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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#1
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903964/clinical-profile-of-pythium-keratitis-perioperative-measures-to-reduce-risk-of-recurrence
#2
Shweta Agarwal, Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Mamta Agarwal, Shobha Panchalam Sampath Kumar, Lily K Therese
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile and role of perioperative adjunctive measures to reduce the risk of recurrence in Pythium insidiosum keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 10 patients with P. insidiosum keratitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR DNA sequencing. RESULTS: 7out of 10 patients were from urban locales, and none had any obvious history of injury with vegetative matter and were being treated for fungal keratitis...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860253/draft-genome-sequences-of-the-oomycete-pilasporangium-apinafurcum-strains-jcm-30513-and-jcm-30514-formerly-classified-as-pythium-apinafurcum
#3
Shihomi Uzuhashi, Rikiya Endoh, Ri-Ichiroh Manabe, Moriya Ohkuma
Pilasporangium apinafurcum, formerly classified as Pythium apinafurcum, is a unique oomycete that infects plants asymptomatically. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two variants of P. apinafurcum, JCM 30513 and JCM 30514, isolated from uncultivated field soil in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.
August 31, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842951/effect-of-k-and-mn-phosphites-in-the-control-of-pythium-damping-off-in-soybean-a-feasible-alternative-to-fungicide-seed-treatments
#4
Marcelo A Carmona, Francisco J Sautua, Pablo E Grijalba, Mariano Cassina, Oscar Pérez-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Use of fungicide seed treatments for control of soybean soilborne diseases such as Pythium damping off has increased worldwide. However, emergence of resistant Pythium strains to metalaxyl-M has prompted need for alternative technologies to fungicides for damping-off control. Phosphites (Phis) have been proposed as methods to control oomycetes, but their use as seed treatments in soybean is limited due to lack of information on their efficacy. The effect of K and Mn phosphites (as seed treatments) in the control of Pythium damping-off in soybean was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
August 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826756/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based-multiplex-pcr-for-identification-and-genotyping-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-from-humans-animals-and-the-environment
#5
Thidarat Rujirawat, Thanawat Sridapan, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Pattarana Sae-Chew, Walaiporn Tonpitak, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called pythiosis, in humans and animals worldwide. Diagnosis of pythiosis is difficult and often delayed. Surgical removal of infected tissue is the main treatment option. Disabilities and death are common outcomes for pythiosis patients. Reports of Py. insidiosum infections are rising. While it would be useful for clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological studies, information on genetic variation in Py. insidiosum strains is limited. This limitation is, at least in part, due to the cost and time-requirements of DNA sequencing procedures...
August 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807055/transcriptomic-profiling-of-microbe-microbe-interactions-reveals-the-specific-response-of-the-biocontrol-strain-p-fluorescens-in5-to-the-phytopathogen-rhizoctonia-solani
#6
Rosanna C Hennessy, Mikkel A Glaring, Stefan Olsson, Peter Stougaard
BACKGROUND: Few studies to date report the transcriptional response of biocontrol bacteria toward phytopathogens. In order to gain insights into the potential mechanism underlying the antagonism of the antimicrobial producing strain P. fluorescens In5 against the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum, global RNA sequencing was performed. METHODS: Differential gene expression profiling of P. fluorescens In5 in response to either R. solani or P...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749611/morphology-ultrastructure-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-rozella-multimorpha-a-new-species-in-cryptomycota
#7
Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Domingos S Leite, D Rabern Simmons, Martha J Powell
Increasing numbers of sequences of basal fungi from environmental DNA studies are being deposited in public databases. Many of these sequences remain unclassified below the phylum level because sequence information from identified species is sparse. Lack of basic biological knowledge due to a dearth of identified species is extreme in Cryptomycota, a new phylum widespread in the environment and phylogenetically basal within the fungal lineage. Consequently, we are attempting to fill gaps in the knowledge of Rozella, the best-known genus in this lineage...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736938/genetic-variation-in-pythium-myriotylum-based-on-snp-typing-and-development-of-a-pcr-rflp-detection-of-isolates-recovered-from-pythium-soft-rot-ginger
#8
D P Le, M K Smith, E A B Aitken
Pythium myriotylum is responsible for severe losses in both capsicum and ginger crops in Australia under different regimes. Intraspecific genomic variation within the pathogen might explain the differences in aggressiveness and pathogenicity on diverse hosts. In this study, whole genome data of four P. myriotylum isolates recovered from three hosts and one Pythium zingiberis isolate were derived and analysed for sequence diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A higher number of true and unique SNPs occurred in P...
