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Pythium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050341/cutaneous-pythiosis-in-calves-an-epidemiologic-pathologic-serologic-and-molecular-characterization
#1
Guilherme Konradt, Daniele Mariath Bassuino, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Lismara Castro, Rafaela Albuquerque Caprioli, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Janio M Santurio, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Francielli P Jesus, David Driemeier
This study reports the epidemiological, pathological and mycological findings of cutaneous pythiosis in cattle in southern Brazil. 23 calves, that were kept next to a river with extensive marshy regions, presented ulcerated cutaneous lesions in thoracic and pelvic limbs, sometimes extending to the ventral thoracic region. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomas in the superficial and deep dermis. The Grocott-Methenamine silver, immunohistochemistry anti-Pythium insidiosum, ELISA serology and molecular characterization demonstrated the agent P...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043330/synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-of-2-allylphenol-derivatives-against-fungal-plant-pathogens
#2
Tianli Qu, Shumei Gao, Jianqiang Li, Jianjun J Hao, Pingsheng Ji
2-Allylphenol (2-AP) is an effective fungicide against a number of plant pathogens, which can be metabolized and bio-transformed to four chemical compounds by Rhizoctonia cerealis. To determine if its degradation affects antifungal activity, two major metabolites derived from 2-AP including 2-(2-hydroxypropyl) phenol and 2-(3-hydroxypropyl) phenol were synthesized. Inhibition of mycelial growth of several plant pathogens by the metabolites was evaluated, and structures of two metabolites were determined by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035839/high-performing-windowfarm-hydroponic-system-transcriptomes-of-fresh-produce-and-microbial-communities-in-response-to-beneficial-bacterial-treatment
#3
Seungjun Lee, Ruisheng An, Parwinder Grewal, Zhongtang Yu, Zuzana Borherova, Jiyoung Lee
Beneficial microorganisms play an important role in enhancing plant health, especially by promoting resistance to plant pathogen infection. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of such protection by i) examining the responses of fresh produce (lettuce) to beneficial treatments in their transcriptomes, ii) comparing biological (bacteria, fungi, and oomycete) communities and their diversity when treated with Pseudomonas chlororaphis (beneficial bacterium) in windowfarm hydroponic systems, and iii) identifying the microorganisms in root areas and water...
December 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025573/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pythium-insidiosum-corneal-ulcer-in-a-chinese-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Hong He, Hongshan Liu, Xiaolian Chen, Jiaochan Wu, Miao He, Xingwu Zhong
BACKGROUND Pythium insidiosum keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening disease with a high morbidity rate. It can be misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis in clinic settings. We report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis in a Chinese child, treated with combined approaches. CASE REPORT A 7-year-old boy from Hainan province in the south of China developed a suppurative corneal ulcer after being in a forest. A mass of hyphae was detected by confocal imaging in vivo, fungal smear test, and histochemical examination...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987983/extraction-characterization-and-biological-activity-of-a-1-3-1-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-the-pathogenic-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum
#5
Juliana S M Tondolo, Pauline C Ledur, Érico S Loreto, Camila M Verdi, Paula E R Bitencourt, Francielli P K de Jesus, Jean P Rocha, Sydney H Alves, Guilherme L Sassaki, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum. This study is the first to evaluate the P. insidiosum glucan content and its biological activities. The enzymatic quantification of the glucans in P. insidiosum mycelia showed that the β-glucan content was 18.99%±3.59. The cell wall polysaccharide extract consisted of ∼81.7% carbohydrates (exclusively glucose) and ∼18.3% residual amino acids and peptides. The results from monosaccharide composition, methylation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy analyses indicated the presence of a highly branched (1,3)(1,6)-β-d-glucan, with (1,6)-β-d-glucopyranosil side-branching unit on average every 1-2 repeat units...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960253/stilbene-derivatives-from-photorhabdus-temperata-sn259-and-their-antifungal-activities-against-phytopathogenic-fungi
#6
