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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814973/photoautotrophic-production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-a-synthetic-mixed-culture-of-synechococcus-elongatus-cscb-and-pseudomonas-putida-cscab
#1
Hannes Löwe, Karina Hobmeier, Manuel Moos, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#2
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805073/do-you-know-what-your-kids-are-drinking-evaluation-of-a-media-campaign-to-reduce-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages
#3
Amy Bleakley, Amy Jordan, Giridhar Mallya, Michael Hennessy, Jessica Taylor Piotrowski
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. DESIGN: Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. SETTING: Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794950/structure-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-bradyrhizobium-sp-ors285-rfal-mutant-strain
#4
Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Katarzyna A Duda, Mateusz Pallach, Nicolas Busset, Luisa Sturiale, Eric Giraud, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
The importance of the outer membrane and of its main constituent, lipopolysaccharide, in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous host plants has been well studied. Here, the first complete structural characterization of the entire lipopolysaccharide from an O-chain-deficient Bradyrhizobium ORS285 rfaL mutant is achieved by a combination of chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy, MALDI MS and MS/MS. The lipid A structure is shown to be consistent with previously reported Bradyrhizobium lipid A, that is, a heterogeneous blend of penta- to hepta-acylated species carrying a nonstoichiometric hopanoid unit and possessing very-long-chain fatty acids ranging from 26:0(25-OH) to 32:0(31-OH)...
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789528/carbene-mediated-quaternarization-of-the-anomeric-position-of-carbohydrates-synthesis-of-allylic-ketopyranosides-access-to-the-missing-%C3%AE-gluco-and-%C3%AE-manno-stereoisomers-and-preparation-of-quaternary-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-sugars
#5
Kévin Mébarki, Marine Gavel, Floriane Heis, Antoine Yvan Philippe Joosten, Thomas Lecourt
Following our work on the C-H functionalization of carbohydrates by 1,5 insertion of metal-carbenes, we report herein the robust and scalable conversion of sugar γ-lactones into highly valuable glycosides having a quaternary anomeric position substituted by an allyl chain ready for further functionalization. A divergent synthetic approach furthermore provided a straightforward access to ketopyranosides with a large chemo- and stereodiversity at position 2.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781158/nitro-substituted-tetrahydroindolizines-and-homologs-design-kinetics-and-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition
#6
Cinzia Tavani, Lara Bianchi, Annalisa De Palma, Giovanna Ilaria Passeri, Giuseppe Punzi, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Angelo Lovece, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Carlo Franchini, Giovanni Lentini, Giovanni Petrillo
A series of 1-[(methylsulfonyl)methyl]-2-nitro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines and homologs were designed, prepared, and evaluated as non-sugar-type α-glucosidase inhibitors. The inhibitory activity appeared to be related to cyclo homologation with the best congeners being tetrahydroindolizines. The introduction of a methoxycarbonyl group as an additional hydrogen bond acceptor into the exocyclic methylene group was beneficial affording the most potent congener 3e (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50=8...
July 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764073/an-improved-process-for-the-production-of-highly-purified-recombinant-thaumatin-tagged-variants
#7
Robert D Healey, Helene Lebhar, Simon Hornung, Pall Thordarson, Christopher P Marquis
The sweetest tasting molecule known is the protein thaumatin, first isolated from the katemfe fruit, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is used in the food and beverage industry as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Thaumatin interacts with taste receptors in the oral cavity eliciting a persistent sweet taste and a bitter, liquorice flavor. Recombinant thaumatin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and through a co-expression strategy with a molecular chaperone, yields of one engineered thaumatin variant increased by greater than two-fold...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762654/development-of-an-hplc-procedure-to-identify-known-and-detect-novel-c-13-oligosaccharide-moieties-in-diterpene-glycosides-from-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-bertoni-asteraceae-structure-elucidation-of-rebaudiosides-v-and-w
#8
Wilmer H Perera, Ion Ghiviriga, Douglas L Rodenburg, Raquel Carvalho, Kamilla Alves, James D McChesney
As an aid for structure elucidation of new steviol glycosides, reversed-phase C18 high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed with several previously characterized diterpene glycosides, to identify known and detect novel aglycone-C13 oligosaccharide moieties and indirectly identify C-19 interlinkages. Elution order of several diterpene glycosides and their aglycone-C13 oligosaccharide substituted with different sugar arrangements were also summarized. Comparison of the retention time of a product obtained after alkaline hydrolysis with the alycone-C-13 portions of known compounds reported herein allowed us to deduce the exact positions of the sugars in the C-13 oligosaccharide portion...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745876/ionic-liquids-as-tool-to-improve-enzymatic-organic-synthesis
#9
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Itoh
