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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350747/short-article-small-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-patients-taking-chemotherapeutic-agents-for-solid-cancers
#1
Maria P Dore, Giovanni M Pes, Alberto Murino, Bianca Quarta Colosso, Marco Pennazio
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy for cancer is a systemic treatment often associated with side effects than can be debilitating and, in some cases, life-threatening. Few data are available on intestinal enterotoxicity. Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive method of imaging the small intestine. This study presents the results of VCE in patients with solid tumors undergoing antineoplastic regimens with agents, notably for toxicity for the gastrointestinal mucosa (i.e. carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, and cisplatin)...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345877/direct-analysis-of-metal-ions-in-solutions-with-high-salt-concentrations-by-total-reflection-x-ray-fluorescence-txrf
#2
Mercedes Regadío, Sofía Riaño, Koen Binnemans, Tom Vander Hoogerstraete
Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is becoming more and more popular for elemental analysis in academia and industry. However, simplification of the procedures for analyzing samples with complex compositions and residual matrix effects is still needed. In this work, the effect of an inorganic (CaCl2) and an organic (tetraalkylphosphonium chloride) matrix on metals quantification by TXRF was investigated for liquid samples. The samples were spiked with up to 20 metals at concentrations ranging from 3 to 50 mg L-1 per element, including elements with spectral peaks near the peaks of the matrix elements or near the Raleigh and Compton scattering peaks of the X-ray source (molybdenum anode)...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344781/patient-specific-three-dimensional-explant-spheroids-derived-from-human-nasal-airway-epithelium-a-simple-methodological-approach-for-ex-vivo-studies-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#3
June Kehlet Marthin, Elizabeth Munkebjerg Stevens, Lars Allan Larsen, Søren Tvorup Christensen, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...
2017: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344391/ph-driven-solubilization-and-isoelectric-precipitation-of-proteins-from-the-brown-seaweed-saccharina-latissima-effects-of-osmotic-shock-water-volume-and-temperature
#4
Jenny Veide Vilg, Ingrid Undeland
In the light of the global search for novel and sustainable protein sources, macroalgal proteins are becoming an attractive target. To date, mainly red and green macroalgae have been investigated in this respect, whereas the brown species are less studied, possibly because of the lower content of protein. In a biorefinery context, however, the protein content of brown macroalgae can still be economically interesting due to fast growth and the possibility to co-extract other compounds, such as alginates. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, scalable pH shift-based protein isolation technique applicable on wet Saccharina latissima biomass...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343939/a-tale-of-gastric-layering-and-sieving-gastric-emptying-of-a-liquid-meal-with-water-blended-in-or-consumed-separately
#5
Guido Camps, Monica Mars, Cees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
BACKGROUND: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods...
March 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343245/an-acid-inert-fluorescent-probe-for-the-detection-of-nitrite
#6
Meiyi Cai, Xiaoyun Chai, Xuedong Wang, Ting Wang
The fluorescent detection of nitrite ions has been challenging owing to the poor acid-stability of typical fluorescent probes. Herein, an acid-inert rhodamine-based fluorescent probe has been developed for the fast detection of trace amount of nitrite ions with turn-on mode. The detection limit of nitrite ions was determined to be 9.4 nM (S/N = 3) and the linear range with high linear correlation was observed between 0.025 to 2.5 μM. A test paper method was developed for rapid visual detection of nitrite ions...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343105/photoluminescence-light-up-detection-of-zinc-ion-and-imaging-in-living-cells-based-on-the-aggregation-induced-emission-enhancement-of-glutathione-capped-copper-nanoclusters
#7
Liyun Lin, Yuefang Hu, Liangliang Zhang, Yong Huang, Shulin Zhao
In this work, we prepared glutathione (GSH)-capped copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) with red emission by simply adjusting the pH of GSH/Cu(2+) mixture at room temperature. A photoluminescence light-up method for detecting Zn(2+) was then developed based on the aggregation induced emission enhancement of GSH-capped Cu NCs. Zn(2+) could trigger the aggregation of Cu NCs, inducing the enhancement of luminescence and the increase of absolute quantum yield from 1.3% to 6.2%. GSH-capped Cu NCs and the formed aggregates were characterized, and the possible mechanism was also discussed...