Danshu Shi, Ran An, Wenbo Zhang, Guilong Zhang, Zhiguo Yu
Chemical investigation of an insect pathogenic enterobacterium, Photorhabdus temperata SN259, led to the isolation and identification of seven metabolites, which include three new compounds, 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-phenethylphenyl carbamate, 1, 2-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-[2-phenylethyl]benzene-1,3-diol, 2, 2-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-5-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]benzene-1,3-diol, 3, and four known metabolites (4-7). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR data and by comparison with those reported previously...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936244/gene-expression-and-silencing-studies-in-phytophthora-infestans-reveal-infection-specific-nutrient-transporters-and-a-role-for-the-nitrate-reductase-pathway-in-plant-pathogenesis
#7
Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933080/identification-of-a-dolabellane-type-diterpene-synthase-and-other-root-expressed-diterpene-synthases-in-arabidopsis
#8
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918234/formation-and-exudation-of-non-volatile-products-of-the-arabidiol-triterpenoid-degradation-pathway-in-arabidopsis-roots
#9
Reza Sohrabi, Tehane Ali, Liva Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe, Dorothea Tholl
Triterpenoids produced by plants play important roles in the protection against biotic stress. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana produce different triterpenoids, which include the tricyclic triterpene diol, arabidiol. In a degradation reaction induced by infection with the oomycete pathogen, Pythium irregulare, arabidiol is cleaved to the 11-carbon volatile homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and the 19-carbon ketone, apo-arabidiol. The arabidiol pathway and its volatile breakdown product DMNT have been implicated in the defense against P...
January 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894990/microevolutionary-analyses-of-pythium-insidiosum-isolates-of-brazil-and-thailand-based-on-exo-1-3-%C3%AE-glucanase-gene
#10
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Lizandra Jaqueline Robe, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Danieli Urach Monteiro, Douglas Miotto Lorensetti, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an important oomycete due to its ability to infect humans and animals. It causes pythiosis, a disease of difficult treatment that occurs more frequently in humans in Thailand and in horses in Brazil. Since cell-wall components are frequently related to host shifts, we decided here to use sequences from the exo-1,3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), which encodes an immunodominant protein putatively involved in cell wall remodeling, to investigate the microevolutionary relationships of Brazilian and Thai isolates of P...
November 25, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872630/control-of-wilt-and-rot-pathogens-of-tomato-by-antagonistic-pink-pigmented-facultative-methylotrophic-delftia-lacustris-and-bacillus-spp
#11
Veeranan Janahiraman, Rangasamy Anandham, Soon W Kwon, Subbiah Sundaram, Veeranan Karthik Pandi, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Kiyoon Kim, Sandipan Samaddar, Tongmin Sa
The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1, respectively, identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816906/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-to-metallic-compounds-containing-cadmium-lead-copper-manganese-or-zinc
#12
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Francielli Pantella Kunz de Jesus, Camila Marina Verdi, Leticia Trevisan Gressler, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801078/oomycete-species-associated-with-soybean-seedlings-in-north-america-part-i-identification-and-pathogenicity-characterization
#13
J Alejandro Rojas, Janette L Jacobs, Stephanie Napieralski, Behirda Karaj, Carl A Bradley, Thomas Chase, Paul D Esker, Loren J Giesler, Doug J Jardine, Dean K Malvick, Samuel G Markell, Berlin D Nelson, Alison E Robertson, John C Rupe, Damon L Smith, Laura E Sweets, Albert U Tenuta, Kiersten A Wise, Martin I Chilvers
Oomycete pathogens are commonly associated with soybean root rot and have been estimated to reduce soybean yields in the United States by 1.5 million tons on an annual basis. Limited information exists regarding the frequency and diversity of oomycete species across the major soybean-producing regions in North America. A survey was conducted across 11 major soybean-producing states in the United States and the province of Ontario, Canada. In 2011, 2,378 oomycete cultures were isolated from soybean seedling roots on a semiselective medium (CMA-PARPB) and were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA...
