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pregnancy fetus fetal

Luana Paulesu, Ch V Rao, Francesca Ietta, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Carlo Ticconi
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone of considerable importance in the establishment, promotion and maintenance of human pregnancy. It has been clearly demonstrated that hCG exerts multiple endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions on a variety of gestational and non-gestational cells and tissues. These actions are directed to promote trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation, placental growth, angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, hormone production, modulation of the immune system at the maternal-fetal interface, inhibition of myometrial contractility as well as fetal growth and differentiation...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sophie Pils, Stephanie Springer, Rudolf Seemann, Verena Wehrmann, Christof Worda, Johannes Ott
PURPOSE: To review our experience in ultrasound fetal weight estimation in our large population of triplet pregnancies. METHODS: Ninety-seven triplet pregnancies were retrospectively included between January 2003 and January 2017. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using Hadlock's and Schild's formulas was compared to actual birth weight in a tertiary-care center in Vienna, Austria. Statistical analyses were performed using a stepwise linear regression model and crosstabs...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
M Migda, M S Migda, B Migda, E Wender-Ozegowska
Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity is an important risk factor for fetal complications like excessive fetal growth manifested by large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, which is a consequence of metabolic disturbances present in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this prospective observational study is to analyze the relationship between the first trimester biochemical and anthropometric parameters of fetuses with the incidence of their macrosomia and LGA so to early predict such complications in women with symptoms of MS...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
March 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Sumire Terasawa, Asuka Kato, Haruki Nishizawa, Takema Kato, Hikari Yoshizawa, Yoshiteru Noda, Jun Miyazaki, Mayuko Ito, Takao Sekiya, Takuma Fujii, Hiroki Kurahashi
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) and achondroplasia (ACH) are allelic disorders caused by a constitutively active mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Because TD is a lethal disorder and ACH is non-lethal, they need to be distinguished after ultrasound identification of fetal growth retardation with short limbs. Accordingly, we have developed a noninvasive prenatal test using cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation to distinguish TD and ACH. A multiplex PCR system encompassing five mutation hotspots in the FGFR3 gene allowed us to efficiently identify the responsible mutation in cell-free DNA in all examined pregnancies with a suspected TD or ACH fetus...
March 14, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
Adrienne M Antonson, Bindu Balakrishnan, Emily C Radlowski, Geraldine Petr, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurobehavioral problems in offspring. Evidence from rodent models indicates that the maternal immune response to infection can alter fetal brain development, particularly in the hippocampus. However, information on the effects of maternal viral infection on fetal brain development in gyrencephalic species is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess several effects of maternal viral infection in the last one-third of gestation on hippocampal gene expression and development in fetal piglets...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Michael Tchirikov, Erich Saling, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bucher, Oliver Thews, Gregor Seliger
In the first case, the AA and glucose were infused through a perinatal port system into the umbilical vein at 30 weeks' gestation due to severe IUGR. The patient received daily hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 100% O2 ) with 1.4 atmospheres absolute for 50 min for 7 days. At 31+4  weeks' gestation, the patient gave birth spontaneously to a newborn weighing 1378 g, pH 7.33, APGAR score 4/6/intubation. In follow-up examinations at 5 years of age, the boy was doing well without any neurological disturbance or developmental delay...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
X Q Wang, W J Li, R L Yan, J W Xiang, M Y Liu
Objective: To optimize the clinical managements of primary fetal hydrothorax (PFHT) fetus by comparing the perinatal survival rate of different prenatal treatments. Methods: Totally 13 fetuses diagnosed with PFHT from July 2009 to December 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University were collected and received prenatal expectant treatment, thoracocentesis (TC), and thoraco-amniotic shunting (TAS), respectively. The perinatal survival rate was compared among the three treatments. Results: Among 13 fetuses of PFHT, pleural effusion was absorbed or remained stable in 2(2/13) cases, and progressed in 11(11/13) cases...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Zahra Laleh Eslamian, Elahe Zarean, Maryam Moshfeghi, Zahra Heidari
Background: Early prediction of adverse neonatal outcome would be possible by Doppler impedance indices of middle cerebral artery (MCA), umbilical artery (UmA), and descending aortal artery (AO) that result in decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the present study was a determination of optimal value for the ratio of MCA to descending aorta blood flow (MCA/AO) impedance indices and its comparison with the ratio of MCA to UmA (MCA/UmA) impedance indices and their relationship with neonatal outcome...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Esra Ozkavukcu, Andelib Babaturk, Nuray Haliloglu, Tuncay Yuce, Tayfun Ucar
Congenital aneurysms and diverticula of the heart are rare anomalies and their prenatal diagnosis is challenging. Fetuses with suspected cardiac aneurysms on ultrasound (US) screening should undergo targeted fetal echocardiography, postnatal imaging, and follow-ups. Herein, we describe the second trimester US scan and postnatal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a baby girl with concurrent septal and right ventricular cardiac aneurysms. Other cardiac and extra-cardiac structures were normal...
