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sugar substitutes

Fatima Belkhadem, Adil A Othman
Four N- and S-glycosides 13-16 having nucleobases 7-12 binding to sugar molecules from one side and to 3,5-dinitrophenyl moieties from another side were synthesized from 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid 2. The synthetic intermediates, hydrazide 5 and thiosemicarbazide 6 regarded as important key compounds for the synthesis of nucleobases 7-12, each was obtained by two approaches. Structures of synthesized compounds were determined spectroscopically. Antibacterial activities for synthetic intermediates and glycosides were assessed using the paper disk diffusion method against Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Diversity
Katie Pollock, Guanglin Yu, Ralph Moller-Trane, Marissa Koran, Peter Dosa, David McKenna, Allison Hubel
There is demand for non-DMSO cryoprotective agents that maintain cell viability without causing poor post thaw function or systemic toxicity. The focus of this investigation involves expanding our understanding of multicomponent osmolyte solutions and their ability to preserve cell viability during freezing. Controlled cooling rate freezing, Raman microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to evaluate the differences in recovery and ice crystal formation behavior for solutions containing multiple cryoprotectants including sugars, sugar alcohols, and small molecule additives...
October 19, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Qian Li, Rui Liu, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of the SDF fractions were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hao Jiang, Li-Ping Xu, Yan Fang, Zhen-Xing Zhang, Zhen Yang, Yong Huang
Polyol-substituted cyclic ethers are fundamental building blocks of biomolecules. The position and stereochemistry of multiple hydroxy substituents of cyclic ethers play a central role in their biological function. Current methods for the synthesis of such structures are limited to "naked" ring products with no or few substituents. Here we describe a general route to medium-sized polyol cyclic ethers using a migratory ether formation strategy. In contrast to the common pathway of direct opening of epoxides, Me3 Al was found to promote an unprecedented ether addition reaction, opening a neighboring epoxide...
October 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Nazar Hussain, Madhu Babu Tatina, Faheem Rasool, Debaraj Mukherjee
Sugar enol ethers undergo efficient coupling at C-2 with unactivated cycloalkenes under a low Pd loading affording allylic substitution products. High diastereoselectivity was observed at the allylic centre with sterically hindered substrates. Generation of a π-allyl complex by the Pd(ii) catalyst via cleavage of the allylic C-H bond of the cycloalkene may be responsible for the formation of sp(2)-sp(3) coupling products.
October 10, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Joseph L Baker, Heba Jafri
F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Yijun Yan, Jing Yang, Zhiyin Yu, Mingming Yu, Ya-Tuan Ma, Li Wang, Can Su, Jianying Luo, Geoffrey P Horsman, Sheng-Xiong Huang
The pyridine ring is a potent pharmacophore in alkaloid natural products. Nonetheless, its biosynthetic pathways are poorly understood. Rubrolones A and B are tropolone alkaloid natural products possessing a unique tetra-substituted pyridine moiety. Here, we report the gene cluster and propose a biosynthetic pathway for rubrolones, identifying a key intermediate that accumulates upon inactivation of sugar biosynthetic genes. Critically, this intermediate was converted to the aglycones of rubrolones by non-enzymatic condensation and cyclization with either ammonia or anthranilic acid to generate the respective pyridine rings...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Gabriel Masset, Kevin C Mathias, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Undine Lehmann, Mike Gibney, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 20% of US children and adolescents consume pizza on any given day; and pizza intake is associated with higher intakes of energy, sodium, and saturated fat. The reformulation of pizza products has yet to be evaluated as a viable option to improve diets of the US youth. This study modeled the effect on nutrient intakes of two potential pizza reformulation strategies based on the standards established by the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS)...
2016: PloS One
Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, Youn Young Shim, Martin J T Reaney
A consortium of organisms endemic in wheat-based thin stillage (W-TS) obtained from a commercial ethanol production converts glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and lactic acid to acetic acid. We sought to improve conditions for 1,3-PD and acetic acid production to be used in future studies of industrial isolation of these compounds from two-stage fermentation. Occasionally stillage fermentation proceeded slowly but an inoculum of Lactobacillus panis PM1B augmented both fermentation rate and extent. Fermentation rate and product yield were enhanced by adjusting pH to 5 daily, adding glucose and glycerol (molar ratio 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michael D Sevilla, David Becker, Anil Kumar, Amitava Adhikary
The focus of our laboratory's investigation is to study the direct-type DNA damage mechanisms resulting from γ-ray and ion-beam radiation-induced free radical processes in DNA which lead to molecular damage important to cellular survival. This work compares the results of low LET (γ-) and high LET (ion-beam) radiation to develop a chemical track structure model for ion-beam radiation damage to DNA. Recent studies on protonation states of cytosine cation radicals in the N1-substituted cytosine derivatives in their ground state and 5-methylcytosine cation radicals in ground as well as in excited state are described...
