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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908664/preference-for-western-diet-coadapts-in-high-runner-mice-and-affects-voluntary-exercise-and-spontaneous-physical-activity-in-a-genotype-dependent-manner
#1
Wendy Acosta, Thomas H Meek, Heidi Schutz, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Theodore Garland
Do animals evolve (coadapt) to choose diets that positively affect their performance abilities? We addressed this question from a microevolutionary perspective by examining preference for Western diet (WD: high in fat and sugar, but lower in protein) versus standard rodent chow in adults of both sexes from 4 lines of mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR lines) and 4 non-selected control (C) lines. We also assessed whether food preference or substitution affects physical activity (wheel running and/or spontaneous physical activity [SPA] in the attached home cages)...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892582/lubrication-of-chocolate-during-oral-processing
#2
S A Rodrigues, N Selway, M P Morgenstern, L Motoi, J R Stokes, B J James
The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested...
November 28, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879638/structural-investigation-of-cell-wall-xylan-polysaccharides-from-the-leaves-of-algerian-argania-spinosa
#3
Kadda Hachem, Céline Faugeron, Meriem Kaid-Harche, Vincent Gloaguen
Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria). Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4)-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS )...
November 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876025/substituting-sugar-confectionery-with-fruit-and-healthy-snacks-at-checkout-a-win-win-strategy-for-consumers-and-food-stores-a-study-on-consumer-attitudes-and-sales-effects-of-a-healthy-supermarket-intervention
#4
Lise L Winkler, Ulla Christensen, Charlotte Glümer, Paul Bloch, Bent E Mikkelsen, Brian Wansink, Ulla Toft
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL); a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. METHODS: Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864169/increasing-the-thermostable-sugar-1-phosphate-nucleotidylyltransferase-activities-of-archaeal-st0452-protein-through-site-saturation-mutagenesis-of-the-97th-amino-acid-position
#5
Yuki Honda, Qian Zang, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Mohammad Dadashipour, Zilian Zhang, Yutaka Kawarabayasi
: The ST0452 protein is a bifunctional protein exhibiting sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase (Sugar-1-P NTase) and amino-sugar-1-phosphate acetyltransferase activities and was isolated from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii Based on the previous observation that five single mutations increased ST0452 Sugar-1-P NTase activity, nine double mutant ST0452 proteins were generated with the intent of obtaining enzymes exhibiting a further increase in catalysis, but all showed less than 15% of the wild-type N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlcNAc-1-P UTase) activity...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864072/racial-and-gender-disparities-in-sugar-consumption-change-efficacy-among-first-year-college-students
#6
Marino A Bruce, Bettina M Beech, Roland J Thorpe, Krista Mincey, Derek M Griffith
Reducing excess dietary sugar intake among emerging adults involves replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sugary snacks (SSN) with healthier options. Few studies have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty associated with making lifestyle modifications among a diverse group of emerging adults. The purpose of this study was to assess race and gender disparities in SSB and SSN behavioral modification efficacy among African American and White first year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen (n = 499) at a medium-sized southern university...
November 15, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860177/sugar-edge-interactions-in-a-dna-rna-g-quadruplex-evidence-of-sequential-c-h%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-o-hydrogen-bonds-contributing-to-rna-quadruplex-folding
#7
Jonathan Dickerhoff, Bettina Appel, Sabine Müller, Klaus Weisz
DNA G-quadruplexes were systematically modified by single riboguanosine (rG) substitutions at anti-dG positions. Circular dichroism and NMR experiments confirmed the conservation of the native quadruplex topology for most of the DNA-RNA hybrid structures. Changes in the C8 NMR chemical shift of guanosines following rG substitution at their 3'-side within the quadruplex core strongly suggest the presence of C8-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen-bonding interactions with the O2' position of the C2'-endo ribonucleotide. A geometric analysis of reported high-resolution structures indicates that such interactions are a more general feature in RNA quadruplexes and may contribute to the observed preference for parallel topologies...
November 21, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831459/an-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-plain-water-intake-and-glycated-hb-hba1c-a-sex-stratified-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-2008-2012
#8
Harriet A Carroll, James A Betts, Laura Johnson
The aim of this study was to analyse the association between plain water intake and glycated Hb (HbA1c) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-2012) rolling survey. These data included diet (4-d diaries) and HbA1c (fasted blood sample) measures of 456 men and 579 women aged 44 (sd 18) years with full information on covariates of interest (age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking status, education, other beverage intake, energy intake and fibre). Data were analysed using sex-stratified linear and logistic regressions modelling the associations of cups per d (240 ml) of plain water with HbA1c, and odds of HbA1c≥5·5 %, respectively...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819136/low-humic-acids-promote-in-vitro-lily-bulblet-enlargement-by-enhancing-roots-growth-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#9
Yun Wu, Yi-Ping Xia, Jia-Ping Zhang, Fang Du, Lin Zhang, Yi-di Ma, Hong Zhou
Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids 'Sorbonne' under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809239/substitution-models-of-water-for-other-beverages-and-the-incidence-of-obesity-and-weight-gain-in-the-sun-cohort
#10
Ujué Fresán, Alfredo Gea, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Miguel A Martínez-Gonzalez
Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them) and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models...