February 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
John J Bromfield, Jason A Rizo, Laila A Ibrahim
The question of 'how does the allogeneic fetus survive gestation in the face of the maternal immune system?' has yet to be definitively answered. Several acceptable mechanisms exist to facilitate survival of the semi-allogeneic fetus in various species; paramount is the immunological separation of maternal and fetal tissues during gestation. However, keen observation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has noted maternal immune tolerance to paternal-specific antigens. A mechanism by which the maternal immune system tolerates specific paternal antigens expressed on the fetus would be far more beneficial than the previously proposed immune indolence that would leave the mother susceptible to infection...
January 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
V Jakoubek, V Hampl
Alcohol abuse during pregnancy is a well-known factor in fetal morbidity, including smaller fetal size. We have shown that chronic hypoxia, considered the main pathogenetic factor in intrauterine growth restriction, elevates fetoplacental vascular resistance (and vasoconstrictor reactivity) and thus, presumably, reduces placental blood flow. We thus hypothesized that alcohol may affect the fetus - in addition to other mechanisms - by altering fetoplacental vascular resistance and/or reactivity. Using isolated, double-perfused rat placenta model, we found that maternal alcohol intake in the last third of gestation doubled the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II but did not affect resting vascular resistance...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Ran Nagar, Sharon Perlman, Or Yariv, Zvi Kivilevich, Benjamin Dekel, Reuven Achiron, Yinon Gilboa
BACKGROUND: Sonographic assessment of the fetal kidneys is an integral part of the prenatal anatomical survey. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the fetal renal to abdominal (RTA) ratio throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether this ratio can be a potential diagnostic landmark for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). METHODS: Measurements of the anterior-posterior diameters of the fetal kidney and fetal abdomen (APAD) were obtained prospectively...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Myriam Stolz, Harald Zeisler, Florian Heinzl, Julia Binder, Alex Farr
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) is increased in preeclampsia. This study evaluated perinatal outcomes in cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio above 655. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed data from all consecutive women with singleton pregnancies who presented with clinically manifest preeclampsia and underwent immediate sFlt-1:PlGF assessment. Cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio ≥ 655 were matched 1:1 for gestational age to controls with a ratio < 655...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Amihood Singer, Idit Maya, Arie Koifman, Nadra Nasser Samra, Hagit N Baris, Tzipora Falik-Zaccai, Shay Ben Shachar, Lena Sagi-Dain
INTRODUCTION: Fetal echogenic bowel is a frequent sonographic finding, demonstrated in about 1% of pregnancies. The advised evaluation of fetal echogenic bowel includes maternal serology, genetic testing for cystic fibrosis, detailed sonographic anatomic survey, and invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal aberrations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the risk for clinically significant chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) findings in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel...
March 6, 2018: Early Human Development
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