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Cheng-Hsin Cheng, Hao-Yu Chuang, Hung-Lin Lin, Chun-Lin Liu, Chun-Hsu Yao
OBJECT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the surgical outcome of a new three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique using prefabrication molds and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 10 patients with large skull defects (>100 cm2 ) who underwent cranioplasty. The causes of the skull defects were trauma (6), bone resorption (2), tumor (1), and infection (1). Before the operation, computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create a virtual plan, and these were then converted to 3-dimensional (3-D) images...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Sheng Yan, Yuxing Li, Yuanqing Zhu, Minsu Liu, Qianbin Zhao, Dan Yuan, Guolin Yun, Shiwu Zhang, Weijia Wen, Shi-Yang Tang, Weihua Li
This work presents a simple, low-cost method to fabricate semi-circular channels using solder paste, which can amalgamate the cooper surface to form a half-cylinder mould using the surface tension of Sn-Pd alloy (the main component in solder paste). This technique enables semi-circular channels to be manufactured with different dimensions. These semi-circular channels will then be integrated with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame and machine screws to create miniaturised, portable microfluidic valves for sequential liquid delivery and particle synthesis...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Xuren Gao, Jian Ge, Weiyi Li, Wangchen Zhou, Lei Xu
Background: Resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to stimulate osteoblast differentiation in which Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played a crucial role. However, whether and how RSV activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteogenic differentiation still remained elusive. Methods: In vivo polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) mouse model and in vitro PMMA particle-stimulated mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) experiments were established...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Jitendra B Maurya, Alexandre François, Yogendra K Prajapati
One-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) sensors have emerged as contenders for traditional surface plasmon resonance sensors, owing to their potential for the detection of bigger molecules and particles due to their higher interaction volume in the sensing medium. Two-dimensional layered nanomaterials, most notably graphene and dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS₂, MoSe₂, WS₂, and WSe₂), have shown higher refractive index sensitivity because of their absorption as well as adsorption property. The proposed configuration of 1DPC presented consists of alternate layers of the aforementioned nanomaterials and silicon...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
Alfredo Mirandola, Giuseppe Magro, Marco Lavagno, Andrea Mairani, Silvia Molinelli, Stefania Russo, Edoardo Mastella, Alessandro Vai, Davide Maestri, Vanessa La Rosa, Mario Ciocca
PURPOSE: To dosimetrically characterize a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. METHODS: QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Pakthorn Lewchalermwong, Nirut Suwanna, Björn P Meij
OBJECTIVES:  To develop the canine vertebral screw and rod fixation system (CVSRF) and to compare the biomechanical properties between CVSRF and the screw and polymethylmethacrylate (Screw-PMMA) technique for internal fixation of the vertebral column in dogs. METHODS:  The CVSRF consisted of vertebral screws with monoaxial side-loaded head, rods and specific inner screws connecting rod to the screw head. The CVSRF prototype was made from titanium alloy and manufactured by the rapid prototype machine...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Nasim Samarghandi, Somayeh Zarrati, Fatemeh Maleki, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Taher Elmi, Sayed Hussain Mosawi
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease induced by a protozoan from the genus Leishmania . No effective vaccine has yet been developed against the disease. AIM: In this work, two nano-vaccines, TSA recombinant plasmid and dendrimer and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (as adjuvants), were designed and tested for their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. METHODS: After the plasmid construction and preparation of adjuvants, three intramuscular injections of the nano-vaccines (100 µg) and the recombinant TSA protein (20 µg) were subcutaneously performed...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Heinrich Gerding
BACKGROUND: Recent case reports have indicated that intraocular lenses may be discoloured by systemically or locally applied fluorescein. Since very few data are available on the susceptibility of intraocular lenses to fluorescein, an experimental survey on lens discolouration was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Intraocular lenses fabricated from polmethylmethacrylate (PMMA), silicone, hydrophobic acrylic copolymers, and hydrophilic acrylic copolymers were exposed to 10% fluorescein...
March 12, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
T J A G Münker, S E C M van de Vijfeijken, C S Mulder, V Vespasiano, A G Becking, C J Kleverlaan, A G Becking, L Dubois, L H E Karssemakers, D M J Milstein, S E C M van de Vijfeijken, P R A M Depauw, F W A Hoefnagels, W P Vandertop, C J Kleverlaan, T J A G Münker, T J J Maal, E Nout, M Riool, S A J Zaat
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, personalized medical devices are frequently used for patients. Due to the manufacturing procedure sterilization is required. How different sterilization methods affect the mechanical behavior of these devices is largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based materials (Vertex Self-Curing, Palacos R+G, and NextDent C&B MFH) were sterilized with different sterilization methods: ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, autoclavation, and γ-irradiation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Dillon T Gentekos, Junteng Jia, Erika S Tirado, Katherine P Barteau, Detlef-M Smilgies, Robert A DiStasio, Brett P Fors
We report a method for tuning the domain spacing (Dsp) of self-assembled block copolymer thin films of poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) over a large range of lamellar periods. By modifying the molecular weight distribution (MWD) shape (including both the breadth and skew) of the PS block via temporal control of polymer chain initiation in anionic polymerization, we observe increases of up to 41% in Dsp for polymers with the same overall molecular weight (Mn ≈ 125 kg mol-1) without significantly changing the overall morphology or chemical composition of the final material...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pedro Martinez-Seijas, Luis A Díaz-Galvis, Josué Hernando, Ignacio O Leizaola-Cardesa, Antonio Aguilar-Salvatierra, Gerardo Gómez-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Over the years, many materials have been used in orbital reconstruction and cranioplasty. Among the materials in current use, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) offers a high degree of compatibility with human tissue. OBJECTIVE: This work describes a new, custom-made, 3D printing-aided, prosthetic fabrication process for orbital and/or cranial reconstruction using PMMA. METHODS: On the basis of information obtained from computerized tomography scanning processed in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine format and exported to treatment planning software, a 3D prosthesis master model was designed and digitally printed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Eric A Simiele, Ralf-Peter Kapsch, Ulrike Ankerhold, Wesley S Culberson, Larry Albert DeWerd
To characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. 
