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sugar substitutes

Katherine D Launer-Felty, Scott A Strobel
Cyclic dinucleotides are second messenger molecules produced by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in response to external stimuli. In bacteria, these molecules bind to RNA riboswitches and several protein receptors ultimately leading to phenotypic changes such as biofilm formation, ion transport and secretion of virulence factors. Some cyclic dinucleotide analogs bind differentially to biological receptors and can therefore be used to better understand cyclic dinucleotide mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. However, production of some of these analogs involves lengthy, multistep syntheses...
March 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Qiwei Wang, Chen Ma, Xueyan Li, Xiaofen Wang, Ruixue Rong, Chao Wei, Pingzhu Zhang, Xiaoliu Li
A series of novel, sugar or azasugar modified anthra[1,2-d] imidazole-6,11-dione derivatives, with different side chain were synthesized, using the synthetic route of imidazole cyclization reaction of 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone with various sugar (azasugar)-derived aldehydes, and imidazole cyclization reaction of 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone with chloroacetic acid and then followed by the nucleophilic substitution of N-alkylamino azasugar. Their biological activities against HIV-RT and cytotoxic activities against A549, Hela and MCF-7 cells were preliminary evaluated, most compounds showed similar HIV-RT inhibition to the control drug (AZT)...
February 20, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Pornpimol Phuengmaung, Yuika Kunishige, Wasana Sukhumsirichart, Tatsuji Sakamoto
We previously described thermotolerant Streptomyces sp. SWU10, which produced four endo-xylanases and one xylosidase able to digest xylan backbones. To achieve arabinoxylan degradation, the swu62A gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme, termed SWUAbf62A, was characterized. The 438 amino acids of SWUAbf62A revealed Glyco_hydro_62 and closely related with putative α-l-arabinofuranosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 62. SWUAbf62A was purified in two steps, Ni-affinity and size-exclusion column chromatographies, and its molecular mass without signal peptide was determined to be 49 kDa...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Carmen Lambert, Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Gemma Vilahur, Sergi López-Bernal, Milagros Rocha, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Lina Badimon
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events. The ingestion of high-glycemic index (GI) diets, specially sweetened beverage consumption, has been associated with the development of T2DM and CV disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of the intake of a sweetened beverage, obtained from natural carbohydrates containing pinitol (PEB) compared to a sucrose-enriched beverage (SEB) in the context of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Shan Jin, Yongjun Hu, Pengchao Wang, Huaqi Zhan, Qiao Lu, Fuyi Liu, Liusi Sheng
Water molecules, which serve as both hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, have been found to influence the conformational landscape of gas-phase phenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. Herein, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA), a sugar-like molecule without chromophores (e.g. phenyl-substitution), was used as the model sugar molecule for exploring the behaviour of water molecules on the conformational landscape of a pentose sugar such as deoxyribose. We used mass selected infrared-vacuum ultraviolet (IR-VUV) (118 nm) spectroscopy to investigate the hydrated neutral THFA and its complex cation in a supersonic jet...
February 27, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeremy A Horst, Jason M Tanzer, Peter M Milgrom
We focus on scalable public health interventions that prevent and delay the development of caries and enhance resistance to dental caries lesions. These interventions should occur throughout the life cycle, and need to be age appropriate. Mitigating disease transmission and enhancing resistance are achieved through use of various fluorides, sugar substitutes, mechanical barriers such as pit-and-fissure sealants, and antimicrobials. A key aspect is counseling and other behavioral interventions that are designed to promote use of disease transmission-inhibiting and tooth resistance-enhancing agents...
April 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Jiyun M Moon, David M Aronoff, John A Capra, Patrick Abbot, Antonis Rokas
Sialic acids are nine carbon sugars ubiquitously found on the surfaces of vertebrate cells and are involved in various immune response-related processes. In humans, at least 58 genes spanning diverse functions, from biosynthesis and activation to recycling and degradation, are involved in sialic acid biology. Because of their role in immunity, sialic acid biology genes have been hypothesized to exhibit elevated rates of evolutionary change. Consistent with this hypothesis, several genes involved in sialic acid biology have experienced higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions in the human lineage than their counterparts in other great apes, perhaps in response to ancient pathogens that infected hominins millions of years ago (paleopathogens)...
