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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#1
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933638/nursing-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-hospitalized-patients-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Z Kazemzadeh, Z S Manzari, Z Pouresmail
AIM: This study aimed to clarify the role of nurses in planning and implementation of nursing interventions related to smoking cessation. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of all smokers die from smoking-related illnesses. Quitting smoking can reduce these problems. Smoking cessation interventions include various types helping smokers successfully quit. Studies suggest that hospitalization can be a golden opportunity for nurses helping patients to quit smoking because of No Smoking regulations...
December 9, 2016: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933604/chemoresistant-lung-cancer-stem-cells-display-high-dna-repair-capability-to-remove-cisplatin-dna-damage
#3
Wai-Kin Yu, Zhigang Wang, Chi-Chun Fong, Dandan Liu, Tak-Chun Yip, Siu-Kie Au, Guangyu Zhu, Mengsu Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The persistence of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) has been proposed to be the main factor of lung cancer recurrence due to their high resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been fully addressed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study, we examined the cellular response of a human lung cancer stem cell line upon treatment with cisplatin, a DNA-damaging anticancer drug that is extensively applied in clinics...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933587/development-of-a-more-efficient-albumin-based-delivery-system-for-gambogic-acid-with-low-toxicity-for-lung-cancer-therapy
#4
Yan Zhang, Zhijie Yang, Xinyi Tan, Xing Tang, Zaixing Yang
Gambogic acid (GA) has been proven to be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer in clinical trials. However, GA is limited in its therapeutic value by properties such as poor water solubility and low chemical stability. In clinical trials, cationic arginine (Arg) was added to solubilize GA, and this may also cause other side effects. Here, we have designed and developed a more efficient human serum albumin (HSA)-based delivery system for GA with low toxicity which helps improve its solubility, chemical stability and increases its antitumor efficacy...
December 8, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933464/can-body-composition-be-used-to-optimize-the-dose-of-platinum-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer-a-feasibility-study
#5
Vincent Crosby, Catherine D'Souza, Carina Bristow, Amy Proffitt, Asmah Hussain, Vanessa Potter, Ivo Hennig, Richard O'Connor, Vickie Baracos, Andrew Wilcock
PURPOSE: Current methods of dosing platinum-based chemotherapy are suboptimal. Potentially, taking lean body mass into account may help. To inform the design of a future study, we first examined the feasibility and acceptability of such an approach using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and explored aspects suggestive of over- and under-dosing. METHODS: Patients with lung cancer offered platinum-based chemotherapy over 1 year were identified and, if eligible, invited to take part in a prospective feasibility study...
December 8, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933183/differential-eligibility-of-african-american-and-european-american-lung-cancer-cases-using-ldct-screening-guidelines
#6
Bríd M Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer incidence and mortality is higher among African Americans compared with European Americans in the USA where screening guidelines are currently in place and based on age at diagnosis and smoking history. Given the different smoking patterns observed in these populations and the earlier age at which African Americans are diagnosed, it is possible that African Americans will be disproportionally excluded from screening programmes. METHODS: We assessed the capture of African American and EA lung cancer cases using the National Lung Screening Trial, US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services eligibility guidelines in a population of lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2014 in the Baltimore region of Maryland (n=1658)...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933110/profiling-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-liquid-biopsy-can-one-size-fit-all
#7
Harry W Clifford, Amy P Cassidy, Courtney Vaughn, Evaline S Tsai, Bianka Seres, Nirmesh Patel, Hannah L O'Neill, Emil Hewage, John W Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Cancer is first and foremost a disease of the genome. Specific genetic signatures within a tumour are prognostic of disease outcome, reflect subclonal architecture and intratumour heterogeneity, inform treatment choices and predict the emergence of resistance to targeted therapies. Minimally invasive liquid biopsies can give temporal resolution to a tumour's genetic profile and allow the monitoring of treatment response through levels of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, the detection of ctDNA in repeated liquid biopsies is currently limited by economic and time constraints associated with targeted sequencing...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932881/preparation-and-antitumor-evaluation-of-self-assembling-oleanolic-acid-loaded-pluronic-p105-d-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-polyethylene-glycol-succinate-mixed-micelles-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treatment
#8
Hao Wu, Qingxiang Zhong, Rongling Zhong, Houcai Huang, Zhi Xia, Zhongcheng Ke, Zhenhai Zhang, Jie Song, Xiaobin Jia
Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid found in various fruits and vegetables and used in traditional Chinese medicine. OA plays a crucial role in the treatment of several cancers, but poor water solubility, low permeability, and significant efflux have limited its widespread clinical use. Vitamin E-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (vitamin E-TPGS) and Pluronic P105 were used to improve the solubility and permeability and to decrease the efflux of OA. OA-loaded mixed micelles were prepared by ethanol thin-film hydration...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932791/migration-and-invasion-of-drug-resistant-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-are-dependent-on-mitochondrial-activity
#9
Ji Hoon Jeon, Dong Keon Kim, Youngmi Shin, Hee Yeon Kim, Bomin Song, Eun Young Lee, Jong Kwang Kim, Hye Jin You, Heesun Cheong, Dong Hoon Shin, Seong-Tae Kim, Jae-Ho Cheong, Soo Youl Kim, Hyonchol Jang
A small proportion of cancer cells have stem-cell-like properties, are resistant to standard therapy and are associated with a poor prognosis. The metabolism of such drug-resistant cells differs from that of nearby non-resistant cells. In this study, the metabolism of drug-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. The expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial membrane was negatively correlated with the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Because the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reflects the functional status of mitochondria and metastasis is the principal cause of death due to cancer, the relationship between MMP and metastasis was evaluated...