March 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342942/the-nature-of-early-astroglial-protection-fast-activation-and-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Julianna Kardos, László Héja, Katalin Jemnitz, Richárd Kovács, Miklós Palkovits
Our present review is focusing on the uniqueness of balanced astroglial signaling. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling within the CNS is mainly determined by sharp synaptic transients of excitatory glutamate (Glu) and inhibitory γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) acting on the sub-second timescale. Astroglia is involved in excitatory chemical transmission by taking up i) Glu through neurotransmitter-sodium transporters, ii) K(+) released due to presynaptic action potential generation, and iii) water keeping osmotic pressure...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342292/ultra-fast-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-eight-bioactive-components-of-kai-xin-san-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-comparative-pharmacokinetic-study-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-rats
#9
Xiaotong Wang, Yue Zhang, Huibin Niu, Yajing Geng, Bing Wang, Xiaomei Yang, Pengyu Yan, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
A method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of eight bioactive components, including polygalaxanthone III, sibiricaxanthone B, tenuifolin, sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using digoxin as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil MP C18 column (100 mm × 2...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340788/rapid-identification-and-desorption-mechanisms-of-nitrogen-based-explosives-by-ambient-micro-fabricated-glow-discharge-plasma-desorption-ionization-mfgdp-mass-spectrometry
#10
CaiYan Tian, JinWei Yin, ZhongJun Zhao, Yinchenxi Zhang, YiXiang Duan
A novel technique of micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was investigated for the first time in negative ion mode in this study. Negative ion micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (NI-MFGDP-MS) was successfully applied to identify trace explosives in open air. Six explosives and explosives-related compounds were directly analyzed in seconds with this ion source. The ions of [M-H](-) were predominant for 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (trinitrotoluene, TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and [M+NO3](-) were dominant ions for 1,3,5-trinitro-perhydro-1,3,5-triazine (cyclonite, RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (octogen, HMX), 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane (nitroglycerin, NG), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340768/sio2-coated-magnetic-graphene-oxide-modified-with-polypyrrole-polythiophene-a-novel-and-efficient-nanocomposite-for-solid-phase-extraction-of-trace-amounts-of-heavy-metals
#11
Karam Molaei, Hasan Bagheri, Ali Akbar Asgharinezhad, Homeira Ebrahimzadeh, Mojtaba Shamsipur
The synthesis of a novel nanocomposite comprised of SiO2-coated magnetic graphene oxide modified with a pyrrole-thiophene (mGO/SiO2@coPPy-Th) copolymer is reported in the present work. The nanocomposite was applied for the fast magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace levels of copper, lead, chromium, zinc and cadmium from water and agricultural samples. The nanocomposite was prepared in three steps: (1) decoration of graphene oxide sheets with magnetite nanoparticles thorough a facile one-step chemical reaction strategy; (2) chemical grafting by a silica layer to obtain high stability in acidic solutions; and (3) surface modification by coPPy-Th via simultaneous oxidation polymerization of pyrrole and thiophene in the presence of mGO/SiO2 composite...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340767/lectin-functionalized-zno-nanoarrays-as-a-3d-nano-biointerface-for-bacterial-detection
#12
Laibao Zheng, Yi Wan, Peng Qi, Yan Sun, Dun Zhang, Liangmin Yu
The detection of pathogenic bacteria is essential in various fields, such as food safety, water environmental analysis, or clinical diagnosis. Although rapid and selective techniques have been achieved based on the fast and specific binding of recognitions elements and target, the sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens was limited by their low targets-binding efficiency. The three-dimensional (3D) nano-biointerface, compared with the two-dimensional (2D) flat substrate, has a much higher binding capacity, which can offer more reactive sites to bind with bacterial targets, resulting in a great improvement of detection sensitivity...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340756/simultaneous-quantification-of-iodine-and-high-valent-metals-via-icp-ms-under-acidic-conditions-in-complex-matrices
