad, Melania Bochis, Kailash Bajaj
Left atrial myxomas are the most common type of benign primary cardiac tumor. Patients can present with generalized symptoms, such as fatigue, symptoms from obstruction of the myxoma, or even embolization of the myxoma causing distal thrombosis. We describe a case with several-month duration of syncopal episodes that occurred after coughing and with exertion. Computed tomography of the chest showed a 6.1 cm by 4.5 cm mass in the left atrium, later evaluated with an echocardiogram. Cardiothoracic surgery removed the mass, and it was determined to be an atrial myxoma...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814790/in-silico-investigation-of-a-kcnq1-mutation-associated-with-short-qt-syndrome
#2
Ismail Adeniran, Dominic G Whittaker, Aziza El Harchi, Jules C Hancox, Henggui Zhang
Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare condition characterized by abnormally 'short' QT intervals on the ECG and increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. This simulation study investigated arrhythmia dynamics in multi-scale human ventricle models associated with the SQT2-related V307L KCNQ1 'gain-of-function' mutation, which increases slow-delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs). A Markov chain (MC) model recapitulating wild type (WT) and V307L mutant IKs kinetics was incorporated into a model of the human ventricular action potential (AP) for investigation of QT interval changes and arrhythmia substrates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814627/prematurity-and-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths-in-the-united-states
#3
Barbara M Ostfeld, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, Nancy E Reichman, Julien O Teitler, Thomas Hegyi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prematurity, a strong risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), was addressed in recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2011 for safe sleep education in NICUs. We documented associations between gestational age (GA) and SUID subsequent to these guidelines. METHODS: Using the 2012-2013 US linked infant birth and death certificate period files, we documented rates per live births of sudden infant death syndrome, ill-defined and unspecified causes, accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, and overall SUID by GA in postneonatal, out-of-hospital, and autopsied cases; compared survivors and cases; and estimated logistic regression models of associations between GA and SUID...
June 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814625/variations-in-cause-of-death-determination-for-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#4
Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Sharyn E Parks, Jennifer Brustrom, Tom Andrew, Lena Camperlengo, John Fudenberg, Betsy Payn, Dale Rhoda
OBJECTIVES: To quantify and describe variation in cause-of-death certification of sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) among US medical examiners and coroners. METHODS: From January to November 2014, we conducted a nationally representative survey of US medical examiners and coroners who certify infant deaths. Two-stage unequal probability sampling with replacement was used. Medical examiners and coroners were asked to classify SUIDs based on hypothetical scenarios and to describe the evidence considered and investigative procedures used for cause-of-death determination...
June 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814422/mothers-knowledge-and-attitudes-to-sudden-infant-deathsyndrome-risk-reduction-messages-results-from-a-uk-survey
#5
Anna S Pease, Peter S Blair, Jenny Ingram, Peter J Fleming
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mothers' knowledge of reducing the risks for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and attitudes towards safer sleep practices. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Recruitment took place in 2014 at local health visitor-led baby clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Of 432 mothers approached, 400 (93%) completed the face-to-face survey. Participants with infants at 'higher' risk of SIDS (using an algorithm based on a previous observational study) were compared with those at 'lower' risk...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811941/seizure-associated-takotsubo-syndrome-a-rare-combination
#6
Htay Htay Kyi, Nour Aljariri Alhesan, Sunil Upadhaya, Samer Al Hadidi
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is increasingly recognized in neurocritical care population especially in postmenopausal females. We are presenting a 61-year-old African American female with past medical history of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and hypertension who presented with multiple episodes of seizures due to noncompliance with antiepileptic medications. She was on telemetry which showed ST alarm. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was ordered and showed ST elevation in anterolateral leads and troponins were positive...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810115/current-guidelines-on-syncope
#7
Maheedhar Gedela, Naveen Rajpurohit, Kashif A Shaikh, Muhammad Omar, Scott Pham
Syncope is a very commonly encountered clinical problem in general practice and in the emergency department. In the evaluation of syncope, it is important to identify the specific cause to determine the treatment, to estimate the precise risk to a patient, and to reduce recurrence. Sometimes, making a diagnosis of syncope is difficult, as different mechanisms may often coexist. Syncope causes a significant impact on quality of life due to associated risk of physical injury. In particular, syncope can be a precursor to sudden cardiac death in patients with underlying cardiac disease...
November 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808933/cardiovascular-disease-in-clozapine-treated-patients-evidence-mechanisms-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Kathlyn J Ronaldson
Myocarditis occurs in about 3% of those initiated on clozapine but monitoring reduces the risk of serious outcome. Cardiomyopathy may develop after myocarditis, or from prolonged tachycardia. Monitoring using echocardiography is not deemed cost effective. Tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension and reduced heart rate variability are a group of clozapine-related adverse effects associated with autonomic dysfunction and may have serious consequences in the long term. Elevated heart rate and poor heart rate variability can be treated with a β-blocker or a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, while orthostatic hypotension can be alleviated by increased fluid intake and abdominal binding, but may require pharmacological intervention...
