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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#1
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075556/biosynthesis-of-the-methylthioxylose-capping-motif-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Shiva Kumar Angala, Michael R McNeil, Libin Shi, Maju Joe, Ha Pham, Sophie Zuberogoitia, Jerome Nigou, Claudia M Boot, Todd L Lowary, Martine Gilleron, Mary Jackson
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipoglycan found in abundant quantities in the cell envelope of all mycobacteria. The non-reducing arabinan termini of LAM display species-specific structural micro-heterogeneity that impacts the biological activity of the entire molecule. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for instance, produces mannoside caps made of one to three α(1→2)-Manp-linked residues that may be further substituted with an α(1→4)-linked methylthio-D-xylose (MTX) residue. While the biological functions and catalytic steps leading to the formation of the mannoside caps of M...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046007/substrates-and-inhibitors-of-samhd1
#3
Joseph A Hollenbaugh, Jadd Shelton, Sijia Tao, Sheida Amiralaei, Peng Liu, Xiao Lu, Russell W Goetze, Longhu Zhou, James H Nettles, Raymond F Schinazi, Baek Kim
SAMHD1 hydrolyzes 2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphates (dNTPs) into 2'-deoxynucleosides and inorganic triphosphate products. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of 2' sugar moiety substitution for different nucleotides on being substrates for SAMHD1 and mechanisms of actions for the results. We found that dNTPs ((2'R)-2'-H) are only permissive in the catalytic site of SAMHD1 due to L150 exclusion of (2'R)-2'-F and (2'R)-2'-OH nucleotides. However, arabinose ((2'S)-2'-OH) nucleoside-5'-triphosphates analogs are permissive to bind in the catalytic site and be hydrolyzed by SAMHD1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040392/modifications-of-bordetella-bronchiseptica-core-lipopolysaccharide-influence-immune-response-without-affecting-protective-activity
#4
Federico Sisti, Julieta Fernández, Andrés Cordero, Adriana Casabuono, Alicia Couto, Daniela Hozbor
Bordetella bronchiseptica produces respiratory disease primarily in mammals including humans. Although a considerably amount of research has been generated regarding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) role during infection and stimulating innate and adaptive immune response, mechanisms involved in LPS synthesis are still unknown. In this context we searched in B. bronchiseptica genome for putative glycosyltransferases. We found possible genes codifying for enzymes involved in sugar substitution of the LPS structure. We decided to analyse BB3394 to BB3400 genes, closed to a previously described LPS biosynthetic locus in B...
December 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#5
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003201/effects-of-free-sugars-on-blood-pressure-and-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-nutritional-isoenergetic-intervention-trials
#6
Elena Fattore, Francesca Botta, Carlo Agostoni, Cristina Bosetti
BACKGROUND: Sugar has been suggested as a central risk factor in the development of noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the evidence of the effects of free sugars compared with complex carbohydrates on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials to compare diets that provide a given amount of energy from free sugars with a control diet that provides the same amount of energy from complex carbohydrates...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#7
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997218/inhibition-of-the-gut-enzyme-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-may-explain-how-aspartame-promotes-glucose-intolerance-and-obesity-in-mice
#8
Sarah S Gul, A Rebecca L Hamilton, Alexander R Munoz, Tanit Phupitakphol, Wei Liu, Sanjiv K Hyoju, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sara Morrison, Dong Hu, Weifeng Zhang, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Haizhong Huo, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992898/the-scientific-basis-of-guideline-recommendations-on-sugar-intake-a-systematic-review
#9
Jennifer Erickson, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lyubov Lytvyn, Joanne Slavin, Bradley C Johnston
Background: The relationship between sugar and health is affected by energy balance, macronutrient substitutions, and diet and lifestyle patterns. Several authoritative organizations have issued public health guidelines addressing dietary sugars. Purpose: To systematically review guidelines on sugar intake and assess consistency of recommendations, methodological quality of guidelines, and the quality of evidence supporting each recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science (1995 to September 2016); guideline registries; and gray literature (bibliographies, Google, and experts)...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992562/two-subclasses-of-differentially-expressed-tps1-genes-and-biochemically-active-tps1-proteins-may-contribute-to-sugar-signalling-in-kiwifruit-actinidia-chinensis
#10
Charlotte Voogd, Lara A Brian, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. Four class I TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1) genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. The transcript with highest sequence homology to Arabidopsis TPS1, designated TPS1.1a was the most highly abundant TPS1 transcript in all examined kiwifruit tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990650/phenotypic-characterization-of-qualitative-parameters-and-antioxidant-contents-in-peach-and-nectarine-fruit-and-changes-after-jam-preparation
#11
P Drogoudi, D Gerasopoulos, M Kafkaletou, E Tsantili
BACKGROUND: Sugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars. RESULTS: Pronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range)...
December 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989484/significant-impact-of-divalent-metal-ions-on-the-fidelity-sugar-selectivity-and-drug-incorporation-efficiency-of-human-primpol
#12
E John Tokarsky, Petra C Wallenmeyer, Kenneth K Phi, Zucai Suo
Human PrimPol is a recently discovered bifunctional enzyme that displays DNA template-directed primase and polymerase activities. PrimPol has been implicated in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication fork progression and restart as well as DNA lesion bypass. Published evidence suggests that PrimPol is a Mn(2+)-dependent enzyme as it shows significantly improved primase and polymerase activities when binding Mn(2+), rather than Mg(2+), as a divalent metal ion cofactor. Consistently, our fluorescence anisotropy assays determined that PrimPol binds to a primer/template DNA substrate with affinities of 29 and 979nM in the presence of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively...
