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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906062/gemcitabine-pyrrologemcitabine-and-2-fluoro-2-deoxycytidines-synthesis-physical-properties-and-impact-of-sugar-fluorination-on-silver-ion-mediated-base-pairing
#1
Frank Seela, Xiurong Guo, Peter Leonard, Sachin Asaram Ingale
The stability of silver mediated "dC-dC" base pairs relies not only on the structure of the nucleobase but also is sensitive to structural modification on the sugar moiety. 2'-Fluorinated 2'-deoxycytidines with fluorine atoms in the arabino (up) and the ribo (down) configuration, as well as with geminal fluorine substitution (anticancer drug gemcitabine) and the novel fluorescent phenylpyrrolo-gemcitabine (phPyrGem) were synthesized. All nucleosides display the recognition face of naturally occurring 2'-deoxycytidine...
September 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905094/recent-advances-on-the-difructose-anhydride-iv-preparation-from-levan-conversion
#2
REVIEW
Hua Hang
Difructose anhydride IV (DFA IV) is a cyclic disaccharide consisting of two fructose residues, which is obtained from levan conversion with levan fructotransferase (LFTase) and rarely found in nature as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Some beneficial effects of DFA IV connected with its consumption have been described. The article reviews the properties and physiological functions of DFA IV, levan conversion, resources and properties of LFTase and the produced methods of DFA IV. LFTase as a relatively novel enzyme and its molecular evolution are discussed as well...
September 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902145/replacing-american-breakfast-foods-with-ready-to-eat-rte-cereals-increases-consumption-of-key-food-groups-and-nutrients-among-us-children-and-adults-results-of-an-nhanes-modeling-study
#3
Colin D Rehm, Adam Drewnowski
Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk...
September 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886130/improving-the-antiprotozoal-effect-of-saponins-in-the-rumen-by-combination-with-glycosidase-inhibiting-iminosugars-or-by-modification-of-their-chemical-structure
#4
Eva Ramos-Morales, Gabriel de la Fuente, Robert J Nash, Radek Braganca, Stephane Duval, Marc E Bouillon, Martina Lahmann, C Jamie Newbold
The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882406/process-model-economics-of-xanthan-production-from-confectionery-industry-wastewaters
#5
Bojana Ž Bajić, Damjan G Vučurović, Siniša N Dodić, Jovana A Grahovac, Jelena M Dodić
In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer(®)). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881197/oleanane-type-triterpene-saponins-from-calendula-stellata
#6
Meryem Lehbili, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Amin Abedini, Hamid Morjani, Thomas Sarazin, Sophie C Gangloff, Zahia Kabouche
Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28...
September 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875843/dihydroresveratrol-type-dihydrostilbenoids-chemical-diversity-chemosystematics-and-bioactivity
#7
Sara Vitalini, Serhat Sezai Cicek, Sebastian Granica, Christian Zidorn
Dihydrostilbenoids are a chemically diverse class of secondary metabolites and differ from stilbenoids by the missing double bond in the ethylene chain linking the two aromatic moieties. Dihydrostilbenoids have been reported from flowering plants, fungi, mosses, and ferns. In this review, the occurrence, chemical structure, and bioactivity of 142 naturally occurring dihydrostilbenoids of the dihydroresveratrol type, compounds featuring hydroxy or substituted hydroxy groups at least in positions 3, 5, and 4', will be discussed...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873521/effect-of-substituted-gelling-agents-from-pomegranate-peel-on-colour-textural-and-sensory-properties-of-pomegranate-jam
#8
Mouna Abid, Héla Yaich, Hayfa Hidouri, Hamadi Attia, M A Ayadi
A series of pomegranate jams were prepared from a Tunisian ecotype (Tounsi) with different amounts of sugar (10, 20 and 30%) and low-methoxylated pectin (0.2, 0.7 and 1.2%). The most appreciated formulation was that contaning 30% sugars and 0.2% pectin. Then, commercial pectin was substituted by other gelling agents (pomegranate peel powders dried at 50°C vs lyophilized, pectin and fibre extracted from pomegranate peel) for the preparation of pomegranate peel-based jams. The elaborated jams were evaluated for physichochemical, colour, texture and sensory characteristics...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837084/consumption-of-low-calorie-sweetened-beverages-compared-to-water-is-associated-with-reduced-intake-of-carbohydrates-and-sugar-with-no-adverse-relationships-to-glycemic-responses-results-from-the-2001-2012-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys
#9
Marge Leahy, Joseph C Ratliff, Claudia S Riedt, Victor L Fulgoni
Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB) intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes...