August 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807990/investigating-the-genetic-causes-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-children-through-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-analysis
#9
Laura J Dewar, Miguel Alcaide, Daniel Fornika, Luisa D'Amato, Sanam Shafaatalab, Charles M Stevens, Thambirajah Balachandra, Susan M Phillips, Shubhayan Sanatani, Ryan D Morin, Glen F Tibbits
BACKGROUND: Inherited arrhythmia syndromes are responsible for a significant portion of autopsy-negative sudden unexpected death (SUD) cases, but molecular autopsy used to identify potentially causal variants is not routinely included in SUD investigations. We collaborated with a medical examiner's office to assist in finding a diagnosis for their autopsy-negative child SUD cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: 191 child SUD cases (<5 years of age) were selected for analyses...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806467/the-history-of-home-cardiorespiratory-monitoring
#10
Gary E Freed, Francis Martinez
Home cardiorespiratory monitoring has changed significantly since it was first introduced in the 1970s. It has improved from a simple alarm system to a sophisticated piece of equipment capable of monitoring the patient's electrocardiogram, respiratory effort, and oxygen saturations. In addition, the indications for using a monitor have also changed. The home monitor was initially used to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Although there were several studies demonstrating the reduction of SIDS rates in communities where apnea programs existed, none was a prospective, double-blinded study or had adequate numbers to be clinically significant...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806464/beyond-back-to-sleep-ways-to-further-reduce-the-risk-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#11
Fern R Hauck, Kawai O Tanabe
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States, despite reduction in rates of more than 50% since the initiation of the "Back to Sleep" (now called "Safe to Sleep") campaign in 1994. In recent years, the rate of decline in SIDS deaths has plateaued, even with the ongoing educational efforts that promote safe sleep and other risk reduction measures. The 2016 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for reducing the risk of SIDS focus heavily on sleep practices, bedding, and location, but also include factors that often receive less attention (ie, prenatal care, maternal smoking, alcohol and drug use, and childhood vaccinations)...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803248/a-functional-assay-for-sick-sinus-syndrome-genetic-variants
#12
Chuanchau J Jou, Cammon B Arrington, Spencer Barnett, Jiaxiang Shen, Scott Cho, Xiaoming Sheng, Patrick C McCullagh, Neil E Bowles, Chase M Pribble, Elizabeth V Saarel, Thomas A Pilcher, Susan P Etheridge, Martin Tristani-Firouzi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS) is a disorder associated with sudden cardiac death due to severe bradycardia and prolonged pauses. Mutations in HCN4, the gene encoding inward Na+/K+ current (If), have been described as a cause of congenital SSS. The objective of this study is to develop an SSS model in embryonic zebrafish, and use zebrafish as a moderate-throughput assay to functionally characterize HCN4 variants. METHODS: To determine the function of hcn4 in zebrafish, embryos were either bathed in the If -specific blocker (ZD-7288), or endogenous hcn4 expression was knocked down using splice-blocking morpholinos...
August 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797161/masked-inherited-primary-arrhythmia-syndromes-in-sudden-cardiac-death-patients-accompanied-by-coronary-vasospasm
#13
Ki Hong Lee, Hyung Wook Park, Jeong Nam Eun, Jeong Gwan Cho, Nam Sik Yoon, Mi Ran Kim, Yo Han Ku, Hyukjin Park, Seung Hun Lee, Jeong Han Kim, Min Chul Kim, Woo Jin Kim, Hyun Kuk Kim, Jae Yeong Cho, Keun-Ho Park, Doo Sun Sim, Hyun Ju Yoon, Kye Hun Kim, Young Joon Hong, Ju Han Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong, Jong Chun Park
Background/Aims: Coronary vasospasms are one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Provocation of coronary vasospasms can be useful, though some results may lead to false positives, with patients potentially experiencing recurrent SCD despite appropriate medical treatments. We hypothesized that it is not coronary vasospasms but inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes (IPAS) that underlie the development of SCD. Methods: We analyzed 74 consecutive patients (3...
