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Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
While most commonly associated with prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can also have a significant influence on the evolution of microscopic eukaryotes. Systematic analysis of HGT in the genomes of the oomycetes, filamentous eukaryotic microorganisms in the Stramenopiles-Alveolates-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup, has to date focused mainly on intradomain transfer events between oomycetes and fungi. Using systematic whole-genome analysis followed by phylogenetic reconstruction, we have investigated the extent of interdomain HGT between bacteria and plant-pathogenic oomycetes...
September 2016: MSphere
Lida Derevnina, Yasin F Dagdas, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Aleksandra Bialas, Ronny Kellner, Benjamin Petre, Emmanouil Domazakis, Juan Du, Chih-Hang Wu, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, Sophien Kamoun
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. References SUMMARY: Elicitins are structurally conserved extracellular proteins in Phytophthora and Pythium oomycete pathogen species. They were first described in the late 1980s as abundant proteins in Phytophthora culture filtrates that have the capacity to elicit hypersensitive (HR) cell death and disease resistance in tobacco. Later, they became well-established as having features of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and to elicit defences in a variety of plant species...
September 1, 2016: New Phytologist
Júlia de Souza Silveira Valente, Anelise de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Lauren Sagave, Fernanda Cramer Flores, Cristiane de Bona da Silva, Luís Antônio Sangioni, Luciana Pötter, Janio Morais Santurio, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic oomycete which can cause pythiosis in both animals and humans. This microorganism shows low susceptibility to antifungal drugs available. This study analyzed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia in its free oil (FO) and nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 document adapted to phytopharmaceuticals...
August 20, 2016: Mycopathologia
David García-Rellán, Mercedes Verdeguer, Adele Salamone, María Amparo Blázquez, Herminio Boira
The chemical composition of essential oils from Satureja cuneifolia growing in east Spain was analyzed by GC, GC/MS. Forty-five compounds accounting for 99.1% of the total oil were identified. Camphor (47.6%), followed by camphene (13.6%) were the main compounds. Their herbicidal and antifungal activity was tested in vitro against three weeds (Amaranthus hybridus, Portulaca oleracea and Conyza canadensis) and eleven common pathogenic or saprophytic fungi (Phytophthora citrophthora, P. palmivora, Pythium litorale, Verticillium dahlia, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium hirsutum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Phaemoniella chlamydospora, Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and C...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Maria José Abigail Mendes Araújo, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Rajendra Singh, Vivek Ahluwalia, Pratap Singh, Naresh Kumar, Om Prakash Sati, Nitin Sati
This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum...
August 2016: Natural Product Research
Kyle I G Fletcher, Pieter van West, Claire M M Gachon
Cadherins, a group of molecules typically associated with planar cell polarity and Wnt signalling, have been little reported outside of the animal kingdom. Here, we identify a new family of cadherins in the Stramenopiles, termed Nonagonal after their 9 transmembrane passes, which contrast to the one or seven passes found in other known cadherin families. Manual curation and experimental validation reveal two subclasses of nonagonal cadherins, depending on the number of uninterrupted extracellular cadherin (EC) modules presented...
November 15, 2016: Gene
R E M Verbeek, C G B Banaay, M Sikder, D De Waele, C M Vera Cruz, G Gheysen, M Höfte, Tina Kyndt
BACKGROUND: Aerobic rice fields are frequently infested by pathogenic oomycetes (Pythium spp.) and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Here, the interaction between Pythium arrhenomanes and Meloidogyne graminicola was studied in rice roots of two aerobic rice varieties. In different experimental set-ups and infection regimes, plant growth, rice yield, Pythium colonization, as well as establishment, development and reproduction of M. graminicola were studied. RESULTS: In this study, it is shown that the presence of P...