November 25, 2016: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987842/synthesis-of-tunable-hydrogels-based-on-o-acetyl-galactoglucomannans-from-spruce
#13
Kajsa Markstedt, Wenyang Xu, Jun Liu, Chunlin Xu, Paul Gatenholm
Hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties based on O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs) from spruce functionalized with tyramine, a molecule containing crosslinkable phenolic groups, were prepared. Gel formation was induced by enzymatic crosslinking at the addition of horse radish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide to the modified GGMs. The degree of substitution determined the hydrogels final properties, and was varied by TEMPO oxidation of GGM to a degree of oxidation from 10 to 60%. GGM and its derivatives were characterized by gas chromatography and high pressure size exclusion chromatography to analyze sugar composition and molar mass, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979302/3-6-anhydro-l-galactose-a-rare-sugar-from-agar-a-new-anticariogenic-sugar-to-replace-xylitol
#14
Eun Ju Yun, Ah Reum Lee, Jung Hyun Kim, Kyung Mun Cho, Kyoung Heon Kim
The significance for anticariogenic sugar substitutes is growing due to increasing demands for dietary sugars and rising concerns of dental caries. Xylitol is widely used as an anticariogenic sugar substitute, but the inhibitory effects of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of tooth decay, are exhibited only at high concentrations. Here, the inhibitory effects of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a rare sugar from red macroalgae, were evaluated on S. mutans, in comparison with those of xylitol. In the presence of 5g/l of AHG, the growth of S...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975142/an-introduction-to-the-sugar-code
#15
EDITORIAL
Hans-Joachim Gabius, Jürgen Roth
Carbohydrates have physiological importance far beyond their roles as source of energy (glycolysis) and activated hydrogen for synthesis (pentosephosphate pathway) or as constituent of the backbone of nucleic acids and of cell wall polysaccharides. The extent of compositional and structural variability of their oligomers (glycans) is unsurpassed in Nature due to the unique property of independently combining the following parameters with sequence: anomeric status, linkage positions, ring size, addition of branches and site-specific introduction of substitutions...
December 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973420/sugar-annulated-oxazoline-ligands-a-novel-pd-ii-complex-and-its-application-in-allylic-substitution
#16
Jochen Kraft, Katharina Mill, Thomas Ziegler
Two novel carbohydrate-derived pyridyl (PYOX)- and cyclopropyl (CYBOX)-substituted oxazoline ligands were prepared from d-glucosamine hydrochloride and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose hydrochloride in two steps, respectively. The sugar-annulated PYOX ligand formed a stable metal complex with Pd(II), which was fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. NMR and X-ray analysis revealed a change of the conformation in the sugar moiety upon complexation with the palladium(II) species...
December 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956472/physician-characteristics-associated-with-sugar-sweetened-beverage-counseling-practices
#17
Brenna K VanFrank, Sohyun Park, Jennifer L Foltz, Lisa C McGuire, Diane M Harris
PURPOSE: Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with chronic disease. Although physician counseling can positively affect patient behavior, physicians' personal characteristics may influence counseling practices. We explored SSB-related topics physicians discuss when counseling overweight/obese patients and examined associations between physicians' SSB-related counseling practices and their personal and medical practice characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey...
December 12, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940539/examination-of-contribution-of-pentose-catabolism-to-molecular-hydrogen-formation-by-targeted-disruption-of-arabinose-isomerase-araa-in-the-hyperthermophilic-bacterium-thermotoga-maritima
#18
Derrick White, Raghuveer Singh, Deepak Rudrappa, Jackie Mateo, Levi Kramer, Laura Freese, Paul Blum
: Thermotoga maritima ferments a broad range of sugars to form acetate, carbon dioxide, traces of lactate and near theoretic yields of molecular hydrogen (H2). In this organism, the catabolism of pentose sugars such as arabinose depends on the interaction between the pentose phosphate pathway along with the Embden Myerhoff and Entner Doudoroff pathways. While values for H2 yield have been determined using pentose supplemented complex media (CM) and predicted by metabolic pathway reconstruction, the actual effect of pathway elimination on hydrogen production has not been reported due to the lack of a genetic method for the creation of targeted mutations...
December 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932477/moss-produced-glycosylation-optimized-human-factor-h-for-therapeutic-application-in-complement-disorders
#19
Stefan Michelfelder, Juliana Parsons, Lennard L Bohlender, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Holger Niederkrüger, Andreas Busch, Nicola Krieghoff, Jonas Koch, Benjamin Fode, Andreas Schaaf, Thomas Frischmuth, Martin Pohl, Peter F Zipfel, Ralf Reski, Eva L Decker, Karsten Häffner
Genetic defects in complement regulatory proteins can lead to severe renal diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathies, and age-related macular degeneration. The majority of the mutations found in patients with these diseases affect the glycoprotein complement factor H, the main regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Therapeutic options are limited, and novel treatments, specifically those targeting alternative pathway activation, are highly desirable...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920887/preliminary-study-on-cost-effective-l-tryptophan-production-from-indole-and-l-serine-by-e-coli-cells
#20
Tahereh Sadeghiyan-Rizi, Jamshid Fooladi, Sima Sadrai
BACKGROUND: L-tryptophan is used widespread in the pharmaceutical industry. The majority of L-Trp production depends on microbial processes that produce L-tryptophan from indole and L-serine. These processes are very costly due to the costs of precursors, especially L-serine. Use of inexpensive substitutions as the L-serine source of L-tryptophan production enables us to reach a cost-effective process. In this paper, effect of Triton X-100 on L-Trp production and the ability to use Iranian cane molasses as inexpensive L-serine source was investigated...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
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