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Sudden death syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433554/catheter-ablation-to-prevent-sudden-cardiac-death
#1
Josef Kautzner, Petr Peichl
Since ventricular arrhythmias are a common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD), treatment for ventricular arrhythmias is the target area of interest in research field. Among different means to prevent ventricular arrhythmias, catheter ablation (CA) has emerged as an effective therapeutic method. CA can decrease the likelihood of SCD in the following arrhythmia categories: 1) idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) that is usually triggered by premature ventricular beats originating in the Purkinje fibres; 2) VF in subjects with structural heart disease, especially after myocardial infarction, that is triggered by premature ventricular beats from surviving Purkinje fibres; 3) Brugada syndrome in which modification of an epicardial substrate in the right ventricular outflow tract might be the most promising strategy; 4) recurrent monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in the setting of structural heart disease; 5) ventricular preexcitation in which CA appears to be a method of choice in high risk patients, regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432673/prognostic-value-of-left-ventricular-dyssynchrony-evaluated-by-gated-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-normal-perfusion-defect-scores
#2
Hiroaki Mori, Satoshi Isobe, Susumu Suzuki, Kazumasa Unno, Ryota Morimoto, Naoaki Kano, Takahiro Okumura, Yoshinari Yasuda, Katsuhiko Kato, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether indices of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) could be useful to predict prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with normal perfusion defect scores. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven CKD patients with normal perfusion defect scores on adenosine-stress (201)Tl GMPS and no previous history of overt heart diseases were enrolled. Phase standard deviation (PSD) and bandwidth (BW) were automatically calculated from GMPS...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430906/past-and-current-cause-specific-mortality-in-eisenmenger-syndrome
#3
Cristel M Sørensen Hjortshøj, Aleksander Kempny, Annette Schophuus Jensen, Keld Sørensen, Edit Nagy, Mikael Dellborg, Bengt Johansson, Virginija Rudiene, Gu Hong, Alexander R Opotowsky, Werner Budts, Barbara J Mulder, Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pajak, Michele D'Alto, Katja Prokšelj, Gerhard-Paul Diller, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Mette-Elise Estensen, Henrik Holmstrøm, Maila Turanlahti, Ulf Thilén, Michael A Gatzoulis, Lars Søndergaard
Aims: Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies have changed during the 2000s in conjunction with an emphasis on specialist follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine the cause-specific mortality in ES and evaluate any relevant changes between 1977 and 2015. Methods and results: This is a retrospective, descriptive multicentre study. A total of 1546 patients (mean age 38.7 ± 15.4 years; 36% male) from 13 countries were included...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416587/cardiovascular-outcomes-with-an-inhaled-beta2-agonist-corticosteroid-in-patients-with-copd-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Robert D Brook, Julie A Anderson, Peter Ma Calverley, Bartolome R Celli, Courtney Crim, Martin A Denvir, Sheldon Magder, Fernando J Martinez, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Jørgen Vestbo, Julie Yates, David E Newby
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexist. We assessed the effect of inhaled COPD treatments on CVD outcomes and safety in patients with COPD and at heightened CVD risk. METHODS: The SUMMIT (Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy) was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial in 16 485 patients with moderate COPD who had or were at high risk of CVD. Here, we assessed the prespecified secondary endpoint of time to first on-treatment composite CVD event (CVD death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)) by Cox regression and by clinician-reported CVD adverse events across the four groups: once-daily inhaled placebo (n=4111), long-acting beta2-agonist (vilanterol (VI) 25 µg; n=4118), corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate (FF) 100 µg; n=4135) and combination therapy (FF/VI; n=4121)...