August 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830459/reducing-calorie-sales-from-supermarkets-silent-reformulation-of-retailer-brand-food-products
#10
Jørgen Dejgård Jensen, Iben Sommer
BACKGROUND: Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818035/comparative-analysis-of-inosine-substituted-duplex-dna-by-circular-dichroism-and-x-ray-crystallography
#11
Justin P Peters, Ewa A Kowal, Pradeep S Pallan, Martin Egli, L James Maher
Leveraging structural biology tools, we report the results of experiments seeking to determine if the different mechanical properties of DNA polymers with base analog substitutions can be attributed, at least in part, to induced changes from classical B-form DNA. The underlying hypothesis is that different inherent bending and twisting flexibilities may characterize non-canonical B-DNA, so that it is inappropriate to interpret mechanical changes caused by base analog substitution as resulting simply from 'electrostatic' or 'base stacking' influences without considering the larger context of altered helical geometry...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814973/photoautotrophic-production-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-a-synthetic-mixed-culture-of-synechococcus-elongatus-cscb-and-pseudomonas-putida-cscab
#12
Hannes Löwe, Karina Hobmeier, Manuel Moos, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#13
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805073/do-you-know-what-your-kids-are-drinking-evaluation-of-a-media-campaign-to-reduce-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages
#14
Amy Bleakley, Amy Jordan, Giridhar Mallya, Michael Hennessy, Jessica Taylor Piotrowski
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. DESIGN: Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. SETTING: Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794950/structure-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-bradyrhizobium-sp-ors285-rfal-mutant-strain
#15
Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Katarzyna A Duda, Mateusz Pallach, Nicolas Busset, Luisa Sturiale, Eric Giraud, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
The importance of the outer membrane and of its main constituent, lipopolysaccharide, in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous host plants has been well studied. Here, the first complete structural characterization of the entire lipopolysaccharide from an O-chain-deficient Bradyrhizobium ORS285 rfaL mutant is achieved by a combination of chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy, MALDI MS and MS/MS. The lipid A structure is shown to be consistent with previously reported Bradyrhizobium lipid A, that is, a heterogeneous blend of penta- to hepta-acylated species carrying a nonstoichiometric hopanoid unit and possessing very-long-chain fatty acids ranging from 26:0(25-OH) to 32:0(31-OH)...
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789528/carbene-mediated-quaternarization-of-the-anomeric-position-of-carbohydrates-synthesis-of-allylic-ketopyranosides-access-to-the-missing-%C3%AE-gluco-and-%C3%AE-manno-stereoisomers-and-preparation-of-quaternary-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-sugars
#16
Kévin Mébarki, Marine Gavel, Floriane Heis, Antoine Yvan Philippe Joosten, Thomas Lecourt
Following our work on the C-H functionalization of carbohydrates by the 1,5 insertion of metal-carbenes, we report herein the robust and scalable conversion of sugar γ-lactones into highly valuable glycosides having a quaternary anomeric position substituted by an allyl chain ready for further functionalization. A divergent synthetic approach furthermore provided a straightforward access to ketopyranosides with a large chemo- and stereodiversity at position 2.
August 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781158/nitro-substituted-tetrahydroindolizines-and-homologs-design-kinetics-and-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition
#17
Cinzia Tavani, Lara Bianchi, Annalisa De Palma, Giovanna Ilaria Passeri, Giuseppe Punzi, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Angelo Lovece, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Carlo Franchini, Giovanni Lentini, Giovanni Petrillo
A series of 1-[(methylsulfonyl)methyl]-2-nitro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines and homologs were designed, prepared, and evaluated as non-sugar-type α-glucosidase inhibitors. The inhibitory activity appeared to be related to cyclo homologation with the best congeners being tetrahydroindolizines. The introduction of a methoxycarbonyl group as an additional hydrogen bond acceptor into the exocyclic methylene group was beneficial affording the most potent congener 3e (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50=8...
July 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764073/an-improved-process-for-the-production-of-highly-purified-recombinant-thaumatin-tagged-variants
#18
Robert D Healey, Helene Lebhar, Simon Hornung, Pall Thordarson, Christopher P Marquis
The sweetest tasting molecule known is the protein thaumatin, first isolated from the katemfe fruit, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is used in the food and beverage industry as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Thaumatin interacts with taste receptors in the oral cavity eliciting a persistent sweet taste and a bitter, liquorice flavor. Recombinant thaumatin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and through a co-expression strategy with a molecular chaperone, yields of one engineered thaumatin variant increased by greater than two-fold...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762654/development-of-an-hplc-procedure-to-identify-known-and-detect-novel-c-13-oligosaccharide-moieties-in-diterpene-glycosides-from-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-bertoni-asteraceae-structure-elucidation-of-rebaudiosides-v-and-w
#19
Wilmer H Perera, Ion Ghiviriga, Douglas L Rodenburg, Raquel Carvalho, Kamilla Alves, James D McChesney
As an aid for structure elucidation of new steviol glycosides, reversed-phase C18 high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed with several previously characterized diterpene glycosides, to identify known and detect novel aglycone-C13 oligosaccharide moieties and indirectly identify C-19 interlinkages. Elution order of several diterpene glycosides and their aglycone-C13 oligosaccharide substituted with different sugar arrangements were also summarized. Comparison of the retention time of a product obtained after alkaline hydrolysis with the alycone-C-13 portions of known compounds reported herein allowed us to deduce the exact positions of the sugars in the C-13 oligosaccharide portion...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745876/ionic-liquids-as-tool-to-improve-enzymatic-organic-synthesis
#20
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Itoh
Ionic liquids (ILs) have now been acknowledged as reaction media for biotransformations. The first three examples were reported in this field in 2000, and since then, numerous applications have been reported for biocatalytic reactions using ILs. Two topics using ILs for enzymatic reactions have been reviewed from the standpoint of biocatalyst mediating organic synthesis; the first is "Biocatalysis in Ionic Liquids" which includes various types of biocatalytic reactions in ILs (section 2): (1) recent examples of lipase-mediated reactions using ILs as reaction media for biodiesel oil production and for sugar ester production, (2) oxidase-catalyzed reactions in ILs, (3) laccase-catalyzed reactions, (4) peroxidase-catalyzed reactions, (4) cytochrome-mediated reactions, (5) microbe-mediated hydrations, (6) protease-catalyzed reactions, (8) whole cell mediated asymmetric reduction of ketones, (10) acylase-catalyzed reactions, (11) glycosylation or cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of polysaccharides, (12) hydroxynitrile lyase-catalyzed reaction, (13) fluorinase or haloalkane dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction, (14) luciferase-catalyzed reactions, and (15) biocatalytic promiscuity of enzymatic reactions for organic synthesis using ILs...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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