February 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Joeri Jan Pen, Galina Khorosheva, Ursule Van de Velde, Corinne Debroye, André Huyghebaert, Raoul Rottiers, Bart Keymeulen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sweetening agents are sugar substitutes with a low glycemic index, used to obtain a better glycemic control in diabetes patients. However, they also may have a role in other subjects, as a high glycemic index is thought to cause many pathological conditions. Unfortunately, not all artificial sweeteners are perceived as sweet as sugar by patients. Consumers refer often to an after taste present in foods sweetened with intensive sweeteners. The objective of this study was to explore whether Zùsto® had a low glycemic index, to replace glucose as a sweetener...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Stefania De Luca, Enrica Calce, Valeria Manchise, Michele Saviano, Giuseppe Digilio
An efficient and fast procedure in execution for synthesizing S-linked glycopeptides is reported. It uses activated molecular sieves as a base to promote the selective S-alkylation of readily prepared cysteine-containing peptides, upon reaction of appropriate glycosyl halides. Due to the very mild conditions employed, the chemoselective linkage of the electrophilic sugar with a peptide sulfhydryl group occurred in a satisfactory yield, allowing the incorporation of mono and disaccharide moieties. The sugar-peptide conjugates obtained from α-D-glycosyl derivatives adopt a beta-S-conformation, indicating the high stereoselectivity of the substitution reaction...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lindomar J C Albuquerque, Alex C Alavarse, Maria C Carlan da Silva, Morgana S Zilse, Maitê T Barth, Ismael C Bellettini, Fernando C Giacomelli
The use of sugar-functionalized polyplexes as a nonviral gene delivery vector with lower cytotoxicity than the well-known polymeric carrier branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) is investigated. The substitution of primary amine groups in the BPEI chains with lactose residues leads to larger polyplexes, presumably due to the higher amount of polymer required to complete DNA condensation. Nevertheless, the sugar functionalization substantially reduces the cytotoxicity of the assemblies. The nanocomplexes are taken up by the cells to a greater extent, whereas the levels of gene expression are maintained compared to those obtained using BPEI, which is known for its excellent transfection efficiency...
February 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
S K Totsch, R Y Meir, T L Quinn, S A Lopez, B A Gower, R E Sorge
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. The current study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e., prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e., following an injury). BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jiekun Xuan, Zhen Ren, Tao Qing, Letha Couch, Leming Shi, William H Tolleson, Lei Guo
Leflunomide, an anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has been marked with a black box warning regarding an increased risk of liver injury. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A771726, which also carries a boxed warning about potential hepatotoxicity, has been marketed as teriflunomide for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Thus far, however, the mechanism of liver injury associated with the two drugs has remained elusive. In this study, cytotoxicity assays showed that ATP depletion and subsequent LDH release were induced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by leflunomide in HepG2 cells, and to a lesser extent, by A77 1726...
February 7, 2018: Toxicology
Florent Vieux, Marlene Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is not known whether dietary changes able to simultaneously achieve nutritional adequacy and reduce diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) are similar across Europe when cultural and gender specificities are taken into account. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Starting from each mean observed diet in five European countries (France, UK, Italy, Finland, and Sweden) and for each gender, nutritionally adequate diets departing the least from observed diet were designed with linear programming by applying stepwise 10% GHGE reductions...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tom Grunert, Dijana Jovanovic, Wanchat Sirisarn, Sophia Johler, Christopher Weidenmaier, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Guoqing Xia
Surface carbohydrate moieties are essential for bacterial communication, phage-bacteria and host-pathogen interaction. Most Staphylococcus aureus produce polyribitolphosphate type Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) substituted with α- and/or β-O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (α-/β-O-GlcNAc) residues. GlcNAc modifications have attracted particular interest, as they were shown to govern staphylococcal adhesion to host cells, to promote phage susceptibility conferring beta-lactam resistance and are an important target for antimicrobial agents and vaccines...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Théophile Gaudin, Patricia Rotureau, Isabelle Pezron, Guillaume Fayet
HYPOTHESIS: Surface tension of aqueous solutions of surfactants at their critical micelle concentrations (γCMC), may be quantitatively linked to the surfactant structure using Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR), all other factors held equal (temperature, presence of additive or salts). Thus, QSPR models can allow improved understanding and quantification of structure-γCMC trends, direct γCMC predictions, and finally help to design renewable substitutes for petroleum-based surfactants...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
L Zhan
Dental caries is a disease that results from microbiome dysbiosis with the involvement of multiple cariogenic species, including mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli, Scardovia wiggsiae, and several Actinomyces species that have the cariogenic traits of acid production and acid tolerance. Sugar consumption also plays an important role interacting with microbiome dysbiosis, determining the fate of caries development. In addition, the MS transmission that encompasses multiple sources can have long-term impacts on the oral microbiome and caries development in children...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Lucinda B Leung, Jean Yoon, Lisa V Rubenstein, Edward P Post, Maureen E Metzger, Kenneth B Wells, Catherine A Sugar, José J Escarce
OBJECTIVE: Aiming to foster timely, high-quality mental health care for Veterans, VA's Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) embeds mental health specialists in primary care and promotes care management for depression. PC-MHI and patient-centered medical home providers work together to provide the bulk of mental health care for primary care patients with low-to-moderate-complexity mental health conditions. This study examines whether increasing primary care clinic engagement in PC-MHI services is associated with changes in patient health care utilization and costs...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Dennis R Phillips, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan is a major hemicellulose in both primary walls and secondary walls of grass species. It consists of a linear backbone of β-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Xylosyl substitutions directly on the xylan backbone have not been reported in grass species and genes responsible for xylan substitutions in grass species have not been well elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) GT61 glycosyltransferase, XYXT1 (xylan xylosyltransferase1), for its role in xylan substitutions...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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