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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127333/a-light-activated-antimicrobial-surface-is-active-against-bacterial-viral-and-fungal-organisms
#1
Tim Walker, Melisa Canales, Sacha Noimark, Kristopher Page, Ivan Parkin, Jane Faull, Manni Bhatti, Lena Ciric
Evidence has shown that environmental surfaces play an important role in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Deploying antimicrobial surfaces in hospital wards could reduce the role environmental surfaces play as reservoirs for pathogens. Herein we show a significant reduction in viable counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and MS2 Bacteriophage after light treatment of a medical grade silicone incorporating crystal violet, methylene blue and 2 nm gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, a migration assay demonstrated that in the presence of light, growth of the fungus-like organism Pythium ultimum and the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea was inhibited...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111192/antifungal-molluscicidal-and-larvicidal-assessment-of-anemonin-and-clematis-flammula-l-extracts-against-mollusc-galba-truncatula-intermediate-host-of-fasciola-hepatica-in-tunisia
#2
Rakia Saidi, Lamia Khanous, Safa Khadim Allah, Besma Hamdi, Ali Ayadi, Mohamed Damak, Hayet Hammami, Raoudha Mezghani-Jarraya
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of anemonin and Clematis flammula (C. flammula) extracts against infective organisms. METHODS: The molluscicidal activities of anemonin and C. flammula extracts against Galba truncatula Müll. (Lymnaeidae) and Fasciola hepatica larval stages contaminating this snail in Tunisia were assessed by testing six groups of snails in 250 mL of extracts and aqueous dechlorinated solutions with different concentrations (ranging from 2...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101453/endophytic-paraconiothyrium-sp-from-zingiber-officinale-rosc-displays-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-activity-by-production-of-danthron
#3
C Anisha, P Sachidanandan, E K Radhakrishnan
The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp...
November 3, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095755/azithromycin-in-the-management-of-pythium-insidiosum-keratitis
#4
Samrat Chatterjee, Deepshikha Agrawal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074300/dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-pythium-insidiosum-1-3-1-6-%C3%AE-glucan-heat-inactivated-zoospores-and-immunotherapy-prime-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-to-th1-differentiation-in-vitro
#5
Pauline C Ledur, Juliana S M Tondolo, Francielli P K Jesus, Camila M Verdi, Érico S Loreto, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the fungus-like microorganism Pythium insidiosum that can lead to death if not treated. Since P. insidiosum has particular cell wall characteristics, pythiosis is difficult to treat, as it does not respond well to traditional antifungal drugs. In our study, we investigated a new immunotherapeutic approach with potential use in treatment and in the acquisition of immunity against pythiosis. Dendritic cells from both human and mouse, pulsed with P. insidiosum heat-inactivated zoospore, (1,3)(1,6)-β-glucan and the immunotherapeutic PitiumVac(®) efficiently induced naïve T cell differentiation in a Th1 phenotype by the activation of specific Th1 cytokine production in vitro...
October 18, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017458/lifestyle-gene-gain-and-loss-and-transcriptional-remodeling-cause-divergence-in-the-transcriptomes-of-phytophthora-infestans-and-pythium-ultimum-during-potato-tuber-colonization
#6
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Jolly Shrivastava, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: How pathogen genomes evolve to support distinct lifestyles is not well-understood. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight agent, is a largely biotrophic pathogen that feeds from living host cells, which become necrotic only late in infection. The related oomycete Pythium ultimum grows saprophytically in soil and as a necrotroph in plants, causing massive tissue destruction. To learn what distinguishes their lifestyles, we compared their gene contents and expression patterns in media and a shared host, potato tuber...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972292/embryonated-chicken-eggs-an-experimental-model-for-pythium-insidiosum-infection
#7
Camila M Verdi, Francielli P K Jesus, Glaucia Kommers, Pauline C Ledur, Maria I Azevedo, Erico S Loreto, Juliana S M Tondolo, Eduardo N C Andrade, Karine B Schlemmer, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a severe disease caused by Pythium insidiosum. Currently, the research on the treatment of pythiosis uses rabbits as an experimental infection model. To reduce the use of animals in scientific experimentation, alternative models are increasingly necessary options. The objective of this study was to establish a new experimental infection model for pythiosis using embryonated chicken eggs. First, we tested the inoculation of 4 zoospore concentrations into the egg allantoic cavity at 3 embryonic days...
