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Kazuki Shiba, Chiharu Hatta, Shinsaku Sasai, Motoaki Tojo, Satoshi T Ohki, Tomofumi Mochizuki
The mycoparasitic oomycete Pythium nunn isolate UZ415 contains two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of different sizes. The 1707-nt dsRNA1 and the 1475-nt dsRNA2 potentially encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP), respectively, with sequence similarity to the RdRp and CP of gammapartitiviruses (< 57% and < 36%). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced RdRp amino acid sequences indicated that the virus identified from P. nunn is classifiable as a distinct member of the genus Ganmmapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae...
May 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
Adalbert Dreinert, Antje Wolf, Tobias Mentzel, Brigitte Meunier, Marcus Fehr
Ametoctradin is an agricultural fungicide that selectively inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of oomycetes. Previous spectrophotometric studies using the purified cytochrome bc1 complex from Pythium sp. showed that Ametoctradin binds to the Qo -site of the enzyme. However, as modeling studies suggested a binding mode like that of the substrate ubiquinol, the possibility for a dual Qo - and Qi-site binding mode was left open. In this work, binding studies and enzyme assays with mitochondrial membrane preparations from Pythium sp...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
F R Savory, D S Milner, D C Miles, T A Richards
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can equip organisms with novel genes, expanding the repertoire of genetic material available for evolutionary innovation and allowing recipient lineages to colonise new environments. However, few studies have characterised the functions of HGT genes experimentally or examined post-acquisition functional divergence. Here we report the use of ancestral sequence reconstruction and heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to examine the evolutionary history of an oomycete transporter gene family that was horizontally acquired from fungi...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
April 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Maria Nina Chitasombat, Noppadol Larbcharoensub, Ariya Chindamporn, Theerapong Krajaejun
OBJECTIVES: Vascular pythiosis is a life-threatening infection, caused by Pythium insidiosum. We presented the clinical presentation, serodiagnosis, pathology, and outcome from our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with proven vascular pythiosis at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 2006 to December 2016. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were analyzed, eight thalassemias. Five had aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia, acute leukemia, cirrhosis, and alcoholism...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
S R Prabhukarthikeyan, U Keerthana, T Raguchander
Rhizome rot of turmeric caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major threat to turmeric-cultivating areas of India. This study intends to evaluate the performance of fluorescent pseudomonads against Rhizome rot disease and understand the resistance mechanism in Turmeric plants. Fluorescent pseudomonads were screened against Pythium aphanidermatum using dual culture. Selected strains were evaluated for the performance of growth promoting attributes and the presence of antibiotic genes through PCR analysis. Strain FP7 recorded the maximum percent inhibition of P...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
Rohini Sabu, R Aswani, Priya Prabhakaran, B Krishnakumar, E K Radhakrishnan
Endophytic microorganisms play a significant role in plants response to beneficial organisms and pathogens. In the current study, endophytic microorganisms from Zingiber officinale were screened for in vitro inhibition against Pythium myriotylum. From this, Burkholderia vietnamiensis ZoB74 was selected as an organism with remarkable antifungal effect. Further, the study focussed on analysis of in vivo changes in endophytic bacterial community of Z. officinale in presence of selected organisms and the pathogen P...
March 29, 2018: Current Microbiology
Walaiporn Tonpitak, Watcharapol Pathomsakulwong, Chulabha Sornklien, Theerapong Krajaejun, Suppathat Wutthiwithayaphong
Introduction: Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum , a fungus-like organism in the class Oomycetes . It can infect humans and a variety of animal species in tropical, subtropical and some temperate regions. Cases of animal pythiosis have occurred predominantly in horses in the skin and subcutaneous tissue at the limbs and in the ventral portion of thoracoabdominal wall - lesions in the nasal region are rarely reported. Moreover, although many human pythiosis cases have been reported in Thailand, no cases of animal pythiosis in Thailand have been reported...
January 2018: JMM Case Reports
Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma, Sai Jeevan Madhuri Guda, Ritu Nagpal, Joveeta Joseph, Kodiganti Manjulatha, Ashik Mohamed, Prashant Garg
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum is a parafungus that causes keratitis resembling fungal keratitis. This study compares outcome in a large cohort of patients with P insidiosum keratitis treated with antifungal drugs, to a pilot group treated with antibacterial antibiotics. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2016, 114 patients with culture positive P insidiosum keratitis were included in the study. A subset of culture isolates was tested in vitro for response to nine antibacterial antibiotics by disc diffusion and E test...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Thidarat Rujirawat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum , isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum , we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Thidarat Rujirawat, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Penpan Payattikul, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Prapat Suriyaphol, Onrapak Reamtong, Gagan Garg, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is a human-pathogenic oomycete. Many patients infected with it lose organs or die. Toward the goal of developing improved treatment options, we want to understand how Py. insidiosum has evolved to become a successful human pathogen. Our approach here involved the use of comparative genomic and other analyses to identify genes with possible functions in the pathogenicity of Py. insidiosum. We generated an Oomycete Gene Table and used it to explore the genome contents and phylogenomic relationships of Py...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Veronika Zengerer, Michael Schmid, Marco Bieri, Denise C Müller, Mitja N P Remus-Emsermann, Christian H Ahrens, Cosima Pelludat
In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora , the causal agent of fire blight...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eman M Khalaf, Manish N Raizada
The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Boshra A Halo, Rashid A Al-Yahyai, Abdullah M Al-Sadi
The study investigated the efficacy of two isolates of Aspergillus terreus (65P and 9F) on the growth, morphology and pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber. In vitro tests showed that the two isolates inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum in culture. Investigating P. aphanidermatum hyphae close to the inhibition zone showed that the hyphae showed abnormal growth and loss of internal content. Treating P. aphanidermatum with the culture filtrate (CF) of A. terreus resulted in significant rise in cellular leakage of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fehmida Bibi, Gary A Strobel, Muhammad I Naseer, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed A Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam I Azhar
Halophytes are associated with the intertidal forest ecosystem of Saudi Arabia and seemingly have an immense potential for yielding useful and important natural products. In this study we have aimed to isolate and characterize the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities from the halophyte, Salsola imbricata , In addition these bacterial strains were identified and selected strains were further studied for bioactive secondary metabolites. At least 168 rhizspheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and of these 22 were active antagonists against the oomycetous fungal plant pathogens, Phytophthora capsici and Pythium ultimum ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vanessa Dal Ben, Rômulo S Oliveira, Jéssica L Borchardt, Júlia de Souza S Valente, Carolina Lichtina Brasil, Cristina Gomes Zambrano, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic Oomycota that causes pythiosis in mammals, especially horses, dogs, and humans; these inhabit marshy environments in tropical and subtropical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the protein profile, as well as identify likely immunodominant proteins, of Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates from southern Brazil, an important equine pythiosis endemic area. P. insidiosum isolates (horses, n = 20 and dogs, n = 02) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot techniques...
June 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Amit K Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn, Ellen R Graber, Omer Frenkel
Biochar can enhance plant growth and reduce diseases, but frequently the optimal doses for these two benefits do not coincide. An approach is needed that will extend the range of biochar doses resulting in a concurrence of maximum benefits for both plant productivity and disease suppression. A biochar-amended growth medium was pre-conditioned by pre-planting fertigation in order to enhance the indigenous microbial community structure and activity. Cucumber plant performance and resistance against damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum were monitored...
February 8, 2018: New Phytologist
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