December 23, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760852/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-three-new-species-of-pythium-from-iran-p-ershadii-p-pyrioosporum-and-p-urmianum
#14
Masoud Abrinbana, Farzaneh Badali, Jafar Abdollahzadeh
Three new species of Pythium: P. ershadii, P. pyrioosporum, and P. urmianum from soils of various regions in Iran are described and illustrated. These species are morphologically distinct from all other known species. Pythium ershadii is morphologically characterized by pyriform ornamented oogonia and rarely production of pyriform oospores. Pythium pyrioosporum differs from other species of the genus by the production of pyriform oospores and smooth walled oogonia, oospores with a tapering elongation toward a hypogynous antheridium and intercalary hypogynous antheridia...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642638/systematic-search-for-evidence-of-interdomain-horizontal-gene-transfer-from-prokaryotes-to-oomycete-lineages
#15
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
While most commonly associated with prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can also have a significant influence on the evolution of microscopic eukaryotes. Systematic analysis of HGT in the genomes of the oomycetes, filamentous eukaryotic microorganisms in the Stramenopiles-Alveolates-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup, has to date focused mainly on intradomain transfer events between oomycetes and fungi. Using systematic whole-genome analysis followed by phylogenetic reconstruction, we have investigated the extent of interdomain HGT between bacteria and plant-pathogenic oomycetes...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582271/nine-things-to-know-about-elicitins
#16
Lida Derevnina, Yasin F Dagdas, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Aleksandra Bialas, Ronny Kellner, Benjamin Petre, Emmanouil Domazakis, Juan Du, Chih-Hang Wu, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, Sophien Kamoun
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. References SUMMARY: Elicitins are structurally conserved extracellular proteins in Phytophthora and Pythium oomycete pathogen species. They were first described in the late 1980s as abundant proteins in Phytophthora culture filtrates that have the capacity to elicit hypersensitive (HR) cell death and disease resistance in tobacco. Later, they became well-established as having features of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and to elicit defences in a variety of plant species...
September 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544535/in-vitro-activity-of-melaleuca-alternifolia-tea-tree-in-its-free-oil-and-nanoemulsion-formulations-against-pythium-insidiosum
#17
Júlia de Souza Silveira Valente, Anelise de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Lauren Sagave, Fernanda Cramer Flores, Cristiane de Bona da Silva, Luís Antônio Sangioni, Luciana Pötter, Janio Morais Santurio, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira
Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic oomycete which can cause pythiosis in both animals and humans. This microorganism shows low susceptibility to antifungal drugs available. This study analyzed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia in its free oil (FO) and nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 document adapted to phytopharmaceuticals...
December 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534131/chemical-composition-herbicidal-and-antifungal-activity-of-satureja-cuneifolia-essential-oils-from-spain
#18
David García-Rellán, Mercedes Verdeguer, Adele Salamone, María Amparo Blázquez, Herminio Boira
The chemical composition of essential oils from Satureja cuneifolia growing in east Spain was analyzed by GC, GC/MS. Forty-five compounds accounting for 99.1% of the total oil were identified. Camphor (47.6%), followed by camphene (13.6%) were the main compounds. Their herbicidal and antifungal activity was tested in vitro against three weeds (Amaranthus hybridus, Portulaca oleracea and Conyza canadensis) and eleven common pathogenic or saprophytic fungi (Phytophthora citrophthora, P. palmivora, Pythium litorale, Verticillium dahlia, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium hirsutum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Phaemoniella chlamydospora, Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and C...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522931/pythium-insidiosum-inhibitory-effects-of-propolis-and-geopropolis-on-hyphal-growth
#19
Maria José Abigail Mendes Araújo, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498832/antifungal-and-phytotoxic-activity-of-essential-oil-from-root-of-senecio-amplexicaulis-kunth-asteraceae-growing-wild-in-high-altitude-himalayan-region
#20
Rajendra Singh, Vivek Ahluwalia, Pratap Singh, Naresh Kumar, Om Prakash Sati, Nitin Sati
This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum...
August 2016: Natural Product Research
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