Ionic liquids (ILs) have now been acknowledged as reaction media for biotransformations. The first three examples were reported in this field in 2000, and since then, numerous applications have been reported for biocatalytic reactions using ILs. Two topics using ILs for enzymatic reactions have been reviewed from the standpoint of biocatalyst mediating organic synthesis; the first is "Biocatalysis in Ionic Liquids" which includes various types of biocatalytic reactions in ILs (section 2): (1) recent examples of lipase-mediated reactions using ILs as reaction media for biodiesel oil production and for sugar ester production, (2) oxidase-catalyzed reactions in ILs, (3) laccase-catalyzed reactions, (4) peroxidase-catalyzed reactions, (4) cytochrome-mediated reactions, (5) microbe-mediated hydrations, (6) protease-catalyzed reactions, (8) whole cell mediated asymmetric reduction of ketones, (10) acylase-catalyzed reactions, (11) glycosylation or cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of polysaccharides, (12) hydroxynitrile lyase-catalyzed reaction, (13) fluorinase or haloalkane dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction, (14) luciferase-catalyzed reactions, and (15) biocatalytic promiscuity of enzymatic reactions for organic synthesis using ILs...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742346/molecular-dynamics-of-double-stranded-xylo-nucleic-acid-xylona
#10
Amutha Ramaswamy, Daryna Smyrnova, Mattheus Froeyen, Mohitosh Maiti, Piet Herdewijn, Arnout Ceulemans
Xylo-nucleic acid (XyloNA) is a synthetic analogue of ribo-nucleic acid (RNA), where the ribose sugar has been replaced by xylose. We present a Molecular Dynamics study of the conformational evolution of XyloNA double strand oligomers derived from A-RNA through the substitution of beta-ᴅ-ribofuranose by beta-ᴅ-xylofuranose and having lengths of 8, 16 and 29 base pairs, using a set of independent all-atom simulations performed at various time scales ranging from 55 to 100 ns, , with one long 500 ns simulation of the 29-mer...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741999/deakozyma-yunnanensis-sp-nov-a-novel-yeast-species-isolated-from-rotten-wood
#11
Jun Zheng, Kai-Fang Liu, Xiao-Jing Liu, Lin Zhang, Feng-Li Hui
Three strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from rotten wood samples collected in Xishuangbanna Tropical Rainforest in Yunnan Province, PR China. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions indicated that the novel species represented a member of the genus Deakozyma. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of Deakozyma indianensis but they differed by 5.8 % sequence divergence (20 substitutions and 5 gaps) in the D1/D2 domain and by 12...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725264/identification-of-developmental-stage-and-anatomical-fraction-contributions-to-cell-wall-recalcitrance-in-switchgrass
#12
Jacob D Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725058/identification-of-a-flavonoid-glucosyltransferase-involved-in-7-oh-site-glycosylation-in-tea-plants-camellia-sinensis
#13
Xinlong Dai, Juhua Zhuang, Yingling Wu, Peiqiang Wang, Guifu Zhao, Yajun Liu, Xiaolan Jiang, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
Flavonol glycosides, which are often converted from aglycones in a process catalyzed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), play an important role for the health of plants and animals. In the present study, a gene encoding a flavonoid 7-O-glycosyltransferase (CsUGT75L12) was identified in tea plants. Recombinant CsUGT75L12 protein displayed glycosyltransferase activity on the 7-OH position of multiple phenolic compounds. In relative comparison to wild-type seeds, the levels of flavonol-glucosides increased in Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing CsUGT75L12...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718681/partial-substitution-of-glucose-with-xylitol-suppressed-the-glycolysis-and-selectively-inhibited-the-proliferation-of-oral-cancer-cells
#14
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Penkhair Yoosadiang, Duangsamon Mekkriangkrai, Tanapat Ratchawong, Nicha Buraphacheep, Siripa Kijanukul, Sumrit Saekhow, Orawan Pongpitchayadej, Kittituch Vongvachvasin, Paknisa Sittikornpaiboon, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
Suitable diet for cancer survivors remains an unresolved challenge. Increased glucose utilization is a hallmark of various cancers. Therefore, alternative carbohydrate supplying normal tissue but retarding cancer growth is needed. This study investigated the effect of sugar alcohols on the proliferation of oral cancer cells compared to nontransformed cells and explored the mechanism. Six oral squamous cell carcinoma (CAL-27, FaDu, SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, and SCC25) and one nontransformed oral keratinocyte (OKF6/TERT2) lines were cultured in media containing 1 mg/ml glucose and 5...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699693/isolation-of-three-triterpene-saponins-including-two-new-oleanane-derivatives-from-soldanella-alpina-and-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-evaporative-light-scattering-detection-of-these-three-saponins-in-four-soldenella-species
#15
Julia Haller, Stefan Schwaiger, Hermann Stuppner, Frank Gafner, Markus Ganzera
INTRODUCTION: The genus Soldanella is one of the few endemic to Europe. Some of its species have relevance in local traditional medicine. Earlier work has indicated the possible presence of saponins in S. alpina. OBJECTIVE: To investigate S. alpina and other related species for the occurrence of saponins. METHODS: Following sequential extraction with n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate the subsequent methanolic extract of S. alpina roots was fractionated after solvent precipitation using fast centrifugal partition chromatography and column chromatography...