#13
Kristina Brix, Christina Hein, Jonas Michael Sander, Ralf Kautenburger
The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340749/validation-of-a-new-method-based-on-salting-out-assisted-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-uhplc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-of-betalactam-antibiotics-in-infant-dairy-products
#14
David Moreno-González, Raquel Rodríguez-Ramírez, Monsalud Del Olmo-Iruela, Ana M García-Campaña
In this work a new multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of 15 betalactam antibiotics in infant milk and yogurt based on follow-on milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation was achieved in 6min, using a Kinetex Biphenyl Core-Shell column (50mmx2.1mm, 1.7µm), with a mobile phase of water with 0.05% acetic acid and methanol. The analytes were detected in ESI+ with multiple reaction monitoring mode and fragmentation conditions were optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340721/sensitive-determination-of-hg-together-with-mn-fe-cu-by-combined-photochemical-vapor-generation-and-pneumatic-nebulization-in-the-programmable-temperature-spray-chamber-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectrometry
#15
Jacek Giersz, Magdalena Bartosiak, Krzysztof Jankowski
Continuous photo-induced generation of mercury cold vapor has been successfully coupled with conventional pneumatic nebulization in programmable temperature spray chamber (PCVG-PN-PTSC) allowing fast, sensitive and easy multi-element analysis. The applied technique enabled simultaneous determination of non-volatile forming elements (Fe, Cu, Mn) and volatile Hg, while 15%v/v formic acid is present in the sample. PTSC elevated temperature (40°C) causes partial conversion of sample matrix into vapor form, thus improving plasma robustness...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340699/a-led-based-fiber-optic-sensor-integrated-with-lab-on-valve-manifold-for-colorimetric-determination-of-free-chlorine-in-water
#16
Yan Xiong, Jun Tan, Shenwen Fang, Chengjie Wang, Qing Wang, Jiayi Wu, Jie Chen, Ming Duan
In this work, a colorimetric methodology was developed for free chlorine determination by constructing a fiber-optic sensor (FOS) which was designed by using a small LED as light source and two silica fibers as light transmission elements. Then the FOS was integrated with the sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) manifold to fabricate a FOS-SI-LOV system for free chlorine detection. The colorimetric determination was based on the reaction between N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) reagent and free chlorine, which would produce a chromophore showing maximum absorbance at 511 and 551nm and detected by a micro spectrometer detector...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340464/a-review-on-various-electrochemical-techniques-for-heavy-metal-ions-detection-with-different-sensing-platforms
#17
REVIEW
BabanKumar Bansod, Tejinder Kumar, Ritula Thakur, Shakshi Rana, Inderbir Singh
Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338833/a-humidity-shock-leads-to-rapid-temperature-dependent-changes-in-coffee-leaf-physiology-and-gene-expression
#18
El-Hadji Thioune, James McCarthy, Thomas Gallagher, Bruce Osborne
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses...
February 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337991/contrasting-influences-of-aerosols-on-cloud-properties-during-deficient-and-abundant-monsoon-years
#19
Nitin Patil, Prashant Dave, Chandra Venkataraman
Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336902/magnetic-hybrid-nanosorbents-for-the-uptake-of-paraquat-from-water
#20
Tiago Fernandes, Sofia F Soares, Tito Trindade, Ana L Daniel-da-Silva
Although paraquat has been banned in European countries, this herbicide is still used all over the world, thanks to its low-cost, high-efficiency, and fast action. Because paraquat is highly toxic to humans and animals, there is interest in mitigating the consequences of its use, namely by implementing removal procedures capable of curbing its environmental and health risks. This research describes new magnetic nanosorbents composed of magnetite cores functionalized with bio-hybrid siliceous shells, that can be used to uptake paraquat from water using magnetically-assisted procedures...
March 18, 2017: Nanomaterials
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