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Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma, Sai Jeevan Madhuri Guda, Ritu Nagpal, Joveeta Joseph, Kodiganti Manjulatha, Ashik Mohamed, Prashant Garg
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum is a parafungus that causes keratitis resembling fungal keratitis. This study compares outcome in a large cohort of patients with P insidiosum keratitis treated with antifungal drugs, to a pilot group treated with antibacterial antibiotics. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2016, 114 patients with culture positive P insidiosum keratitis were included in the study. A subset of culture isolates was tested in vitro for response to nine antibacterial antibiotics by disc diffusion and E test...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Thidarat Rujirawat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum , isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum , we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Thidarat Rujirawat, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Penpan Payattikul, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Prapat Suriyaphol, Onrapak Reamtong, Gagan Garg, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is a human-pathogenic oomycete. Many patients infected with it lose organs or die. Toward the goal of developing improved treatment options, we want to understand how Py. insidiosum has evolved to become a successful human pathogen. Our approach here involved the use of comparative genomic and other analyses to identify genes with possible functions in the pathogenicity of Py. insidiosum. We generated an Oomycete Gene Table and used it to explore the genome contents and phylogenomic relationships of Py...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Veronika Zengerer, Michael Schmid, Marco Bieri, Denise C Müller, Mitja N P Remus-Emsermann, Christian H Ahrens, Cosima Pelludat
In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora , the causal agent of fire blight...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eman M Khalaf, Manish N Raizada
The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Boshra A Halo, Rashid A Al-Yahyai, Abdullah M Al-Sadi
The study investigated the efficacy of two isolates of Aspergillus terreus (65P and 9F) on the growth, morphology and pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber. In vitro tests showed that the two isolates inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum in culture. Investigating P. aphanidermatum hyphae close to the inhibition zone showed that the hyphae showed abnormal growth and loss of internal content. Treating P. aphanidermatum with the culture filtrate (CF) of A. terreus resulted in significant rise in cellular leakage of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fehmida Bibi, Gary A Strobel, Muhammad I Naseer, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed A Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam I Azhar
Halophytes are associated with the intertidal forest ecosystem of Saudi Arabia and seemingly have an immense potential for yielding useful and important natural products. In this study we have aimed to isolate and characterize the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities from the halophyte, Salsola imbricata , In addition these bacterial strains were identified and selected strains were further studied for bioactive secondary metabolites. At least 168 rhizspheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and of these 22 were active antagonists against the oomycetous fungal plant pathogens, Phytophthora capsici and Pythium ultimum ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vanessa Dal Ben, Rômulo S Oliveira, Jéssica L Borchardt, Júlia de Souza S Valente, Carolina Lichtina Brasil, Cristina Gomes Zambrano, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic Oomycota that causes pythiosis in mammals, especially horses, dogs, and humans; these inhabit marshy environments in tropical and subtropical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the protein profile, as well as identify likely immunodominant proteins, of Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates from southern Brazil, an important equine pythiosis endemic area. P. insidiosum isolates (horses, n = 20 and dogs, n = 02) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot techniques...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Amit K Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn, Ellen R Graber, Omer Frenkel
Biochar can enhance plant growth and reduce diseases, but frequently the optimal doses for these two benefits do not coincide. An approach is needed that will extend the range of biochar doses resulting in a concurrence of maximum benefits for both plant productivity and disease suppression. A biochar-amended growth medium was pre-conditioned by pre-planting fertigation in order to enhance the indigenous microbial community structure and activity. Cucumber plant performance and resistance against damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum were monitored...
February 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Jéssica Luana Chechi, Tarsila Franckin, Lidiane Nunes Barbosa, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo Alves, Aline de Lima Leite, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco
Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a life-threatening disease that affects human and animals, has difficult diagnosis, and therapy. Studies on protein characterization of P. insidiosum are scarce, so we aimed to determine the protein profile of P. insidiosum by mass spectrometry and bioinformatics strategies targeting in proteins that may act as putative virulence factors. Therefore, an extraction protocol was standardized to obtain the total proteins of P. insidiosum. By the analysis of Image Master 2D Platinum software, it was found that 186 spots ranging between 12 and 89 KDa and isoelectric point from 4 to 7...