April 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415082/p210long-term-outcome-of-primary-mitral-valve-prolapse-results-from-a-population-of-250-patients-referred-to-a-tertiary-cardiovascular-center
#6
V Mecarocci, F Mori
Background: Outcome of Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) was controversial for long time. Many studies reported great differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events due, above all, to heterogeneous and small studied populations. Most of theme were also published to late '80 of the last century till early '00. Purpose: To make a contemporary survey on the incidence of cardiovascular events in a selected population of patients affected by primary MVP referred to a tertiary cardiovascular center for the medical and surgical care of valvular heart disease...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408648/azithromycin-causes-a-novel-proarrhythmic-syndrome
#7
Zhenjiang Yang, Joseph K Prinsen, Kevin R Bersell, Wangzhen Shen, Liudmila Yermalitskaya, Tatiana Sidorova, Paula B Luis, Lynn Hall, Wei Zhang, Liping Du, Ginger Milne, Patrick Tucker, Alfred L George, Courtney M Campbell, Robert A Pickett, Christian M Shaffer, Nagesh Chopra, Tao Yang, Bjorn C Knollmann, Dan M Roden, Katherine T Murray
BACKGROUND: The widely used macrolide antibiotic azithromycin increases risk of cardiovascular and sudden cardiac death, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Case reports, including the one we document here, demonstrate that azithromycin can cause rapid, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the absence of QT prolongation, indicating a novel proarrhythmic syndrome. We investigated the electrophysiological effects of azithromycin in vivo and in vitro using mice, cardiomyocytes, and human ion channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
April 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405995/recurrent-ventricular-tachycardia-due-to-long-qt-syndrome
#8
Rambabu Singh, Kshitiz Nath, Archana
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare inherited heart condition in which delayed repolarization of the heart following a heartbeat, increases the risk of episodes of Torsades de pointes (TdP, a form of irregular heartbeat that originates from the ventricles). These episodes may lead to palpitations, fainting, and sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation. Episodes may be provoked by various stimuli, depending on the subtype of the condition. We are reporting a case of 37 years old male whom we diagnosed to have long QT syndrome on the basis of clinical and ECG findings...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394766/risks-and-benefits-of-swaddling-healthy-infants-an-integrative-review
#9
Antonia M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Swaddling has been practiced since antiquity; however, there is controversy about its safety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to update and build upon previous reviews and synthesize evidence on risks and benefits of swaddling in healthyterm, near-term, or older infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1960-May 13, 2016) and CINAHL (1963-May 13, 2016) searches were conducted, relevant articles retrieved, and citation lists reviewed for other references...
April 7, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394409/evaluation-of-qtc-in-rett-syndrome-correlation-with-age-severity-and-genotype
#10
Jane Crosson, Siddharth Srivastava, Genila M Bibat, Siddharth Gupta, Aditi Kantipuly, Constance Smith-Hicks, Scott M Myers, Abanti Sanyal, Gayane Yenokyan, Joel Brenner, Sakkubai R Naidu
Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by MECP2 mutations, resulting in various neurological symptoms. Prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) is also reported and is a speculated cause of sudden death in RTT. The purpose of this study was to correlate QTc in RTT patients with age, clinical severity, and genotype. 100 RTT patients (98 females, 2 males) with MECP2 mutations underwent baseline neurological evaluation (KKI-RTT Severity Scale) and QTc measurement (standard 12 lead electrocardiogram) as part of our prospective natural history study...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#11
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#12
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391114/genotype-phenotype-dilemma-in-a-case-of-sudden-cardiac-death-with-the-e1053k-mutation-and-a-deletion-in-the-scn5a-gene
#13
T Jenewein, B M Beckmann, S Rose, H H Osterhues, U Schmidt, C Wolpert, P Miny, C Marschall, M Alders, C R Bezzina, A A M Wilde, S Kääb, S Kauferstein
Mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A may result in various arrhythmia syndromes such as long QT syndrome type 3 (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), sick sinus syndrome (SSS), cardiac conduction diseases (CCD) and possibly dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In most of these inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes the phenotypical expression may range from asymptomatic phenotypes to sudden cardiac death (SCD). A 16-year-old female died during sleep. Autopsy did not reveal any explanation for her death and a genetic analysis was performed...
