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sugar substitutes

Burak Adnan Erkorkmaz, Onur Kırtel, Özlem Ateş Duru, Ebru Toksoy Öner
Levan polysaccharide is an industrially important natural polymer with unique properties and diverse high-value applications. However, current bottlenecks associated with its large-scale production need to be overcome by innovative approaches leading to economically viable processes. Besides many mesophilic levan producers, halophilic Halomonas smyrnensis cultures hold distinctive industrial potential and, for the first time with this study, the advantage of halophilicity is used and conditions for non-sterile levan production were optimized...
May 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Valerie Pezo, Camille Hassan, Dominique Louis, Bruno Sargueil, Piet Herdewijn, Philippe Marliere
We report the design and elaboration of a selection protocol for importing a canonical substrate of DNA polymerase, thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) in Escherichia coli. Bacterial strains whose growth depend on dTTP uptake, through the action of an algal plastid transporter expressed from a synthetic gene inserted in the chromosome, were constructed and shown to withstand the simultaneous loss of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase. Such thyA tdk dual deletant strains provide an experimental model of tight nutritional containment for preventing dissemination of microbial GMOs...
May 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Adele Alagia, Andreia F Jorge, Anna Aviñó, Tânia F G G Cova, Ramon Crehuet, Santiago Grijalvo, Alberto A C C Pais, Ramon Eritja
The understanding of the dynamical and mechanistic aspects that lie behind siRNA-based gene regulation is a requisite to boost the performance of siRNA therapeutics. A systematic experimental and computational study on the 3'-overhang structural requirements for the design of more specific and potent siRNA molecules was carried out using nucleotide analogues differing in structural parameters, such as sugar constraint, lack of nucleobase, distance between the phosphodiester backbone and nucleobase, enantioselectivity, and steric hindrance...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Kartik Temburnikar, Katherine L Seley-Radtke
C-nucleosides have intrigued biologists and medicinal chemists since their discovery in 1950's. In that regard, C-nucleosides and their synthetic analogues have resulted in promising leads in drug design. Concurrently, advances in chemical syntheses have contributed to structural diversity and drug discovery efforts. Convergent and modular approaches to synthesis have garnered much attention in this regard. Among them nucleophilic substitution at C1' has seen wide applications providing flexibility in synthesis, good yields, the ability to maneuver stereochemistry as well as to incorporate structural modifications...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Jenny Arnling Bååth, Antonio Martínez-Abad, Jennie Berglund, Johan Larsbrink, Francisco Vilaplana, Lisbeth Olsson
Background: Galactoglucomannan (GGM) is the most abundant hemicellulose in softwood, and consists of a backbone of mannose and glucose units, decorated with galactose and acetyl moieties. GGM can be hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars, or used as a polymer in films, gels, and food additives. Endo -β-mannanases, which can be found in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 26, specifically cleave the mannan backbone of GGM into shorter oligosaccharides. Information on the activity and specificity of different mannanases on complex and acetylated substrates is still lacking...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Olaf J Schelezki, Katja Šuklje, Paul K Boss, David W Jeffery
This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo
In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders...
April 12, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Hui Mei, Jen-Yu Liao, Randi M Jimenez, Yajun Wang, Saikat Bala, Cailen McCloskey, Christopher Switzer, John C Chaput
In vitro selection experiments carried out on artificial genetic polymers require robust and faithful methods for copying genetic information back and forth between DNA and xeno-nucleic acids (XNA). Previously, we have shown that Kod-RI, an engineered polymerase developed to transcribe DNA templates into threose nucleic acid (TNA), can function with high fidelity in the absence of manganese ions. However, the transcriptional efficiency of this enzyme diminishes greatly when individual templates are replaced with libraries of DNA sequences, indicating that manganese ions are still required for in vitro selection...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alida Musatti, Chiara Mapelli, Manuela Rollini, Roberto Foschino, Claudia Picozzi
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening probably because it only ferments glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are scarcely present in flour. However, through alcoholic fermentation, similarly to S. cerevisiae , it provides an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO₂ that can rise a dough...