December 9, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932761/-long-noncoding-rna-malat1-a-potential-novel-prognostic-biomarkers-in-cancers-based-on-meta-analysis
#10
Wei Song, Kai Wang, Runjin Zhang, Shubing Zou
To systematically review the potential value of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) as a potential novel prognostic biomarker in cancers.
 Methods: Databases including Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, PubMed databases were searched for all English studies, which explored the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and overall survival in tumors. The retrieval time was from inception to August 1, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932759/-prkar1%C3%AE-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-%C3%A2-its-clinicopathologic-significance
#11
Shaoqiang Wang, Yuanda Cheng, Zhiwei He, Wolong Zhou, Yang Gao, Chaojun Duan, Chunfang Zhang
To evaluate the expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit (PRKAR1α) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its correlation with clinicopathological features.
 Methods: PRKAR1α expressions in 79 NSCLC patients and matched adjacent non-carcinoma tissues were analyzed by using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
 Results: The negative rates of PRKAR1α protein in NSCLC, lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCL) and lung adenocarcinoma (ACL) were 58.2%, 77.8%, 32.4%, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932755/-effects-of-apigenin-on-self-renewal-and-%C3%A2-upar-expression-in-nci-h446-cell-line
#12
Ling Shu, Qing Yuan, Yinghong Cui, Shuwen Sun, A Chen, Dan Chen, Jianguo Cao, Jiansong Zhang
To investigate the effect of apigenin on self-renewal for sphere-forming cells in human small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and the underlying mechanisms.
 Methods: Sphere-forming cells from NCI-H446 cell line were cultured in stem cell-conditioned culture medium with ultra-low attachment surface plates. The rate of sphere-forming cells in the second passage sphere-forming cells was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of apigenin on the self-renewal for sphere-forming cells. The protein level of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in spheroids was analyzed by Western blot...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932629/breathlessness-during-daily-activity-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-london-chest-activity-of-daily-living-scale-in-patients-with-advanced-disease-and-refractory-breathlessness
#13
Charles C Reilly, Claudia Bausewein, Rachel Garrod, Caroline J Jolley, John Moxham, Irene J Higginson
BACKGROUND: The London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale measures the impact of breathlessness on both activity and social functioning. However, the London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale is not routinely used in patients with advanced disease. AIM: To assess the psychometric properties of the London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale in patients with refractory breathlessness due to advanced disease. DESIGN: A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled parallel-group, pragmatic, single-blind fast-track trial (randomised controlled trial) investigating the effectiveness of an integrated palliative and respiratory care service for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness, known as the Breathlessness Support Service (NCT01165034)...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932399/novel-hybrid-phenotype-revealed-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-a-transcription-factor-network-model-that-can-explain-tumor-heterogeneity
#14
Akshata R Udyavar, David J Wooten, Megan D Hoeksema, Mukesh Bansal, Andrea Califano, Lourdes Estrada, Santiago Schnell, Jonathan M Irish, Pierre P Massion, Vito Quaranta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease due to its propensity for early invasion and refractory relapse after initial treatment response. Although these aggressive traits have been associated with phenotypic heterogeneity, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. To fill this knowledge gap, we inferred a set of 33 transcription factors (TF) associated with gene signatures of the known neuroendocrine/epithelial (NE) and non-neuroendocrine/mesenchymal-like (ML) SCLC phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932076/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-dna-glycosylases-from-function-to-disease
#15
Mariarosaria D'Errico, Eleonora Parlanti, Barbara Pascucci, Paola Fortini, Sara Baccarini, Valeria Simonelli, Eugenia Dogliotti
Oxidative stress is associated with a growing number of diseases that span from cancer to neurodegeneration. Most oxidatively induced DNA base lesions are repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway which involves the action of various DNA glycosylases. There are numerous genome wide studies attempting to associate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predispositions to various types of disease; often, these common variants do not have significant alterations in their biochemical function and do not exhibit a convincing phenotype...
