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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535825/the-effect-of-increased-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-on-selected-macronutrient-and-micronutrient-intakes-in-four-randomised-controlled-trials
#1
Sharon L Fulton, Michelle C McKinley, Charlotte E Neville, Francina R Baldrick, Ciara Mulligan, Damian O McCall, David R McCance, J D Edgar, J S Elborn, Ian S Young, Chris C Patterson, Jayne V Woodside
Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced risk of a number of non-communicable diseases. Research tends to focus on antioxidants, flavonoids and polyphenols contained in FV as the main beneficial components to health; however, increasing FV may also alter overall diet profile. Extra FV may be substituted for foods thought to be less healthy, therefore altering the overall macronutrient and/or micronutrient content in the diet. This analysis merged dietary data from four intervention studies in participants with varying health conditions and examined the effect of increased FV consumption on diet profile...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522003/lactobacillus-plantarum-cidca-8327-an-%C3%AE-glucan-producing-strain-isolated-from-kefir-grains
#2
M V Gangoiti, A I Puertas, M F Hamet, P J Peruzzo, M G Llamas, M Medrano, A Prieto, M T Dueñas, A G Abraham
Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 8327 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producer strain isolated from kefir with promising properties for the development of functional foods. The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of the EPS synthesized by this strain grown in skim milk or semidefined medium (SDM). Additionally, genes involved in EPS synthesis were detected by PCR. L. plantarum produces an EPS with a molecular weight of 10(4)Da in both media. When grown in SDM produce an heteropolysaccharide composed mainly of glucose, glucosamine and rhamnose meanwhile the EPS produced in milk was composed exclusively of glucose indicating the influence of the sugar source...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515160/replacement-of-refined-starches-and-added-sugars-with-egg-protein-and-unsaturated-fats-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-lowers-triglycerides-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-with-elevated-triglycerides
#3
Kevin C Maki, Orsolya M Palacios, Emily Lindner, Kristin M Nieman, Marjorie Bell, Jennifer Sorce
Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common condition in the United States and is often associated with other metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and a predominance of small dense LDL particles.Objective: The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of a combination of egg protein (Epro) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) substituted for refined starches and added sugars on insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) and other cardiometabolic health markers in overweight or obese adults with elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512318/structure-based-prediction-and-identification-of-4-epimerization-activity-of-phosphate-sugars-in-class-ii-aldolases
#4
Seon-Hwa Lee, Seung-Hye Hong, Jung-Ung An, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Dong-Eun Kim, Lin-Woo Kang, Deok-Kun Oh
Sugar 4-epimerization reactions are important for the production of rare sugars and their derivatives, which have various potential industrial applications. For example, the production of tagatose, a functional sweetener, from fructose by sugar 4-epimerization is currently constrained because a fructose 4-epimerase does not exist in nature. We found that class II D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) catalyzed the 4-epimerization of D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to D-tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) based on the prediction via structural comparisons with epimerase and molecular docking and the identification of the condensed products of C3 sugars...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509550/sugars-require-rigid-multivalent-displays-for-activation-of-mouse-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#5
He Huang, Maria T Rodolis, Surita R Bhatia, Nicole S Sampson
As a prerequisite to mammalian fertilization, the sperm acrosomal vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and the acrosome contents are exocytosed. Induction occurs through engagement of the sperm receptors by multiple sugar residues. Multivalent polymers displaying mannose, fucose, or GlcNAc are effective synthetic inducers of mouse sperm acrosomal exocytosis (AE). Each carbohydrate is proposed to have a distinct binding site on the sperm cell surface. To determine the role of the scaffold structure in the efficiency of AE induction, different polymer backbones were employed to display the different activating sugar residues...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487676/identification-of-d-galactan-iii-as-part-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-serotype-o1
#6
Katarina Stojkovic, Valéria Szijártó, Marta Kaszowska, Tomasz Niedziela, Katharina Hartl, Gábor Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, ubiquitous bacterium capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in individuals with impaired immune system. Emerging multi-drug resistant strains of this species and particularly carbapenem-resistant strains pose an urgent threat to public health. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen is the main surface antigen. It contributes to the virulence of this species and determines the O-serotype of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the nine main O-serotypes of K. pneumoniae, O1-and O2-type pathogens are causative agents of over 50% of all infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483453/bivalent-o-glycoside-mimetics-with-s-disulfide-se-substitutions-and-aromatic-core-synthesis-molecular-modeling-and-inhibitory-activity-on-biomedically-relevant-lectins-in-assays-of-increasing-physiological-relevance
#7
Herbert Kaltner, Tamás Szabó, Krisztina Fehér, Sabine André, Sára Balla, Joachim C Manning, László Szilágyi, Hans-Joachim Gabius
The emerging significance of recognition of cellular glycans by lectins for diverse aspects of pathophysiology is a strong incentive for considering development of bioactive and non-hydrolyzable glycoside derivatives, for example by introducing S/Se atoms and the disulfide group instead of oxygen into the glycosidic linkage. We report the synthesis of 12 bivalent thio-, disulfido- and selenoglycosides attached to benzene/naphthalene cores. They present galactose, for blocking a plant toxin, or lactose, the canonical ligand of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins...
