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sugar substitutes

Thomas A Torode, Rachel E O'Neill, Susan E Marcus, Valerie Cornuault, Sara Pose-Albacete, Rebecca P Lauder, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maja Gro Rydahl, Mathias C F Andersen, William George Tycho Willats, Siobhan Ariel Braybrook, Belinda J Townsend, Mads H Clausen, J Paul Knox
A major question in plant biology concerns the specification and functional differentiation of cell types. This is in the context of constraints imposed by networks of cell walls that both adhere cells and contribute to the form and function of developing organs. Here, we report the identification of a glycan epitope that is specific to phloem sieve element cell walls in several systems. A monoclonal antibody, designated LM26, binds to the cell wall of phloem sieve elements in stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, Miscanthus x giganteus and notably sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) roots where phloem identification is an important factor for the study of phloem unloading of sucrose...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yuyu Chen, Kaimin Lu, Jianzong Li, Danfeng Liang, Hao Luo, Xiaoyun Wang, Xin Wang, Jinku Bao
The crystal structure of mature Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin (PCL) showed three similar carbohydrate-binding sites (CBS I, CBS II, and CBS III). The Gln58 and Asp60 residues of CBS II are substituted with His58 and Asn60. To establish the relationship between the key amino acid residues and structure or activity of PCL, we constructed four recombinant mutants in CBS I, CBS II, and CBS III. The experimental results indicate that CBS I, CBS III and the disulfide bond play vital roles in the binding with mannose...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Olaf J Schelezki, Paul A Smith, Ana Hranilovic, Keren A Bindon, David W Jeffery
A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sinne Smed, Inge Tetens, Thomas Bøker Lund, Lotte Holm, Annemette Ljungdalh Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe quantitatively the effect over time of unemployment on food purchase behaviour and diet composition. DESIGN: Longitudinal data from 2008-2012, with monthly food purchase data aligned with register data on unemployment measured as a dichotomous indicator as well as a trend accounting for the duration. SETTING: A household panel which registers daily food purchases combined with detailed nutritional information and registration of the duration of unemployment at individual level...
November 8, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak, Anna Harton
BACKGROUND: Children's beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs), children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake. The purpose of the study was to investigate what beverages are typically served to children in preschools in Poland, and to evaluate the practices associated with adding sugar and other sweetening agents to beverages. METHODS: Direct interviews with preschools staff were conducted with a questionnaire regarding offered beverages and adding sugar and other sweetening agents...
October 26, 2017: Nutrients
Kenneth P Lloyd, Ogooluwa A Ojelabi, Julie K De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers
Recent structural studies suggest that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated sugar transport is mediated by an alternating access transporter that successively presents exofacial (e2) and endofacial (e1) substrate-binding sites. Transport studies, however, indicate multiple, interacting (allosteric), and co-existent, exo- and endofacial GLUT1 ligand-binding sites. The present study asks whether these contradictory conclusions result from systematic analytical error or reveal a more fundamental relationship between transporter structure and function...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ana G Ortega-Avila, Angeliki Papadaki, Russell Jago
OBJECTIVE: To explore awareness and perceptions of the sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax implemented in Mexico in 2014 among a sample of Mexican adolescents, and to investigate how the tax has affected their purchases and intake of SSB. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in April-May 2016. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. SUBJECTS: Adolescents residing in north-west Mexico (n 29, 55·2 % females), aged 15-19 years...
October 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Enes Dertli, Ian J Colquhoun, Gregory L Côté, Gwénaëlle Le Gall, Arjan Narbad
Cereal-associated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are well known for homopolymeric exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Herein, the structure of an EPS isolated from sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25 was determined. A modified BHI medium was used for production of EPS-E25 in order to eliminate potential contaminants. Analysis of sugar monomers in EPS revealed that glucose was the only sugar present. Structural characterisation of EPS by NMR and methylation analysis revealed that E25 produced a highly branched α-glucan with (α1→3) and (α1→6) glycosidic linkages, and was similar in structure to a previously reported EPS from Lactobacillus reuteri 180...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
C van Loveren
The call to consume less sugar in order to improve the general health is becoming increasingly loud. The question is in what way consuming less sugar could also contribute to a lower risk of caries. This can be achieved by limiting the frequency of consuming sugary snacks. For oral health reasons, people in the Netherlands are advised not to consume things containing sugar more than four times between meals. Another way to make the diet less cariogenic is to substitute sugar in foods by non-caloric intense sweeteners, caloric sugar alcohols or 'new carbohydrates'...
October 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Maqbool A Siddiqui, Shailesh Ambre, Susan K Keay, Jeffrey M Rhyne, Chen-Ou Zhang, Joseph J Barchi
Glycoamino acid analogues of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen disaccharide, where the 4' and 4″ hydroxyl groups were substituted with fluorine or hydrogen, were synthesized and incorporated into the asialylated antiproliferative factor (as-APF), a biologically active form of APF, a glycopeptide found in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis. Various strategies were employed to incorporate the fluorine atom at the 4-positions of either the galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine unit of the disaccharide antigen, based on stereochemistry and reactivity...