 Methods: Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV...
March 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Dooman Arefan, Alireza Talebpour, Nasrin Ahmadinejhad, Alireza Kamali Asl
Purpose: Validation of the Gate tool in digital mammography image simulation from the viewpoint of image quality (contrast of calcifications). Materials and Methods: The polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom containing aluminum foils in different thicknesses is used for measuring the contrast of calcifications in a real system. In this research, the phantom and mammography system have been simulated by the Gate tool with the maximum possible details. The contrast of the aluminum foil in simulations and practical method has been compared with each other and the standard errors in the mean (SEM) for various voltages of X-ray tube, aluminum foil, and PMMA thicknesses have been reported...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Yaxiong Wang, Ping Liu, Baoqing Zeng, Liming Liu, Jianjun Yang
A hydrothermal method for synthesizing ultralong and thin copper nanowires (CuNWs) with average diameter of 35 nm and average length of 100 μm is demonstrated in this paper. The concerning raw materials include copric (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2 ·2H2 O), octadecylamine (ODA), and ascorbic acid, which are all very cheap and nontoxic. The effect of different reaction time and different molar ratios to the reaction products were researched. The CuNWs prepared by the hydrothermal method were applied to fabricate CuNW transparent conductive electrode (TCE), which exhibited excellent conductivity-transmittance performance with low sheet resistance of 26...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Murali Srinivasan, Harald Gjengedal, Maria Cattani-Lorente, Mira Moussa, Stéphane Durual, Martin Schimmel, Frauke Müller
This study compared the biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and surface roughness of a pre-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin for CAD/CAM complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs) and a traditional heat-polymerized PMMA resin. Two groups of resin substrates [Control (RC): conventional PMMA; Test (RA): CAD/CAM PMMA] were fabricated. Human primary osteoblasts and mouse embryonic-fibroblasts were cultured for biocompatibility assays. Mechanical properties and surface roughness were compared...
March 6, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Cheng-Sian Wu, Po-Yu Tsai, Teng-Yi Wang, En-Li Lin, Yen-Chang Huang, Yeo-Wan Chiang
Large-area and flexible amorphous photonic crystals (APCs) featuring interconnected network microstructures are fabricated using high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) block copolymers. Kinetically-controlled microphase separation combining with synergistic weak incompatibility gives rise to short-range-order network microstructures, exhibiting noniridescent optical properties. Solubility-dependent solvatochromism with distinct responses to various organic solvent vapors is observed in the network-forming APC film...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Blaine McCarthy, Ryan Pearson, Chern-Hooi Lim, Steven M Sartor, Niels H Damrauer, Garret M Miyake
Through the study of structure-property relationships using a combination of experimental and computational analyses, a number of phenoxazine derivatives have been developed as visible light-absorbing, organic photoredox catalysts (PCs) with excited state reduction potentials rivaling those of highly reducing transition metal PCs. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computational modeling of the photoexcitation of N-aryl and core modified phenoxazines guided the design of PCs with absorption profiles in the visible regime...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Natalie Gaio, Alice Martino, Zacharie Toth, J Tracy Watson, Daemeon Nicolaou, Sarah McBride-Gagyi
The Masquelet technique is a surgical procedure to regenerate segmental bone defects. The two-phase treatment relies on the production of a vascularized foreign-body membrane to support bone grafts over three times larger than the traditional maximum. Historically, the procedure has always utilized a bone cement spacer to evoke membrane production. However, membrane formation can easily be effected by implant surface properties such as material and topology. This study sought to determine if the membrane's mechanical or barrier properties are affected by changing the spacer material to titanium or roughening the surface finish...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
H Kamezawa, H Arimura, H Arakawa, N Kameda
The purpose of this study was to investigate a practical patient dose index for assessing the patient organ dose from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan by comparing eight dose indices, i.e. CTDI100, CTDIIEC, CTDI∞, midpoint doses f(0)PMMA for a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, f(0)Ap for an anthropomorphic phantom and f(0)Pat for a prostate cancer patient, as well as the conventional size specific dose estimations (SSDEconv) and modified SSDE (SSDEmod), with organ dose for the prostate (ODprost) obtained via Monte Carlo (MC) simulation...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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