October 3, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950884/sublingual-pythiosis-in-a-cat
#8
Jessica Sonia Fortin, Michael John Calcutt, Dae Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Pythiosis is a potentially fatal but non-contagious disease affecting humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical climates, but is also reasonably widespread in temperate climates, throughout the world. The most commonly reported affected animal species with pythiosis are equine and canine, with fewer cases in bovine and feline. Extracutaneous infections caused by Pythium insidiosum have been rarely described in the cat. CASE PRESENTATION: Sublingual pythiosis was diagnosed in a 2-year-old, male, Domestic Shorthair cat...
September 26, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#9
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a nondisturbed nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with (14)C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903964/clinical-profile-of-pythium-keratitis-perioperative-measures-to-reduce-risk-of-recurrence
#10
Shweta Agarwal, Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Mamta Agarwal, Shobha Panchalam Sampath Kumar, Lily K Therese
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile and role of perioperative adjunctive measures to reduce the risk of recurrence in Pythium insidiosum keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 10 patients with P. insidiosum keratitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR DNA sequencing. RESULTS: 7out of 10 patients were from urban locales, and none had any obvious history of injury with vegetative matter and were being treated for fungal keratitis...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860253/draft-genome-sequences-of-the-oomycete-pilasporangium-apinafurcum-strains-jcm-30513-and-jcm-30514-formerly-classified-as-pythium-apinafurcum
#11
Shihomi Uzuhashi, Rikiya Endoh, Ri-Ichiroh Manabe, Moriya Ohkuma
Pilasporangium apinafurcum, formerly classified as Pythium apinafurcum, is a unique oomycete that infects plants asymptomatically. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two variants of P. apinafurcum, JCM 30513 and JCM 30514, isolated from uncultivated field soil in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.
August 31, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842951/effect-of-k-and-mn-phosphites-in-the-control-of-pythium-damping-off-in-soybean-a-feasible-alternative-to-fungicide-seed-treatments
#12
Marcelo A Carmona, Francisco J Sautua, Pablo E Grijalba, Mariano Cassina, Oscar Pérez-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Use of fungicide seed treatments for control of soybean soilborne diseases such as Pythium damping off has increased worldwide. However, emergence of resistant Pythium strains to metalaxyl-M has prompted need for alternative technologies to fungicides for damping-off control. Phosphites (Phis) have been proposed as methods to control oomycetes, but their use as seed treatments in soybean is limited due to lack of information on their efficacy. The effect of K and Mn phosphites (as seed treatments) in the control of Pythium damping-off in soybean was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
August 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826756/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based-multiplex-pcr-for-identification-and-genotyping-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-from-humans-animals-and-the-environment
#13
Thidarat Rujirawat, Thanawat Sridapan, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Pattarana Sae-Chew, Walaiporn Tonpitak, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called pythiosis, in humans and animals worldwide. Diagnosis of pythiosis is difficult and often delayed. Surgical removal of infected tissue is the main treatment option. Disabilities and death are common outcomes for pythiosis patients. Reports of Py. insidiosum infections are rising. While it would be useful for clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological studies, information on genetic variation in Py. insidiosum strains is limited. This limitation is, at least in part, due to the cost and time-requirements of DNA sequencing procedures...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807055/transcriptomic-profiling-of-microbe-microbe-interactions-reveals-the-specific-response-of-the-biocontrol-strain-p-fluorescens-in5-to-the-phytopathogen-rhizoctonia-solani
#14
Rosanna C Hennessy, Mikkel A Glaring, Stefan Olsson, Peter Stougaard