September 30, 2017: ACS Omega
William Copp, Alexey Y Denisov, Jingwei Xie, Anne M Noronha, Christopher Liczner, Nozhat Safaee, Christopher J Wilds, Kalle Gehring
Polyadenylate (poly(A)) has the ability to form a parallel duplex with Hoogsteen adenine:adenine base pairs at low pH or in the presence of ammonium ions. In order to evaluate the potential of this structural motif for nucleic acid-based nanodevices, we characterized the effects on duplex stability of substitutions of the ribose sugar with 2'-deoxyribose, 2'-O-methyl-ribose, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-ribose, arabinose and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-arabinose. Deoxyribose substitutions destabilized the poly(A) duplex both at low pH and in the presence of ammonium ions: no duplex formation could be detected with poly(A) DNA oligomers...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Dorota A Rzechonek, Adam Dobrowolski, Waldemar Rymowicz, Aleksandra M Mirończuk
Erythritol is a natural sweetener commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant, it is an ideal sucrose substitute for diabetics or overweight persons due to its almost zero calorie content. Currently, erythritol is produced on an industrial scale through the fermentation of sugars by some yeasts, such as Moniliella sp. However, the popularity of erythritol as a sweetener is still small because of its high retail price. This creates an opportunity for further process improvement...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Michal Biler, David Biedermann, Kateřina Valentová, Vladimír Křen, Martin Kubala
This study is focused on eight structurally analogous natural flavonoids that exhibit a wide range of biological activities, which are of interest in pharmacy, cosmetics and the food industry. Using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we relate their fundamental physico-chemical properties to the structural motifs, with particular focus on UV/Vis absorption properties and pH dependence. We highlight the role of the C2-C3 double bond, whose presence or absence is responsible for the switch between absorption bands in the UVB and UVA regions, which is rationalized by strong modification of the involved molecular orbitals...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Olof Engström, Hani Mobarak, Jonas Ståhle, Göran Widmalm
Three dimensional shape and conformation of carbohydrates are important factors in molecular recognition events and the N-acetyl group of a monosaccharide residue can function as a conformational gatekeeper whereby it influences the overall shape of the oligosaccharide. NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are used herein to investigate both the conformational preferences and the dynamic behavior of N-acetyl and N-formyl substituents of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-d-galactopyranose, a sugar and substitution pattern found in bacterial O-antigen polysaccharides...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jan J Lyczakowski, Krzysztof B Wicher, Oliver M Terrett, Nuno Faria-Blanc, Xiaolan Yu, David Brown, Kristian B R M Krogh, Paul Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher
BACKGROUND: Plant lignocellulosic biomass can be a source of fermentable sugars for the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The recalcitrance of this plant material is one of the major obstacles in its conversion into sugars. Biomass is primarily composed of secondary cell walls, which is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Xylan, a hemicellulose, binds to the cellulose microfibril and is hypothesised to form an interface between lignin and cellulose. Both softwood and hardwood xylan carry glucuronic acid side branches...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Frank Seela, Xiurong Guo, Peter Leonard, Sachin Asaram Ingale
The stability of silver mediated "dC-dC" base pairs relies not only on the structure of the nucleobase but also is sensitive to structural modification on the sugar moiety. 2'-Fluorinated 2'-deoxycytidines with fluorine atoms in the arabino (up) and the ribo (down) configuration, as well as with geminal fluorine substitution (anticancer drug gemcitabine) and the novel fluorescent phenylpyrrolo-gemcitabine (phPyrGem) were synthesized. All nucleosides display the recognition face of naturally occurring 2'-deoxycytidine...
September 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hua Hang
Difructose anhydride IV (DFA IV) is a cyclic disaccharide consisting of two fructose residues, which is obtained from levan conversion with levan fructotransferase (LFTase) and rarely found in nature as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Some beneficial effects of DFA IV connected with its consumption have been described. The article reviews the properties and physiological functions of DFA IV, levan conversion, resources and properties of LFTase and the produced methods of DFA IV. LFTase as a relatively novel enzyme and its molecular evolution are discussed as well...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Colin D Rehm, Adam Drewnowski
Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk...
September 13, 2017: Nutrients
Eva Ramos-Morales, Gabriel de la Fuente, Robert J Nash, Radek Braganca, Stephane Duval, Marc E Bouillon, Martina Lahmann, C Jamie Newbold
The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved...
2017: PloS One
Bojana Ž Bajić, Damjan G Vučurović, Siniša N Dodić, Jovana A Grahovac, Jelena M Dodić
In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer(®)). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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