October 31, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806444/engineering-specific-chemical-modification-sites-into-a-collagen-like-protein-from-streptococcus-pyogenes
#11
Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Aditya V Vashi, Jerome A Werkmeister, Geoff J Dumsday, John A M Ramshaw
Recombinant bacterial collagens provide a new opportunity for safe biomedical materials. They are readily expressed in E. coli in good yield and can be readily purified by simple approaches. However, recombinant proteins are limited in that direct secondary modification during expression is generally not easily achieved. Thus, inclusion of unusual amino acids, cyclic peptides, sugars, lipids and other complex functions generally needs to be achieved chemically after synthesis and extraction. In the present study we have illustrated that bacterial collagens that have had their sequences modified to include cysteine residue(s), which are not normally present in bacterial collagen-like sequences, enable a range of specific chemical modification reactions to be produced...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784241/a-review-on-the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-steviol-glycosides-extracted-from-stevia-rebaudiana
#12
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet and nutrient-rich plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside (A to F), steviolbioside, and isosteviol, which are responsible for the plant's sweet taste, and have commercial value all over the world as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and medicines. Among the various steviol glycosides, stevioside, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C are the major metabolites and these compounds are on average 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782395/%C3%AE-stereoselective-mannosylation-using-2-6-lactones
#13
Yusuke Hashimoto, Saki Tanikawa, Ryota Saito, Kaname Sasaki
β-Stereoselective mannosylation using donors bearing the 2,6-lactone moiety is described. In general, glycosylation is a nucleophilic substitution reaction between an alcoholic nucleophile and a sugar moiety containing a leaving group at the anomeric position. Owing to stereoelectronic effects, the reaction tends to proceed via an SN1 mechanism to afford α-glycosides. We found that the introduction of a 2,6-lactone bridge can circumvent the competing SN1 reaction, affording β-glycosides with stereoinversion via SN2(-like) mechanisms...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780868/inter-domain-synergism-is-required-for-efficient-feeding-of-cellulose-chain-into-active-site-of-cellobiohydrolase-cel7a
#14
Riin Kont, Jeppe Kari, Kim Borch, Peter Westh, Priit Väljamäe
Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771009/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-benzenoid-phenylpropanoid-meta-para-o-methyltransferase-from-rauwolfia-serpentina-roots
#15
Brent Wiens, Vincenzo De Luca
The monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, reserpine and rescinnamine contain 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzoate or 3, 4, 5-trimethoxycinnamate, respectively, within their structures and they accumulate in different plant organs and particularly within roots of Rauwolfia serpentina. This plant also accumulates acylated sugars substituted with 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzoate and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxycinnamate. In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analyses of R. serpentina roots allowed the identification of 7 candidate O-methytransferase (OMT) genes that might be associated with the formation of 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzoate and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxycinnamate and led to the molecular cloning of 4 genes for functional expression and analysis...
October 19, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761763/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-new-n-and-s-glycosides-analogues-with-dinitrophenyl-substituted-heterocyclic-bases
#16
Fatima Belkhadem, Adil A Othman
Four N- and S-glycosides 13-16 having nucleobases 7-12 binding to sugar molecules from one side and to 3,5-dinitrophenyl moieties from another side were synthesized from 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid 2. The synthetic intermediates, hydrazide 5 and thiosemicarbazide 6 regarded as important key compounds for the synthesis of nucleobases 7-12, each was obtained by two approaches. Structures of synthesized compounds were determined spectroscopically. Antibacterial activities for synthetic intermediates and glycosides were assessed using the paper disk diffusion method against Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758133/combinations-of-osmolytes-including-monosaccharides-disaccharides-and-sugar-alcohols-act-in-concert-during-cryopreservation-to-improve-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-survival
#17
Kathryn Pollock, Guanglin Yu, Ralph Moller-Trane, Marissa Koran, Peter I Dosa, David H McKenna, Allison Hubel
There is demand for non-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cryoprotective agents that maintain cell viability without causing poor postthaw function or systemic toxicity. The focus of this investigation involves expanding our understanding of multicomponent osmolyte solutions and their ability to preserve cell viability during freezing. Controlled cooling rate freezing, Raman microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to evaluate the differences in recovery and ice crystal formation behavior for solutions containing multiple cryoprotectants, including sugars, sugar alcohols, and small molecule additives...
October 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744696/soluble-dietary-fiber-fractions-in-wheat-bran-and-their-interactions-with-wheat-gluten-have-impacts-on-dough-properties
#18
Qian Li, Rui Liu, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of the SDF fractions were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735113/a-migratory-ether-formation-route-to-medium-sized-sugar-mimetics
#19
Hao Jiang, Li-Ping Xu, Yan Fang, Zhen-Xing Zhang, Zhen Yang, Yong Huang
Polyol-substituted cyclic ethers are fundamental building blocks of biomolecules. The position and stereochemistry of multiple hydroxy substituents of cyclic ethers play a central role in their biological function. Current methods for the synthesis of such structures are limited to "naked" ring products with no or few substituents. Here we describe a general route to medium-sized polyol cyclic ethers using a migratory ether formation strategy. In contrast to the common pathway of direct opening of epoxides, Me3 Al was found to promote an unprecedented ether addition reaction, opening a neighboring epoxide...
October 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729229/bacterial-membrane-binding-and-pore-formation-abilities-of-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-of-fish-lectin
#20
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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