July 12, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695539/elucidation-of-bacillus-subtilis-katmira-1933-potential-for-spore-production-in-submerged-fermentation-of-plant-raw-materials
#16
Tamar Khardziani, Eva Kachlishvili, Kakha Sokhadze, Vladimir Elisashvili, Richard Weeks, Michael L Chikindas, Vladimir Chistyakov
In this study, the effects of several key factors to increase spore production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. KATMIRA 1933 were evaluated in shake flask experiments. In a synthetic medium, glucose concentration played a crucial role in the expression of bacilli sporulation capacity. In particular, maximum spore yield (2.3 × 10(9) spores/mL) was achieved at low glucose concentration (2 g/L), and further gradual increase of the carbon source content in the medium caused a decrease in sporulation capacity. Substitution of glucose with several inexpensive lignocellulosic materials was found to be a reasonable way to achieve high cell density and sporulation...
July 10, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671034/acrylamide-in-commercial-foods-and-intake-by-infants-in-estonia
#17
Andres Elias, Mati Roasto, Mari Reinik, Keiu Nelis, Eha Nurk, Terje Elias
Acrylamide is formed when certain foods with low moisture are prepared at above 120 ºC, especially those foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose. Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen, and from animal evidence the margins of exposure indicate a concern for neoplastic effects. On a body weight basis infants´ acrylamide intakes are often higher than those of adults. The aim of the study was to determine acrylamide levels in different commercially-available foods and to assess dietary acrylamide intakes by infants...
July 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669823/biochemical-and-structural-analyses-of-two-cryptic-esterases-in-bacteroides-intestinalis-and-their-synergistic-activities-with-cognate-xylanases
#18
Daniel Wefers, Janaina J V Cavalcante, Rachel R Schendel, Jaigeeth Deveryshetty, Kui Wang, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Roderick I Mackie, Nicole M Koropatkin, Isaac Cann
Arabinoxylans are constituents of the human diet. Although not utilizable by the human host, they can be fermented by colonic bacteria. The arabinoxylan backbone is decorated with arabinose side chains that may be substituted with ferulic acid, thus limiting depolymerization to fermentable sugars. We investigated the polypeptides encoded by two genes upregulated during growth of the colonic bacterium Bacteroides intestinalis on wheat arabinoxylan. The recombinant proteins, designated BiFae1A and BiFae1B, were functionally assigned esterase activities...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665260/weight-changes-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-calorie-restricted-obese-mice-fed-high-fat-diets-containing-corn-or-flaxseed-oil-physiological-role-of-sugar-replacement-with-polyphenol-rich-grape
#19
Hastimansooreh Ansar, Negar Zamaninour, Abolghassem Djazayery, Hamideh Pishva, Mohammadreza Vafa, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Aydin Dilmaghanian, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. METHODS: Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661578/fluoro-carba-sugars-are-glycomimetic-activators-of-the-glms-ribozyme
#20
Günter Mayer, Daniel Matzner, Anna Schüller, Torben Seitz, Valentin Wittmann
The glmS ribozyme is a bacterial gene-regulating riboswitch that controls cell wall synthesis, depending on glucosamine-6-phosphate as a cofactor. Due to the presence of this ribozyme in several human pathogen bacteria (e.g. MRSA, VRSA), the glmS ribozyme represents an attractive target for the development of artificial cofactors. The substitution of the ring oxygen in carbohydrates by functionalized methylene groups leads to a new generation of glycomimetics that exploits distinct interaction possibilities with their target structure in biological systems...
June 29, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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