March 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384965/anaesthetic-management-in-brugada-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Sulochana Dash, Shanmugam Pragathee
Brugada Syndrome (BS) is a rare congenital cardiac disorder involving cardiac sodium channels, sometimes presenting with ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Here, we are reporting a case of BS who presented for laparotomy due to obstructed inguinal hernia which was managed satisfactorily with combined epidural and general anaesthesia without any complications.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382839/abnormal-muscularization-of-intra-acinar-pulmonary-arteries-in-2-cases-presenting-as-sudden-infant-death-sids
#15
Zainun Khairul, Hope Kirsten, Andrew G Nicholson, Marta C Cohen
Abnormal muscularization of acinar arteries is the hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. We herein report 2 cases presenting as a witnessed sudden unexpected death in the late neonatal period, preceded by respiratory deterioration and in whom the presence of abnormal muscularization of the acinar pulmonary arteries was reminiscent of PPHN. The significance of this report is twofold: to increase the awareness among pediatricians and pathologists of this feature that can present in some cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy/Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and to highlight the importance of performing a thorough autopsy in order to identify the abnormality...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382321/electrophysiological-mechanisms-of-long-and-short-qt-syndromes
#16
REVIEW
Gary Tse, Yin Wah Fiona Chan, Wendy Keung, Bryan P Yan
The QT interval on the human electrocardiogram is normally in the order of 450 ms, and reflects the summated durations of action potential (AP) depolarization and repolarization of ventricular myocytes. Both prolongation and shortening in the QT interval have been associated with ventricular tachy-arrhythmias, which predispose affected individuals to sudden cardiac death. In this article, the molecular determinants of the AP duration and the causes of long and short QT syndromes (LQTS and SQTS) are explored...
March 2017: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381391/brugada-phenocopy-induced-by-propafenone-overdose-and-successful-treatment-a-case-report
#17
Mehmet Emre Arı, Filiz Ekici
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome is an inherited arrhythmogenic disease that may cause sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation in young adults. Brugada syndrome caused by propafenone intoxication has been noted rarely in the literature. We reported a rare case, Brugada-phenocopy due to propafenone intoxication and its treatment. CASE REPORT: A fifteen-year-old girl having a seizure was brought to the emergency room. She took 1.5 g propafenone (Rythmol, Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA) for suicidal intention...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379344/a-score-model-to-predict-risk-of-events-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#18
Juan Sieira, Giulio Conte, Giuseppe Ciconte, Gian-Battista Chierchia, Ruben Casado-Arroyo, Giannis Baltogiannis, Giacomo Di Giovanni, Yukio Saitoh, Justo Juliá, Giacomo Mugnai, Mark La Meir, Francis Wellens, Jens Czapla, Gudrun Pappaert, Carlo de Asmundis, Pedro Brugada
Aims: Risk stratification in Brugada Syndrome (BS) remains challenging. Arrhythmic events can occur life-long and studies with long follow-ups are sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate long-term prognosis and risk stratification of BS patients. Methods and results: A single centre consecutive cohort of 400 BS patients was included and analysed. Mean age was 41.1 years, 78 patients (19.5%) had a spontaneous type I electrocardiogram (ECG). Clinical presentation was aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) in 20 patients (5...
March 31, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378502/infant-pacifiers-for-reduction-in-risk-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Kim Psaila, Jann P Foster, Neil Pulbrook, Heather E Jeffery
BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been most recently defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than one year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including the performance of a complete autopsy and a review of the circumstances of death and clinical history. Despite the success of several prevention campaigns, SIDS remains a leading cause of infant mortality...
April 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373245/an-east-asian-common-variant-vinculin-p-asp841his-was-associated-with-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-in-the-chinese-han-population
#20
Jianding Cheng, John W Kyle, Di Lang, Brandi Wiedmeyer, Jian Guo, Kun Yin, Lei Huang, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Terry Su, Jonathan C Makielski
BACKGROUND: We have identified the cardiomyopathy-susceptibility gene vinculin (VCL) mutation M94I may account for a sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) case. We addressed whether VCL common variant D841H is associated with SUNDS. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8 of 120 SUNDS cases, we detected an East Asian common VCL variant p.Asp841His (D841H). Comparing the H841 allele frequency of the general population in the local database (15 of 1818) with SUNDS victims (10 of 240) gives an odds ratio for SUNDS of 5...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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