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Fasting water

Murilo S Abreu, Ana Cristina V Giacomini, Darlan Gusso, Gessi Koakoski, Thiago A Oliveira, Alessandra Marqueze, Rodrigo Egydio Barreto, Leonardo J G Barcellos
In fish, defensive reactions are induced by different chemical cues that emanate from sense-related stresses [physical, chemical, and visual (visual contact with predator)] or food stresses (acute fasting and chronic food restriction). Using a shuttle box with a two-chamber unmixed laminar flow that allowed fish to remain or flee from a chemical cue, we showed that the avoidance response depended on the type of the chemical cue. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) retreated from water conditioned with chemical cues released by chemically or physically stressed fish and acutely fasted fish, but not from water with cues from fish experiencing visual contact with predatory fish or fish suffering from chronic food restriction...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Sarah L Richardson, Pawel Swietach
During capillary transit, red blood cells (RBCs) must exchange large quantities of CO2 and O2 in typically less than one second, but the degree to which this is rate-limited by diffusion through cytoplasm is not known. Gas diffusivity is intuitively assumed to be fast and this would imply that the intracellular path-length, defined by RBC shape, is not a factor that could meaningfully compromise physiology. Here, we evaluated CO2 diffusivity (DCO2) in RBCs and related our results to cell shape. DCO2 inside RBCs was determined by fluorescence imaging of [H(+)] dynamics in cells under superfusion...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marlies Decleer, Andreja Rajkovic, Benedikt Sas, Annemieke Madder, Sarah De Saeger
Rapid and accurate UPLC-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous determination of beauvericin and the related enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), together with cereulide were successfully developed and validated in cereal and cereal-based food matrices such as wheat, maize, rice and pasta. Although these emerging foodborne toxins are of different microbial origin, the similar structural, toxicological and food safety features provided rationale for their concurrent detection in relevant food matrices. A Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Waters Quattro Premier XE™ Mass Spectrometer operating in ESI+ mode was employed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ayman M Atta, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, Ahmed M Tawfik, Abdelrahman O Ezzat
This work first reports the preparation of super-amphiphilic silica-nanogel composites to reduce the contact angle of water to increase the diffusion of pollutant into adsorbents. In this respect, the silica nanoparticles were encapsulated into nanogels based on ionic and nonionic polyacrylamides by dispersion polymerization technique. The morphologies and the dispersion stability of nanogel composites were investigated to clarify the ability of silica-nanogel composites to adsorb at different interfaces. The feasibility of silica polyacrylamide nanogel composites to act as a high-performance adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye and heavy metals (Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) from aqueous solution was investigated...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wan-Yi Li, Xia Li, Steffen Jockusch, Han Wang, Bolei Xu, Yajing Wu, William Gang Tsui, Hai-Lung Dai, V Faye McNeill, Yi Rao
Photoactivated reactions of organic species in atmospheric aerosol particles are a potentially significant source of secondary organic aerosol material (SOA). Despite recent progress, the dominant chemical mechanisms and rates of these reactions remain largely unknown. In this work, we characterize the photo-physical properties and photochemical reaction mechanisms of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) in aqueous solution, alone and in the presence of isoprene. IC has been shown previously in laboratory studies to participate in photoactivated chemistry in aerosols, and is a known in-particle reaction product of glyoxal...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yan Qu, Qiu Gen Zhang, Faizal Soyekwo, Run Sheng Gao, Rui Xue Lv, Chen Xiao Lin, Meng Meng Chen, Ai Mei Zhu, Qing Lin Liu
Two-dimensional nanosheets of late show great promise as novel materials for size-selective separation membranes of high efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate a novel laminated nanofiltration membrane for fast water purification and organic solvent nanofiltration using the 1 nm-thick and 50 nm-wide nickel hydroxide nanosheets that are facilely prepared by a green chemistry method. The resulting membranes exhibit uniform and flectional two-dimensional laminated structure. With about 1 nm high laminated channels, they allow super-fast transport of water and organic solvents...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Richard A Anderson, Zhiwei Zhan, Rencai Luo, Xiuhua Guo, Qingqing Guo, Jin Zhou, Jiang Kong, Paul A Davis, Barbara J Stoecker
Cinnamon ( ròu guì) has in vitro insulin potentiating activity, and proanthocyanidins from cinnamon prevent in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products. Some human studies were equivocal, but several have shown beneficial effects of cinnamon supplementation on circulating glucose, lipids, and/or insulin. This placebo-controlled double-blind trial tested the effects of a dried water extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) on circulating glucose, lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance. Men and women from Beijing and Dalian, China, were invited to participate if they had fasting serum glucose >6...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Xin Ren, Abhijeet Sangle, Siyuan Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Yin Zhao, Liyi Shi, Robert L Z Hoye, Seungho Cho, Dongdong Li, Judith L MacManus-Driscoll
We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
K Djabelkhir, C Lauvernet, P Kraft, N Carluer
Preferential flow contributes significantly to pesticide fast transfer from surface to groundwater. Modeling this process at several scales is an important challenge for improving the representation of this process which is often neglected. In this study, we developed a dual permeability approach in a hydrological modeling framework, CMF, which is a collaborative environment for developing spatially-integrated models of water fluxes. In the development we propose here, infiltration in macropores which are connected to the surface is activated when the first matrix layer reaches saturation...