October 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645766/phylogenomic-analysis-supports-multiple-instances-of-polyphyly-in-the-oomycete-peronosporalean-lineage
#9
Marina S Ascunce, Jose C Huguet-Tapia, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Nemat O Keyhani, Edward L Braun, Erica M Goss
The study of biological diversification of oomycetes has been a difficult task for more than a century. Pioneer researchers used morphological characters to describe this heterogeneous group, and physiological and genetic tools expanded knowledge of these microorganisms. However, research on oomycete diversification is limited by conflicting phylogenies. Using whole genomic data from 17 oomycete taxa, we obtained a dataset of 277 core orthologous genes shared among these genomes. Analyses of this dataset resulted in highly congruent and strongly supported estimates of oomycete phylogeny when we used concatenated maximum likelihood and coalescent-based methods; the one important exception was the position of Albugo...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634478/transcriptional-and-antagonistic-responses-of-biocontrol-strain-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11-to-the-plant-pathogenic-oomycete-pythium-aphanidermatum
#10
Yangyang Zhao, Guoliang Qian, Yuan Chen, Liangcheng Du, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF), which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597159/metabolite-analysis-of-endophytic-fungi-from-cultivars-of-zingiber-officinale-rosc-identifies-myriad-of-bioactive-compounds-including-tyrosol
#11
C Anisha, E K Radhakrishnan
Endophytic fungi associated with rhizomes of four cultivars of Zingiber officinale were identified by molecular and morphological methods and evaluated for their activity against soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum and clinical pathogens. The volatile bioactive metabolites produced by these isolates were identified by GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of raw consumption of ginger as medicine and spice. A total of fifteen isolates were identified from the four varieties studied...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582375/pythium-insidiosum-keratitis-histopathology-and-rapid-novel-diagnostic-staining-technique
#12
Ruchi Mittal, Shipra K Jena, Alisha Desai, Sunil Agarwal
PURPOSE: To elucidate the histopathology of Pythium insidiosum keratitis and to describe a novel, simple, and rapid staining technique for identification of oomycete Pythium insidiosum and to differentiate it from fungi. METHODS: This is a laboratory investigation study of 38 nonconsecutive cases (37 ocular samples and 1 colonic biopsy); 14 microbiologically diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum keratitis and 24 as fungal keratitis. Review of clinical, demographic details, microbiological results, and identification of cases that necessitated evisceration was performed...
June 2, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576115/metagenomic-analysis-of-oomycete-communities-from-the-rhizosphere-of-field-pea-on-the-canadian-prairies
#13
A Esmaeili Taheri, S Chatterton, B D Gossen, D L McLaren
Oomycetes are a diverse group of microorganisms; however, little is known about their composition and biodiversity in agroecosystems. Illumina MiSeq was used to determine the type and abundance of oomycetes associated with pea root rot in the Canadian prairies. Additional objectives of the study were to identify differences in oomycete communities associated with pea root health and compare oomycete communities among the 3 prairie provinces, where field peas are commonly cultivated. Samples of soil from the rhizosphere of field pea (Pisum sativum L...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576113/degenerate-its7-primer-enhances-oomycete-community-coverage-and-pcr-sensitivity-to-aphanomyces-species-economically-important-plant-pathogens
#14
A Esmaeili Taheri, S Chatterton, B D Gossen, D L McLaren
Metagenomic analysis of oomycetes through deep amplicon sequencing has been conducted primarily using the ITS6-ITS7 primer set that targets the ITS1 region. While this primer set shows a perfect match to most oomycete taxa, ITS7 contains 3 mismatches to the corresponding binding site of plant pathogens within the genus Aphanomyces. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) efficiency differs for taxa with uneven primer matching characteristics, which may explain why previous studies have detected this genus at low abundance...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567627/endophytic-nocardiopsis-sp-from-zingiber-officinale-with-both-antiphytopathogenic-mechanisms-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-clinical-isolates
#15
Rohini Sabu, K R Soumya, E K Radhakrishnan