December 5, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932068/rovalpituzumab-tesirine-a-dll3-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-recurrent-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-first-in-human-first-in-class-open-label-phase-1-study
#16
Charles M Rudin, M Catherine Pietanza, Todd M Bauer, Neal Ready, Daniel Morgensztern, Bonnie S Glisson, Lauren A Byers, Melissa L Johnson, Howard A Burris, Francisco Robert, Tae H Han, Sheila Bheddah, Noah Theiss, Sky Watson, Deepan Mathur, Bharathi Vennapusa, Hany Zayed, Satwant Lally, Donald K Strickland, Ramaswamy Govindan, Scott J Dylla, Stanford L Peng, David R Spigel
BACKGROUND: Rovalpituzumab tesirine is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), a novel target identified in tumour-initiating cells and expressed in more than 80% of patients with small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients who progressed after one or more previous regimen. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 open-label study at ten cancer centres in the USA...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932067/nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab-as-first-line-treatment-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-checkmate-012-results-of-an-open-label-phase-1-multicohort-study
#17
Matthew D Hellmann, Naiyer A Rizvi, Jonathan W Goldman, Scott N Gettinger, Hossein Borghaei, Julie R Brahmer, Neal E Ready, David E Gerber, Laura Q Chow, Rosalyn A Juergens, Frances A Shepherd, Scott A Laurie, William J Geese, Shruti Agrawal, Tina C Young, Xuemei Li, Scott J Antonia
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab has shown improved survival in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and activity of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line therapy for NSCLC. METHODS: The open-label, phase 1, multicohort study (CheckMate 012) cohorts reported here were enrolled at eight US academic centres. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed recurrent stage IIIb or stage IV, chemotherapy-naive NSCLC...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932034/oncogenic-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-promotes-human-colorectal-cancer-growth-through-simultaneously-regulating-p21-transcription-and-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#18
Gui-Li Huang, Wei Zhang, Hong-Yue Ren, Pan Zhou, Yun Chen, Qing-Xi Chen, Dong-Yan Shen
Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) plays important roles in the progression of several cancers such as leukemia, breast cancer, and lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that RARα protein was frequently overexpressed in human CRC specimens and CRC cell lines. RARα knockdown decreased cell survival, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro and tumorigenic potential in nude mice. Specifically, RARα knockdown inhibited cell cycle progression at G1 phase through upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor p21, and downregulation of cyclinD1...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931239/mcl-1-inhibition-provides-a-new-way-to-suppress-breast-cancer-metastasis-and-increase-sensitivity-to-dasatinib
#19
Adelaide I J Young, Andrew M K Law, Lesley Castillo, Sabrina Chong, Hayley D Cullen, Martin Koehler, Sebastian Herzog, Tilman Brummer, Erinna F Lee, Walter D Fairlie, Morghan C Lucas, David Herrmann, Amr Allam, Paul Timpson, D Neil Watkins, Ewan K A Millar, Sandra A O'Toole, David Gallego-Ortega, Christopher J Ormandy, Samantha R Oakes
BACKGROUND: Metastatic disease is largely resistant to therapy and accounts for almost all cancer deaths. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) is an important regulator of cell survival and chemo-resistance in a wide range of malignancies, and thus its inhibition may prove to be therapeutically useful. METHODS: To examine whether targeting MCL-1 may provide an effective treatment for breast cancer, we constructed inducible models of BIMs2A expression (a specific MCL-1 inhibitor) in MDA-MB-468 (MDA-MB-468-2A) and MDA-MB-231 (MDA-MB-231-2A) cells...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931220/native-musk-and-synthetic-musk-ketone-strongly-induced-the-growth-repression-and-the-apoptosis-of-cancer-cells
#20
Ling Xu, Yi Cao
BACKGROUND: Musk is widely used in clinical practice for its anti-cancer properties. Here, we treated various types of cancer using musk to determine which cancers are sensitive to musk treatment. We also compared effects of native musk and synthetic musk ketone in cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms underlying effects of musk. METHODS: Twenty two cancer cell lines were treated with musk. Cell proliferation and apoptosis analyses were carried out...
December 8, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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