October 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Arash Asfaram, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Kheibar Dashtian
Magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs)) HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) composite as a support was used for surface imprinting of gallic acid imprinted polymer (HKUST-1-MOF-Fe3O4-GA-MIP) using vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMOS) as the cross-linker. Subsequently, HKUST-1-MOF-Fe3O4-NPs-GA-MIP characterized by FT-IR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis and applied for fast and selective and sensitive ultrasound assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase microextraction of gallic acid (GA) by UV-Vis (UA-DMSPME-UV-Vis) detection method...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Qingdi Zhu, Dieter Trau
Surface-tension-driven capillary systems (CSs) enable self-powered delivery of samples and reagents for bioassays and thus are especially suitable for point-of-care applications. Current silicon and polymer based CSs require extensive work in professional cleanroom for the fabrication of either the silicon device itself or the micromold for polymer processing. In this work, we fabricated a PEG-based CS in a one-step photopolymerization process without the requirement of any cleanroom work. Water, buffer and serum can flow autonomously in this CS and the liquid flow rate can be tuned by modification with surfactant solution of different concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lu Hu, Huazi Wang, Heng Qian, Chaoran Liu, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao, Donghui Xu
An on-site dispersive liquid liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent has been developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the fast determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids (n≥10), which can rapidly solidify at low temperatures (<20°C), were investigated as switchable hydrophilic solvents...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ismail Omrani, Niloofar Babanejad, Hasan Kashef Shendi, Mohammad Reza Nabid
Polyurethanes are important class of biomaterials that are extensively used in medical devices. In spite of their easy synthesis, polyurethanes that are fully degradable in response to the intracellular reducing environment are less explored for controlled drug delivery. Herein, a novel glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane (WPU) nanocarrier for redox triggered intracellular delivery of a model lipophilic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) is reported. The WPU was prepared from polyaddition reaction of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a novel linear polyester polyol involving disulfide linkage, disulfide labeled chain extender, dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA) using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hualei Qi, Jialin Cao, Yanjiao Xin, Xuan Mao, Deming Xie, Jianjun Luo, Bin Chu
Drug-loaded hydrogels have been paid increasing attentions in biomedical fields. As a sort of natural plant protein, zein generally cannot form hydrogel with high water retention because of its predominant hydrophobicity, which will limit its application as biomaterial. In this paper, zein electrospun fibrous membranes (ZEFM) are fabricated through a chemical modification of zein using citric acid and acetic anhydride. The resulting ZEFM can be totally soluble in neutral phosphate buffer solution. After being crosslinked by sodium hexametaphosphate, the ZEFM can form a hydrogel membrane and displays stimuli-responsive behavior towards pH and ionic strength...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fitsum Abadi, Christophe Barbraud, Olivier Gimenez
Early-life demographic traits are poorly known, impeding our understanding of population processes and sensitivity to climate change. Survival of immature individuals is a critical component of population dynamics and recruitment in particular. However, obtaining reliable estimates of juvenile survival (i.e., from independence to first year) remains challenging, as immatures are often difficult to observe and to monitor individually in the field. This is particularly acute for seabirds, in which juveniles stay at sea and remain undetectable for several years...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Yun Wang, Jinchen Xia, Juan Han, Xu Bao, Yuanyuan Li, Xu Tang, Liang Ni, Lei Wang, Mengmeng Gao
Hypochlorite serves as a powerful antimicrobial agent in human immune system, the detection of which is of great significance. Herein a novel fluorescent probe based on BODIPY dye and diaminomaleonitrile has been synthesized and characterized to sense hypochlorite. The fluorescence of the system is dramatically enhanced by ClO(-) due to the removal of C=N isomerization effect in physiological pH condition. The complete reaction only needs a few seconds, which enables the probe to facilitate real-time detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Shu Wang, Baomin Liu, Dongxing Yuan, Jian Ma
Glyphosate (GLYP) is an important herbicide which is also used as the phosphorus source for marine organisms. The wide applications of GLYP can lead to its accumulation in oceans and coastal waters, thus creating environmental issues. However, there is limited methods for detection of GLYP and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in saline samples. Therefore, a simple and fast method for the quantification of GLYP and AMPA in seawater matrix has been developed based on the derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl), separation with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detection with fluorescence detector (FLD)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jorge A Gonzalez, O Maduka Ogba, Gregory F Morehouse, Nicholas Rosson, Kendall N Houk, Andrew G Leach, Paul H-Y Cheong, Martin D Burke, Guy C Lloyd-Jones
MIDA boronates (N-methylimidodiacetic boronic acid esters) serve as an increasingly general platform for small-molecule construction based on building blocks, largely because of the dramatic and general rate differences with which they are hydrolysed under various basic conditions. Yet the mechanistic underpinnings of these rate differences have remained unclear, which has hindered efforts to address the current limitations of this chemistry. Here we show that there are two distinct mechanisms for this hydrolysis: one is base mediated and the other neutral...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Erik J Oerter, Alexei Perelet, Eric Pardyjak, Gabriel Bowen
RATIONALE: The fast and accurate measurement of H and O stable isotope compositions (δ(2) H and δ(18) O values) of soil and sediment pore water remains an impediment to scaling-up the application of these isotopes in soil and vadose hydrology. Here we describe a method and its calibration to measuring soil and sediment pore water δ(2) H and δ(18) O values using a water vapor-permeable probe coupled to an Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy analyzer. METHODS: We compare the water vapor probe method with a vapor direct equilibration method, and vacuum extraction with liquid water analysis...
October 20, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Gurjeet Singh, Shailesh Sharma, Ghanshyam Das Gupta
The present study emphasized on the use of solid dispersion technology to triumph over the drawbacks associated with the highly effective antihypertensive drug telmisartan using different polymers (poloxamer 188 and locust bean gum) and methods (modified solvent evaporation and lyophilization). It is based on the comparison between selected polymers and methods for enhancing solubility through particle size reduction. The results showed different profiles for particle size, solubility, and dissolution of formulated amorphous systems depicting the great influence of polymer/method used...
October 20, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
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