April 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476035/rewiring-carbohydrate-catabolism-differentially-affects-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-with-diverse-metabolic-profiles
#8
Tiziana Tataranni, Francesca Agriesti, Vitalba Ruggieri, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Vittorio Simeon, Ilaria Laurenzana, Rosella Scrima, Valerio Pazienza, Nazzareno Capitanio, Claudia Piccoli
An increasing body of evidence suggests that targeting cellular metabolism represents a promising effective approach to treat pancreatic cancer, overcome chemoresistance and ameliorate patient's prognosis and survival. In this study, following whole-genome expression analysis, we selected two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and BXPC-3, hallmarked by distinct metabolic profiles with specific concern to carbohydrate metabolism. Functional comparative analysis showed that BXPC-3 displayed a marked deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation activity and a higher production of reactive oxygen species and a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating their bioenergetic reliance on glycolysis and a different redox homeostasis as compared to PANC-1...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467806/glut1-mediated-selective-tumor-targeting-with-fluorine-containing-platinum-ii-glycoconjugates
#9
Ran Liu, Zheng Fu, Meng Zhao, Xiangqian Gao, Hong Li, Qian Mi, Pengxing Liu, Jinna Yang, Zhi Yao, Qingzhi Gao
Increased glycolysis and overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) are physiological characteristics of human malignancies. Based on the so-called Warburg effect, 18flurodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has successfully developed as clinical modality for the diagnosis and staging of many cancers. To leverage this glucose transporter mediated metabolic disparity between normal and malignant cells, in the current report, we focus on the fluorine substituted series of glucose, mannose and galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-flouromalonato-platinum(II) complexes for a comprehensive evaluation on their selective tumor targeting...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467387/comparing-the-nutritional-impact-of-dietary-strategies-to-reduce-discretionary-choice-intake-in-the-australian-adult-population-a-simulation-modelling-study
#10
Jessica A Grieger, Brittany J Johnson, Thomas P Wycherley, Rebecca K Golley
Dietary strategies to reduce discretionary choice intake are commonly utilized in practice, but evidence on their relative efficacy is lacking. The aim was to compare the potential impact on nutritional intake of three strategies to reducing discretionary choices intake in the Australian adult (19-90 years) population. Dietary simulation modelling using data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 was conducted (n = 9341; one 24 h dietary recall). Strategies modelled were: moderation (reduce discretionary choices by 50%, with 0%, 25% or 75% energy compensation); substitution (replace 50% of discretionary choices with core choices); reformulation (replace 50% SFA with unsaturated fats, reduce added sugars by 25%, and reduce sodium by 20%)...
May 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464102/effects-of-feeding-different-levels-of-dried-orange-pulp-and-recycled-poultry-bedding-on-the-performance-of-fattening-lambs
#11
Z Tadayon, Y Rouzbehan, J Rezaei
The effects of dietary feeding different levels of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) and dried orange pulp (DOP) on the performance of fattening Shal lambs (initial BW of 28 ± 2.2 kg) were assessed using a factorial experiment (2 × 3) with a completely randomized design. Six diets, containing different levels of RPB (0 or 160 g/kg of DM) and DOP (0, 110, or 220 g/kg of DM), were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 6 lambs each for a 74-d period (14 d for adaptation and 60 d for data collection). Diets were offered as total mixed ration to ensure 10% of orts...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457550/effects-of-rare-sugar-d-allulose-on-acid-production-and-probiotic-activities-of-dairy-lactic-acid-bacteria
#12
H Kimoto-Nira, N Moriya, S Hayakawa, K Kuramasu, H Ohmori, S Yamasaki, M Ogawa
It has recently been reported that the rare sugar d-allulose has beneficial effects, including the suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation in humans, and can be substituted for sucrose as a low-calorie food ingredient. To examine the applications of d-allulose in the dairy industry, we investigated the effects of d-allulose on the acid production of 8 strains of yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and 4 strains of lactococci, including potential probiotic candidates derived from dairy products...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433158/characterization-of-a-sulfated-galactoglucan-from-antrodia-cinnamomea-and-its-anticancer-mechanism-via-tgf%C3%AE-fak-slug-axis-suppression
#13
Mei-Kuang Lu, Tung-Yi Lin, Chun-Hao Hu, Chi-Hsein Chao, Chia-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Yeh Hsu
A sulfated 1,4-β-d-galactoglucan (B86-III) with 1,6-branches was isolated and identified from Antrodia cinnamomea. The repeating unit of B86-III was proposed based on one-dimensional 1D ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135) and 2D (DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR spectra. The conformation of the sugars was hypothesized to be a rare boat form instead of a (4)C1 chair form. The sulfate substitutions were suggested to be on the C-2 and C-3 positions, resulting in the following structure: B86-III inhibited the viability of H1975 lung cancer cells via cell apoptosis, including the activation of caspase 3 and PARP...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429930/enzymatically-debranched-xylans-in-graft-copolymerization
#14
Kuisma Littunen, Galina Mai-Gisondi, Jukka Seppälä, Emma R Master
Wheat arabinoxylan was treated with two α-arabinofuranosidases exhibiting different mode of action to create three different polymeric substrates. These three substrate preparations were characterized by xylopyranose backbone sugars that are (1) singly substituted by arabinose at C2 or C3, (2) doubly substituted by arabinose at C2 and C3, and (3) largely unsubstituted. All xylan preparations were grafted with glycidyl methacrylate using cerium ammonium nitrate and then evaluated in terms of graft yield and adsorption to cellulose surfaces...