BACKGROUND: Few studies to date report the transcriptional response of biocontrol bacteria toward phytopathogens. In order to gain insights into the potential mechanism underlying the antagonism of the antimicrobial producing strain P. fluorescens In5 against the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum, global RNA sequencing was performed. METHODS: Differential gene expression profiling of P. fluorescens In5 in response to either R. solani or P...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749611/morphology-ultrastructure-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-rozella-multimorpha-a-new-species-in-cryptomycota
#15
Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Domingos S Leite, D Rabern Simmons, Martha J Powell
Increasing numbers of sequences of basal fungi from environmental DNA studies are being deposited in public databases. Many of these sequences remain unclassified below the phylum level because sequence information from identified species is sparse. Lack of basic biological knowledge due to a dearth of identified species is extreme in Cryptomycota, a new phylum widespread in the environment and phylogenetically basal within the fungal lineage. Consequently, we are attempting to fill gaps in the knowledge of Rozella, the best-known genus in this lineage...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736938/genetic-variation-in-pythium-myriotylum-based-on-snp-typing-and-development-of-a-pcr-rflp-detection-of-isolates-recovered-from-pythium-soft-rot-ginger
#16
D P Le, M K Smith, E A B Aitken
Pythium myriotylum is responsible for severe losses in both capsicum and ginger crops in Australia under different regimes. Intraspecific genomic variation within the pathogen might explain the differences in aggressiveness and pathogenicity on diverse hosts. In this study, whole genome data of four P. myriotylum isolates recovered from three hosts and one Pythium zingiberis isolate were derived and analysed for sequence diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A higher number of true and unique SNPs occurred in P...
October 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645766/phylogenomic-analysis-supports-multiple-instances-of-polyphyly-in-the-oomycete-peronosporalean-lineage
#17
Marina S Ascunce, Jose C Huguet-Tapia, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Nemat O Keyhani, Edward L Braun, Erica M Goss
The study of biological diversification of oomycetes has been a difficult task for more than a century. Pioneer researchers used morphological characters to describe this heterogeneous group, and physiological and genetic tools expanded knowledge of these microorganisms. However, research on oomycete diversification is limited by conflicting phylogenies. Using whole genomic data from 17 oomycete taxa, we obtained a dataset of 277 core orthologous genes shared among these genomes. Analyses of this dataset resulted in highly congruent and strongly supported estimates of oomycete phylogeny when we used concatenated maximum likelihood and coalescent-based methods; the one important exception was the position of Albugo...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634478/transcriptional-and-antagonistic-responses-of-biocontrol-strain-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11-to-the-plant-pathogenic-oomycete-pythium-aphanidermatum
#18
Yangyang Zhao, Guoliang Qian, Yuan Chen, Liangcheng Du, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF), which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597159/metabolite-analysis-of-endophytic-fungi-from-cultivars-of-zingiber-officinale-rosc-identifies-myriad-of-bioactive-compounds-including-tyrosol
#19
C Anisha, E K Radhakrishnan
Endophytic fungi associated with rhizomes of four cultivars of Zingiber officinale were identified by molecular and morphological methods and evaluated for their activity against soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum and clinical pathogens. The volatile bioactive metabolites produced by these isolates were identified by GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of raw consumption of ginger as medicine and spice. A total of fifteen isolates were identified from the four varieties studied...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582375/pythium-insidiosum-keratitis-histopathology-and-rapid-novel-diagnostic-staining-technique
#20
Ruchi Mittal, Shipra K Jena, Alisha Desai, Sunil Agarwal
PURPOSE: To elucidate the histopathology of Pythium insidiosum keratitis and to describe a novel, simple, and rapid staining technique for identification of oomycete Pythium insidiosum and to differentiate it from fungi. METHODS: This is a laboratory investigation study of 38 nonconsecutive cases (37 ocular samples and 1 colonic biopsy); 14 microbiologically diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum keratitis and 24 as fungal keratitis. Review of clinical, demographic details, microbiological results, and identification of cases that necessitated evisceration was performed...
June 2, 2017: Cornea
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