December 2016: Rice
Martina Načeradská, Michaela Fridrichová, Dita Kellnerová, Soňa Peková, Petr Lány
OBJECTIVES: Dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm, is a superficial fungal skin disease and zoonosis. Pythium oligandrum is a micromycete with mycoparasitic properties that is used in agriculture to control fungal infections on plants. Formulations containing P oligandrum were also developed for the treatment of dermatophytoses, but only several case studies have been published. In order to document the process in simplified conditions in vitro, we investigated the effectiveness of P oligandrum against three pathogenic dermatophytes common in domestic animals...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
J S Valente, A O S Fonseca, L B Denardi, V S Dal Ben, F S Maia Filho, C G Zambrano, C Q Braga, S H Alves, S A Botton, D I Brayer Pereira
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to combinations of the antifungal drugs terbinafine or itraconazole with Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils (EOs). METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro combinations of antifungal drugs with EOs were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution method against 20 Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum. The tests were performed according to protocol M38-A2, and the interpretation of each combination result was based on the values of the fractional inhibitory concentration index...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
E P F Souto, L A Maia, R G Olinda, G J N Galiza, G D Kommers, E G Miranda-Neto, A F M Dantas, F Riet-Correa
Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Yeonhwa Jo, Hoseong Choi, Won K Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lisanka A Maia, Robério G Olinda, Tenório F Araújo, Paulo R Firmino, Luciano Nakazato, Eldinê G Miranda Neto, Franklin Riet-Correa, Antônio F M Dantas
Our study describes the clinical, epidemiologic, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular aspects PCR of a case of cutaneous pythiosis in a donkey (Equus asinus) from Brazil. During a dry period, the animal grazed for 4 months around a pond where the vegetation remained green. Skin lesions were nodular, multifocal, and disseminated, mainly involving the legs, ventral chest, and mammary gland. On cut surface, there were multifocal to coalescent discrete yellow foci, and occasional small cavitations with a few kunkers...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ksv Poorna Chandrika, Anupama Singh, Abhishek Rathore, Anil Kumar
A new series of eco-friendly cross linked guar gum-g-poly(acrylate) porous superabsorbent hydrogels was prepared by in situ grafting polymerization and cross-linking on to a natural guar gum employing N,N-methylene bis acrylamide as cross linker. Morphological and structural characterization of the prepared hydrogels (SPHs) done by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid state C(13) NMR spectroscopy confirmed formation of porous grafted and crosslinked hydrogel structure...
September 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Meng Cai, Jianqiang Miao, Xi Song, Dong Lin, Yang Bi, Lei Chen, Xili Liu, Brett M Tyler
Zoxamide is the sole β-tubulin inhibitor registered for the control of oomycete pathogens. The current study investigated the activity of zoxamide against Phytophthora sojae and baseline sensitivity was established with a mean EC50 of 0.048 μg/ml. The data is critical for monitoring changes in zoxamide-sensitivity in the field. Three stable resistant mutants with a high resistance level were obtained by selection on zoxamide amended media. Although the development of resistance occurred at a low frequency, there were no apparent fitness penalty in the acquired mutants in terms of growth rate, sporulation, germination and pathogenicity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jittra Suthiwong, Yordhathai Thongsri, Chavi Yenjai
A new coumarin, scataccanol (1) and 10 known compounds were isolated from the fruits of Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. All compounds were evaluated for antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum. Compounds 5 and 7 showed strong antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively. Structural determination of all compounds was accomplished by 1D and 2D-NMR, IR and MS.
May 25, 2016: Natural Product Research
Sabrina R Itaqui, Camila M Verdi, Juliana S M Tondolo, Thaisa S da Luz, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio, Érico S Loreto
We describe here in vitro activity for the combination of azithromycin or terbinafine and benzalkonium, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium, mupirocin, triclosan, or potassium permanganate. With the exception of potassium permanganate, the remaining antimicrobial drugs were active and had an MIC90 between 2 and 32 μg∕ml. The greatest synergism was observed for the combination of terbinafine and cetrimide (71.4%). In vivo experimental evaluations will clarify the potential of these drugs for the topical treatment of lesions caused by Pythium insidiosum...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Júlia de Souza Silveira Valente, Anelise de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Laura Bedin Denardi, Vanessa Silveira Dal Ben, Fernando de Souza Maia Filho, Cristiane Telles Baptista, Caroline Quintana Braga, Cristina Gomes Zambrano, Sydney Hartz Alves, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations...
August 2016: Mycopathologia
Alexandra Castro, Sabina Vidal, Inés Ponce de León
Plants respond to pathogen infection by activating signaling pathways leading to the accumulation of proteins with diverse roles in defense. Here, we addressed the functional role of PpPR-10, a pathogenesis-related (PR)-10 gene, of the moss Physcomitrella patens, in response to biotic stress. PpPR-10 belongs to a multigene family and encodes a protein twice the usual size of PR-10 proteins due to the presence of two Bet v1 domains. Moss PR-10 genes are differentially regulated during development and inoculation with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jinhong Wu, Jun Wang, Shaoyun Wang, Pingfan Rao
A novel lectin with a molecular mass of 24.3kDa, designated Lunatin, was isolated from edible seeds of Phaseolus lunatus billb. The purification scheme consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The lectin is a glycoprotein, as determined by staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be DAVIYRGPGDLHTGS. Lunatin exhibited hemagglutinating activity towards human blood group A erythrocytes, which was mostly preserved up to 50°C and retained at ambient temperature at pH 2...
August 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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