April 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Tian Li, Nan Liu, Xianjin Ou, Xuebing Zhao, Feng Qi, Jianzhong Huang, Dehua Liu
Background: Cellulose accessibility to cellulases (CAC) is a direct factor determining the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic cellulose. Improving CAC by pretreatment is a prerequisite step for the efficient release of fermentable sugars from biomass cell wall. However, conventional methods to study the porosimetry of solid materials showed some limitations to be used for investigating CAC. In this work, an updated novel fusion protein comprising a fungal cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Cel7A cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) of Trichoderma reesei QM6 and a di-green fluorescent protein (GFP2 ) was constructed for quantitative determination of CAC...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yichen Zhong, Amy H Auchincloss, Brian K Lee, Genevieve P Kanter
INTRODUCTION: On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. METHODS: A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Libo Zhang, Wenxiu Zheng, Ziming Wang, Yubo Ma, Ling Jiang, Tianfu Wang
The aim of this work was to study the degradation of lignin in raw wood via pretreatment with heteropoly acids as substitutes for traditional H2 SO4 in γ-valerolactone/water. By optimizing catalyst concentration, reaction time and temperature, the optimal lignin degradation conditions are obtained (130 °C, 3 h and 20 mM silicotungstic acid). SEM and FTIR measurements demonstrated the efficient lignin degradation ability of HPAs in the GVL/H2 O solvent, with negligible damage to cellulose within the raw wood...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zhuo A Wang, Lucy X Li, Tamara L Doering
Fungal pathogens cause devastating infections in millions of individuals each year, representing a huge but underappreciated burden on human health. One of these, the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, kills hundreds of thousands of patients annually, disproportionately affecting people in resource-limited areas. This yeast is distinguished from other pathogenic fungi by a polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface. The capsule consists of two complex polysaccharide polymers: a mannan substituted with xylose and glucuronic acid, and a galactan with galactomannan side chains that bear variable amounts of glucuronic acid and xylose...
April 10, 2018: Glycobiology
Weili Gong, Lin Dai, Huaiqiang Zhang, Lili Zhang, Lushan Wang
Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger . This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger , we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secreted proteins, sugar transporters, and intracellular proteins of A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Putu Virgina Partha Devanthi, Robert Linforth, Hani El Kadri, Konstantinos Gkatzionis
This study investigated the application of water-oil-water (W1 /O/W2 ) double emulsions (DE) for yeast encapsulation and sequential inoculation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation with reduced NaCl and/or substitution with KCl. Z. rouxii and T. halophilus were incorporated in the internal W1 and external W2 phase of DE, respectively. NaCl reduction and substitution promoted T. halophilus growth to 8.88 log CFU/mL, accompanied with faster sugar depletion and enhanced lactic acid production...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
He-Xin-Ge Zhang, Bing-Zhao Du, Feng Zhao, Xin-Yao Yang, Shun-Gang Jiao, Jian-Yong Xing, Zheng-Zhou Han, Peng-Fei Tu, Xing-Yun Chai
Three new triterpenoid saponins, namely asprellinoids A-C (1-3), featuring a sulfate substitution in sugar moiety, were isolated from the stems of Ilex asprella (Hook. et Arn.) Champ. ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by the spectroscopic data analyses including HR-ESI-MS, IR, and NMR spectra, and chemical method.
March 27, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Anna Pennacchio, Valeria Ventorino, Donatella Cimini, Olimpia Pepe, Chiara Schiraldi, Michela Inverso, Vincenza Faraco
The enzymatic extracellular mixtures of two new microorganisms - Streptomyces flavogriseus AE64X and AE63X - isolated from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra and producing cellulase and xylanase, were characterized and applied to hydrolysis of pretreated Arundo donax, Populus nigra and Panicum virgatum (10% w/v) replacing the commercial enzymes Accelerase 1500 and Accelerase XY (5.4 and 145 U/g of pretreated biomass, respectively). It is worth of noting that the newly developed extracellular enzymatic mixtures, without any purification step and at the same dosage, presented saccharification yields that are higher (86% for S...
March 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Natalie Ben Abu, Daniel Harries, Hillary Voet, Masha Y Niv
Dramatic increase in NaCl consumption lead to sodium intake beyond health guidelines. KCl substitution helps reduce sodium intake but results in a bitter-metallic off-taste. Two disaccharides, trehalose and sucrose, were tested in order to untangle the chemical (increase in effective concentration of KCl due to sugar addition) from the sensory effects. The bitter-metallic taste of KCl was reduced by these sugars, while saltiness was enhanced or unaltered. The perceived sweetness of sugar, regardless of its type and concentration, was an important factor in KCl taste modulation...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jeannine Steinmeyer, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Mathilde A Bichelberger, Violetta Schneider, Tomáš Kubař, Franziska Rönicke, Bettina Olshausen, Karin Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Ute Schepers, Marcus Elstner, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby enable a dual color fluorescence readout (red/green) for hybridization. Three different structural variations were carried out and compared by their optical properties, including (i) the base surrogate approach with an acyclic linker as a substitute of the 2-deoxyriboside between the phosphodiester bridges, (ii) the 2'-modification of conventional ribofuranosides and (iii) the arabino-configured 2'-modification...
March 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Fereshteh Alaei, Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy, Seyyed Majid Hashemi Dehkordi
Due to its high thermal resistance and compatibility with the sausage emulsion system, the long-chain inulin can be used as a fat substitute in the formulation of this product. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken sausages. The study included treatments of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution. After preparing the samples, their physicochemical, textural, calorimetric, and sensory properties were evaluated. The treatment of 100% substitution of inulin had the maximum amount of sugar (29...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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