August 11, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782696/heritability-in-a-scn5a-mutation-founder-population-with-increased-female-susceptibility-to-non-nocturnal-ventricular-tachyarrhythmia-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#14
Rachel M A Ter Bekke, Aaron Isaacs, Andrei Barysenka, Marije B Hoos, Jan D H Jongbloed, Jan C A Hoorntje, Alfons S M Patelski, Apollonia T J M Helderman-van den Enden, Arthur van den Wijngaard, Monika Stoll, Paul G A Volders
BACKGROUND: Heritable cardiac sodium-channel dysfunction is associated with various arrhythmia syndromes, some predisposing to ventricular fibrillation. Phenotypic diversity among carriers of identical-by-descent mutations is often remarkable, suggesting influences of genetic modifiers. OBJECTIVE: We identified a unique SCN5A-mutation founder population with mixed clinical phenotypes and sudden cardiac death, and investigated the heritability of electromechanical traits besides the SCN5A-mutation effect...
August 3, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779863/neurological-complications-of-cardiac-disease
#15
Nandini Madan, Karen S Carvalho
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurologic systems. Initially, we focus on neurological complications in children with congenital heart disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease and complications of interventions. We later discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphasis on vasovagal syncope. We also review the diagnosis, classification, and management of children and adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776334/trends-of-social-inequalities-in-the-specific-causes-of-infant-mortality-in-a-nationwide-birth-cohort-in-korea-1995-2009
#16
Mia Son, Soo Jeong An, Young Ju Kim
The relationship between social disparity and specific causes of infant mortality has rarely been studied. The present study analyzed infant mortality trends according to the causes of death and the inequalities in specific causes of infant mortality between different parental social classes. We analyzed 8,209,836 births from the Statistics Korea between 1995 and 2009. The trends of disparity for cause-specific infant mortality according to parental education and employment were examined using the Cox proportional hazard model for the birth-year intervals of 1995-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775068/active-sleep-unmasks-apnea-and-delayed-arousal-in-infant-rat-pups-lacking-central-serotonin
#17
Jacob O Young, Aron M Geurts, Matthew Robert Hodges, Kevin J Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), occurring during sleep periods, is highly associated with abnormalities within serotonin (5-HT) neurons, including reduced 5-HT. There is evidence that future SIDS cases experience more apnea and have abnormal arousal from sleep. In rodents, a loss of 5-HT neurons is associated with apnea in early life and, in adulthood, delayed arousal. As the activity of 5-HT neurons changes with vigilance state, we hypothesized that the degree of apnea and delayed arousal displayed by rat pups specifically lacking central 5-HT varies with state...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768581/cardiac-defects-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-affected-by-rasopathies-carnet-study-results
#18
Giulio Calcagni, Giuseppe Limongelli, Angelo D'Ambrosio, Francesco Gesualdo, M Cristina Digilio, Anwar Baban, Sonia B Albanese, Paolo Versacci, Enrica De Luca, Giovanni B Ferrero, Giuseppina Baldassarre, Gabriella Agnoletti, Elena Banaudi, Jan Marek, Juan P Kaski, Giulia Tuo, M Giovanna Russo, Giuseppe Pacileo, Ornella Milanesi, Daniela Messina, Maurizio Marasini, Francesca Cairello, Roberto Formigari, Maurizio Brighenti, Bruno Dallapiccola, Marco Tartaglia, Bruno Marino
BACKGROUND: RASopathies are developmental disease caused by mutations in genes encoding for signal transducers of the RAS-MAPK cascade. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive description of morbidity and mortality in patients with molecularly confirmed RASopathy. METHODS: A multicentric, observational, retrospective study was conducted in seven European cardiac centres participating to the CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork (CARNET). Clinical records of 371 patients with confirmed molecular diagnosis of RASopathy were reviewed...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763067/-myocardial-infarction-in-young-mexicans-associated-to-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Álvaro Mathiew-Quirós, Ana María Salinas-Martínez, Francisco Javier Guzmán de la Garza, María Guadalupe Garza-Sagástegui, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Magda Graciela Palmero-Hinojosa, Norma Edith Oliva-Sosa
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary diseases are catastrophic, especially in young patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) for premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI), combined with familial, behavioral, and nutritional factors in the northeast of Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a case control study of patients less than 47 years of age with no personal history of angina, AMI, or cerebrovascular disease. Cases corresponded to patients with AMI (incident and primary cases; n = 55) and controls were blood donors located at the same hospital (n = 55)...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759457/genetic-causes-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-children-inherited-arrhythmogenic-diseases
#20
Gaetano Vacanti, Riccardo Maragna, Andrea Mazzanti, Silvia G Priori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this chapter we will discuss the most recent and relevant evidences published in the field of inherited arrhythmogenic disorders, focusing on the so called 'channelopathies' that are associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children: long QT syndrome (LQTS), short QT syndrome (SQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). RECENT FINDINGS: We will discuss the latest diagnostic criteria for channelopathies released by the European Society of Cardiology, the new data on BrS in children and the recent evidence supporting a genotype-specific therapy for LQTS type 3...
July 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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