April 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404833/evaluation-of-simulation-models-that-estimate-the-effect-of-dietary-strategies-on-nutritional-intake-a-systematic-review
#15
Jessica A Grieger, Brittany J Johnson, Thomas P Wycherley, Rebecca K Golley
Background: Dietary simulation modeling can predict dietary strategies that may improve nutritional or health outcomes.Objectives: The study aims were to undertake a systematic review of simulation studies that model dietary strategies aiming to improve nutritional intake, body weight, and related chronic disease, and to assess the methodologic and reporting quality of these models.Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided the search strategy with studies located through electronic searches [Cochrane Library, Ovid (MEDLINE and Embase), EBSCOhost (CINAHL), and Scopus]...
May 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399012/sweeteners-and-sweetness-enhancers
#16
Christine Belloir, Fabrice Neiers, Loïc Briand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. RECENT FINDINGS: The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390831/comparative-study-of-acacia-nilotica-exudate-gum-and-acacia-gum
#17
Pravin R Bhushette, Uday S Annapure
Over 900 species of Acacia trees are found on earth, most of them produce gums. Acacia nilotica (Babul tree) is one of the major gum-yielding acacia species found in he Indian subcontinent. A. nilotica gum was collected from Maharashtra, India and characterised for its proximate analysis, physicochemical, functional, rheological and thermal properties. These properties further were compared with commercially available Acacia gum (AG). The sugar composition of the gums indicated the presence of arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose in ANG and AG...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382023/antiprotozoal-effect-of-saponins-in-the-rumen-can-be-enhanced-by-chemical-modifications-in-their-structure
#18
Eva Ramos-Morales, Gabriel de la Fuente, Stephane Duval, Christof Wehrli, Marc Bouillon, Martina Lahmann, David Preskett, Radek Braganca, Charles J Newbold
The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to the sapogenin by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We postulated that the substitution of the sugar moiety of the saponin with small polar residues would produce sapogen-like analogs which might be resistant to degradation in the rumen as they would not be enzymatically cleaved, allowing the antiprotozoal effect to persist over time. In this study, we used an acute assay based on the ability of protozoa to break down [(14)C] leucine-labeled Streptococcus bovis and a longer term assay based on protozoal motility over 24 h to evaluate both the antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect with fifteen hederagenin bis-esters esterified with two identical groups, and five cholesterol and cholic acid based derivatives carrying one to three succinate residues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380296/n-6-substituted-5-n-methylcarbamoyl-4-selenoadenosines-as-potent-and-selective-a3-adenosine-receptor-agonists-with-unusual-sugar-puckering-and-nucleobase-orientation
#19
Jinha Yu, Long Xuan Zhao, Jongmi Park, Hyuk Woo Lee, Pramod K Sahu, Minghua Cui, Steven M Moss, Eva Hammes, Eugene Warnick, Zhan-Guo Gao, Minsoo Noh, Sun Choi, Hee-Chul Ahn, Jungwon Choi, Kenneth A Jacobson, Lak Shin Jeong
Potent and selective A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists were identified by the replacement of 4'-oxo- or 4'-thionucleosides with bioisosteric selenium. Unlike previous agonists, 4'-seleno analogues preferred a glycosidic syn conformation and South sugar puckering, as shown in the X-ray crystal structure of 5'-N-methylcarbamoyl derivative 3p. Among the compounds tested, N(6)-3-iodobenzyl analogue 3d was found to be the most potent A3AR full agonist (Ki = 0.57 nM), which was ≥800- and 1900-fold selective for A1AR and A2AAR, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360940/comprehensive-characterization-of-non-cellulosic-recalcitrant-cell-wall-carbohydrates-in-unhydrolyzed-solids-from-afex-pretreated-corn-stover
#20
Christa Gunawan, Saisi Xue, Sivakumar Pattathil, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
BACKGROUND: Inefficient carbohydrate conversion has been an unsolved problem for various lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies, including AFEX, dilute acid, and ionic liquid pretreatments. Previous work has shown 22% of total carbohydrates are typically unconverted, remaining as soluble or insoluble oligomers after hydrolysis (72 h) with excess commercial enzyme loading (20 mg enzymes/g biomass). Nearly one third (7 out of 22%) of these total unconverted carbohydrates are present in unhydrolyzed solid (UHS) residues...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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