November 2016: Radiation Physics and Chemistry
Ramu Petakamsetty, Anas Ansari, Ramesh Ramapanicker
A concise organocatalytic route toward the synthesis of furanose and pyranose substituted glycine and alanine derivatives is reported. These compounds are core structural units of some of the naturally available antibiotics and antifungal agents. Proline-catalyzed asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes derived from sugars is used as the key reaction to synthesize twelve sugar amino acid derivatives. The asymmetric transformations proceeded in good yields and with good to excellent diastereoselectivity. The application of the synthesized amino acids is demonstrated by synthesizing a tripeptide containing one of them...
September 21, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Muthusamy Sanjivkumar, TamilSelvan Silambarasan, Arunachalam Palavesam, Grasian Immanuel
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the xylanolytic properties of an actinobacterium Streptomyces olivaceus (MSU3) isolated from the sediment sample of mangrove environment. It showed highest xylanase activity on initial screening in Breg's mineral salts medium supplemented with 0.5% xylan. Further the organism expressed maximum xylanase production at optimized culture conditions of pH 7, temperature 30 °C with 2.5% of inoculum size at 72 h of incubation, the nutrient sources like sucrose (2%) and yeast extract (3%) have observed as best carbon and nitrogen sources respectively...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Marie Kubota, Kaoru Takeuchi, Shumpei Watanabe, Shinji Ohno, Rei Matsuoka, Daisuke Kohda, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Yasuo Suzuki, Tetsuo Nakayama, Tohru Terada, Kentaro Shimizu, Nobutaka Shimizu, Mitsunori Shiroishi, Yusuke Yanagi, Takao Hashiguchi
Mumps virus (MuV) remains an important pathogen worldwide, causing epidemic parotitis, orchitis, meningitis, and encephalitis. Here we show that MuV preferentially uses a trisaccharide containing α2,3-linked sialic acid in unbranched sugar chains as a receptor. Crystal structures of the MuV attachment protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuV-HN) alone and in complex with the α2,3-sialylated trisaccharide revealed that in addition to the interaction between the MuV-HN active site residues and sialic acid, other residues, including an aromatic residue, stabilize the third sugar of the trisaccharide...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sharon S Nakhimovsky, Andrea B Feigl, Carlos Avila, Gael O'Sullivan, Elizabeth Macgregor-Skinner, Mark Spranca
BACKGROUND: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3)...
2016: PloS One
Thitiporn Teeravivattanakit, Sirilak Baramee, Paripok Phitsuwan, Rattiya Waeonukul, Patthra Pason, Chakrit Tachaapaikoon, Kazuo Sakka, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai
: The axy43A gene encoding the intracellular trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli Recombinant PcAxy43A consisting of a family 43 glycoside hydrolase and a family 6 carbohydrate-binding module exhibited endo-xylanase, β-xylosidase, and arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase activities. PcAxy43A hydrolyzed xylohexaose and birch wood xylan to release a series of xylooligosaccharides, indicating that PcAxy43A contained endo-xylanase activity...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Rafaela da Silva Andrade, Sabrina Carvalho Bastos, Sandra Bragança Coelho, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro
High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests...
September 13, 2016: Appetite
Suprayogi Suprayogi, Minh T Nguyen, Noppon Lertwattanasakul, Nadchanok Rodrussamee, Savitree Limtong, Tomoyuki Kosaka, Mamoru Yamada
Thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of fermenting various sugars including xylose but glucose represses to hamper the utilization of other sugars. To acquire glucose repression-defective strains, 33 isolates as 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG)-resistant mutants were acquired from about 100 colonies grown on plates containing 2-DOG, which were derived from an efficient strain DMKU 3-1042. According to the characteristics of sugar consumption abilities and cell growth and ethanol accumulation along with cultivation time, they were classified into three groups...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Magdalena Petrová, Ivan Rosenberg
This unit contains detailed synthetic protocols for the preparation of 4'-methoxy 2'-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidite monomers for A, G, C, T, and U. First, 3'-silyl-protected 2'-deoxynucleosides (dNs) are converted in two steps to 4',5'-enol acetates as the key starting compounds. Next, 4'-methoxy dNs are prepared by a one-pot procedure comprising N-iodosuccinimide-promoted methoxylation, hydrolysis, and reduction of the formed intermediates. Finally, 3'-phosphoramidites of 4'-methoxy dNs are obtained by a routine three-step procedure...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Jessica D Bihuniak, Anna Ramos, Tania Huedo-Medina, Heather Hutchins-Wiese, Jane E Kerstetter, Anne M Kenny
BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean-style diet (MedSD) is associated with positive health outcomes, particularly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. It is of interest to assess the feasibility of adherence to a MedSD in a subset of older adults in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of implementing a MedSD intervention in a subset of postmenopausal women living in the United States, and to detect the influence of this dietary pattern on blood lipid levels...
August 25, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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