Novel and potential antimicrobial compounds are essential to tackle the frequently emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens and also to develop environment friendly agricultural practices. In the current study, endophytic actinomycetes from rhizome of Zingiber officinale were explored in terms of its diversity and bioactive properties. Fourteen different organisms were isolated, identified and screened for activity against Pythium myriotylum and human clinical pathogens. Among these, Nocardiopsis sp. ZoA1 was found to have highest inhibition with excellent antibacterial effects compared to standard antibiotics...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547920/pulmonary-pythiosis-in-a-canine-patient
#16
Darin Kepler, Robert Cole, Tekla Lee-Fowler, Jey Koehler, Stephanie Shrader, Joe Newton
A Staffordshire terrier presented for evaluation of a chronic, nonproductive cough that was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. A large mass identified in the pulmonary hilum was most consistent with tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy on radiographic and computed tomography (CT) images. Bronchoscopy confirmed a mass compressing the dorsal portion of the intrathoracic trachea. Bronchoscopic biopsies of the tracheal mass revealed necrosuppurative and eosinophilic inflammation with intralesional Pythium insidiousum hyphae...
May 25, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546478/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-mycoparasitic-oomycete-pythium-oligandrum-strain-cbs-530-74
#17
Sandeep K Kushwaha, Ramesh R Vetukuri, Laura J Grenville-Briggs
The oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a mycoparasite and licenced biological control agent. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. oligandrum strain CBS 530.74, which is 36.80 Mb. It contains 341 scaffolds and 11,647 predicted protein-coding genes. As reported for plant-pathogenic Pythium species, RXLR-type effector sequences are absent.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542438/chemically-induced-disseminated-pythiosis-in-balb-c-mice-a-new-experimental-model-for-pythium-insidiosum-infection
#18
Juliana S M Tondolo, Érico S Loreto, Pauline C Ledur, Francielli P K Jesus, Taiara M Silva, Glaucia D Kommers, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a severe and life-threatening disease that affects humans and various animal species. We report a model of vascular/disseminated pythiosis occurring after subcutaneous inoculation of 2 x 104 Pythium insidiosum zoospores/mL in immunocompromised BALB/c mice. For this model, we carried out two rounds of experiments. First, we evaluated two protocols of immunosuppression before inoculation: cyclophosphamide at 150 mg/kg (CYP group) and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg plus hydrocortisone acetate at 250 mg/kg (CYP+HCA group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535608/antifungal-activities-of-dimeric-sesquiterpenes-shizukaols-c-and-f-isolated-from-chloranthus-japonicus-sieb
#19
Tae Hoon Kang, Yun Mi Lee, Won Jung Lee, Eui Il Hwang, Ki Duk Park, Gyang Ja Choi, Jae Sun Moon, Ho-Yong Park, Sung Uk Kim
Two dimeric sesquiterpenes were separated from Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. and identified as shizukaols C and F. They exhibited potent antifungal activities (MICs = 4-16 μg/ml) in vitro against various plant pathogenic fungi (Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora infestans, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Alternaria kikuchiana, and Magnaporthe grisea). Shizukaol C showed 88% and 91% protective activities in the greenhouse against Puccinia recondita (wheat leaf rust) and Phytophthora infestans (tomato late blight), respectively, at 100 μg/ml; shizukaol F exhibited 93% antifungal activity against Puccinia recondita at the same concentration...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525598/differential-diagnosis-for-pythiosis-using-thermophilic-helicase-dna-amplification-and-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-thda-rflp
#20
Navaporn Worasilchai, Piyasak Chaumpluk, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ariya Chindamporn
Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like microbe belonging to the kingdom Stramenopila. Its diagnosis is challenging due to clinical and histopathological similarities with the fungal microbes that cause mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis. In addition, the proper identification of P. insidiosum in the clinical laboratory is difficult. We have developed a rapid and accurate, species-specific identification method using a thermophilic helicase DNA amplification (tHDA) technique, to differentiate this pathogen from closely related pathogenic fungi...
May 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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