January 23, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Fehmida Bibi, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Ahmed Mohamad Hassan, Muhammad Yasir, Ahmed Abdullah Khalaf Al-Ghamdi, Esam Ibrahim Azhar
The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from sea grass, Halodule uninervis collected from the coastal area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to screen them for antifungal and enzymatic activities. We have isolated 162 rhizo and endophytic bacteria from soil, roots, and leaves of the sea grass. Antifungal screening of isolated bacteria revealed 19 strains (11.7%) capable to inhibit growth of four pathogenic fungi, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, pyricularia oryzae, and Rhizoctonia solani in an in vitro assay...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Anubha Rathi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Tushar Agarwal, Neelam Pushker, Mukesh Patil, Hemant Kamble, Jeewan S Titiyal, Rishi Mohan, Seema Kashyap, Sanjay Sharma, Seema Sen, Gita Satpathy, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: To report a case of Pythium insidiosum keratitis leading to fatal cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 70-year-old man presented with excruciating pain, redness, and diminution of vision in his left eye for 2 weeks after washing his hair with tap water. A total corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrates and associated corneal thinning was present. Corneal scraping revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci...
January 9, 2018: Cornea
Erico S Loreto, Juliana S M Tondolo, Daniele C Oliveira, Janio M Santurio, Sydney H Alves
We tested 29 isolates of Pythium insidiosum and one isolate of Pythium aphanidermatum to investigate their susceptibility to miltefosine and antibacterial drugs from macrolide, oxazolidinone, and pleuromutilin classes. We found that miltefosine, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, linezolid, sutezolid, retapamulin, tiamulin, and valnemulin had inhibitory and cidal activity against the pathogens at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/ml. Our results suggest that these antimicrobials are promising candidates for future studies on pythiosis in animals and humans...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Xuebo Zhang, Peng Lei, Tengda Sun, Xiaoyu Jin, Xinling Yang, Yun Ling
In order to discover novel eco-friendly lead compounds for plant pathogenic fungi control, a series of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazide derivatives with a piperidine moiety have been designed and synthesized. Fungicidal activities of all the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that all the title compounds exhibited moderate to good fungicidal activities. Compound 3b displayed excellent activities against Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Valsa mali, and Gaeu-mannomyces graminsis, with EC50 values lower than 10 μg/mL...
December 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Navaporn Worasilchai, Nitipong Permpalung, Ariya Chindamporn
Pythium insidiosum causes life-threatening human pythiosis. Based on phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase II (COX2) gene, intergenic spacer (IGS) region and exo-1,3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), P. insidiosum is classified into clade ATH, BTH, and CTH related to geographic distribution. At present, polymerase chain reaction in any of these specific regions with DNA sequencing is the only technique to provide clade diagnosis. In this study, P. insidiosum-specific primers targeting COX2 gene were designed and used in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with subsequent high-resolution melting (HRM) to provide rapid identification as well as clade classification for P...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Cristina Gomes Zambrano, Angelita Reis Gomes, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Júlia de Souza Silveira Valente, Carolina Quintana Braga, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
This study verified the influence of different temperatures on P. insidiosum in vitro zoosporogenesis. P. insidiosum isolates (n = 26) were submitted to zoosporogenesis and incubated at 5°C, 15°C, 20°C and 37°C (1st stage). Grass fragments were evaluated under optical microscopy at 4, 8, and 24 hours of incubation. Afterward, all isolates were incubated at 37°C and assessed at the same periods of time (2nd stage). The development of hyphae, presence of vesicles, zoosporangia and zoospores were checked...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jamie McGowan, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the stramenopiles-alveolate- Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Oomycetes secrete large arsenals of effector proteins that degrade host cell components, manipulate host immune responses, and induce necrosis, enabling parasitic colonization. This study investigated the expansion and evolution of effectors in 37 oomycete species in 4 oomycete orders, including Albuginales , Peronosporales , Pythiales , and Saprolegniales species...
November 2017: MSphere
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