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sugar substitutes

Lucinda B Leung, Jean Yoon, Lisa V Rubenstein, Edward P Post, Maureen E Metzger, Kenneth B Wells, Catherine A Sugar, José J Escarce
OBJECTIVE: Aiming to foster timely, high-quality mental health care for Veterans, VA's Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) embeds mental health specialists in primary care and promotes care management for depression. PC-MHI and patient-centered medical home providers work together to provide the bulk of mental health care for primary care patients with low-to-moderate-complexity mental health conditions. This study examines whether increasing primary care clinic engagement in PC-MHI services is associated with changes in patient health care utilization and costs...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Ruiqin Zhong, Dongtao Cui, Dennis R Phillips, Zheng-Hua Ye
Xylan is a major hemicellulose in both primary walls and secondary walls of grass species. It consists of a linear backbone of β-1,4-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with monosaccharides and disaccharides. Xylosyl substitutions directly on the xylan backbone have not been reported in grass species and genes responsible for xylan substitutions in grass species have not been well elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) GT61 glycosyltransferase, XYXT1 (xylan xylosyltransferase1), for its role in xylan substitutions...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
E Paul Cherniack, Natalie Buslach, Heather F Lee
Caffeinated beverages, most commonly tea and coffee, may have important effects on insulin regulation that may give their consumption an important role among nutritional factors in the development of diseases of glucose and insulin metabolism, such as diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. These beverages include compounds that may have contradictory effects on insulin and glucose: Caffeine impairs insulin sensitivity, but polyphenolic molecules within tea, coffee, and cocoa augment the effects of insulin...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Morgann C Reilly, Joonhoon Kim, Jed Lynn, Blake A Simmons, John M Gladden, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker
Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Biao Yu
Naturally occurring glycans and glycoconjugates have extremely diverse structures and biological functions. Syntheses of these molecules and their artificial mimics, which have attracted the interest of those developing new therapeutic agents, rely on glycosylation methodologies to construct the various glycosidic linkages. In this regard, a wide array of glycosylation methods have been developed, and they mainly involve the substitution of a leaving group on the anomeric carbon of a glycosyl donor with an acceptor (a nucleophile) under the action of a particular promoter (usually a stoichiometric electrophile)...
January 3, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
LaQuia A Vinson, Amy K Goodlett, Ruijie Huang, George J Eckert, Richard L Gregory
PURPOSE: Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. METHODS: S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Dentistry for Children
Nanhai Zhang, Zongcai Tu, Hui Wang, Guangxian Liu, Zhenxing Wang, Tao Huang, Xu Qin, Xing Xie, A'mei Wang
Ultrasonication is an emerging technology applied in food processing and biological experimental pretreatments. Cavitation phenomena induced during ultrasonic treatment can generate localized high temperature and pressure, which can result in glycation reaction between protein and reducing sugars. In this study, the mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and D-ribose was treated under 600 W for different times. Interestingly, a large amount of carbonized black materials appeared after ultrasonication, while the UV absorbance and intrinsic fluorescence spectra reflecting conformational changes were not obvious...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hui Zhao, Zhuwen Wei, Zhiyan Jiang, Sumei Li, Yixian Liao, Yiming Guo, Yongmei Tang, Weihao Chen, Guohua Zhong, Gaopeng Song
Oligosaccharides have been used for an environmentally friendly insect control in the agricultural industry. In order to discover novel eco-friendly pesticides, a series of partially acetylated oligorhamnoses mezzettiasides, 2-8, and their analogues, 9-14, with biosurfactant characteristics were designed and synthesized, some of which exhibited comparable to or even stronger aphicidal activity than pymetrozine. Preliminary SAR studies demonstrated that the aphicidal activity of mezzettiasides analogs is highly dependent on their structures, including both the sugar length and the substitutes on the sugar...
December 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiangmei Zhao, Dongying Wang, Lijie Qin, Xianzhi Yang, Chuanyu Gao
The polysaccharide fractions were obtained from flower buds of the four substitutes of Lonicera japonica, L. macranthoides (LMPB), L. hypoglauca (LHPB), L. fulvotomentosa (LFPB) and L. confuse (LCPB), and their hypoglycemic effects were investigated. In study, streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were orally administrated once daily with LMPB, LHPB, LFPB and LCPB (each 800 mg/kg) for 42 days. Reduction for food and water intake (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) and levels of sugar and insulin (p < 0...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dongliang Guan, Feifei Chen, Lun Xiong, Feng Tang, Faridoon Faridoon, Yunguang Qiu, Naixia Zhang, Likun Gong, Jian Li, Lefu Lan, Wei Huang
Lipophilic substitution on vancomycin is an effective strategy for development of novel vancomycin analogues against drug-resistant bacteria by enhancing bacterial cell wall interaction. However, hydrophobic structures usually led to long elimination half-life and accumulative toxicity, therefore hydrophilic fragments were also introduced to the lipo-vancomycin to regulate their PK/PD properties. Here, we synthesized a series of new vancomycin analogues carrying various sugar moieties on the 7th-amino acid phenyl ring and lipophilic substitutions on vancosamine with extensive SAR analysis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jiangfeng Huang, Ying Li, Yanting Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Mingyong Liu, Youmei Wang, Ran Zhang, Shiguang Zhou, Jingyang Li, Yuanyuan Tu, Bo Hao, Liangcai Peng, Tao Xia
Background: The genetic modification of plant cell walls has been considered to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance in bioenergy crops. As a result, it is important to develop a precise and rapid assay for the major wall polymer features that affect biomass saccharification in a large population of transgenic plants. In this study, we collected a total of 246 transgenic rice plants that, respectively, over-expressed and RNAi silenced 12 genes of the OsGH9 and OsGH10 family that are closely associated with cellulose and hemicellulose modification...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marilyn Tseng, Dawn B Neill, Stephanie F Teaford, Aydin Nazmi
OBJECTIVE: Compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium in the US Department of Agriculture sample menu with a version in which menu items were replaced with comparable ultra-processed foods. DESIGN AND SETTING: The authors modified 7 days of a US Department of Agriculture sample menu providing approximately 2,000 kcal/d by replacing foods with comparable ultra-processed alternatives and then visited 2 chain supermarkets in San Luis Obispo, CA (August, 2016) to locate shopping list items for the 2 menu versions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Shonoi A Ming, Ebony Cottman-Thomas, Natalee C Black, Yi Chen, Vamsee Veeramachineni, Dwight C Peterson, Xi Chen, Lauren M Tedaldi, Gerd K Wagner, Chao Cai, Robert J Linhardt, Willie F Vann
Neisseria meningitidis Group X is an emerging cause of bacterial meningitis in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The capsular polysaccharide of Group X is a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine α(1-4) phosphate and is a vaccine target for prevention of disease associated with this meningococcal serogroup. We have demonstrated previously that the formation of the polymer is catalyzed by a phosphotransferase which transfers N- acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to the 4- hydroxyl of the N-acetylglucosamine on the non-reducing end of the growing chain...
December 8, 2017: Glycobiology
Concetta De Santi, Osman Absm Gani, Ronny Helland, Adele Williamson
The family 15 carbohydrate esterase (CE15) MZ0003, which derives from a marine Arctic metagenome, has a broader substrate scope than other members of this family. Here we report the crystal structure of MZ0003, which reveals that residues comprising the catalytic triad differ from previously-characterized fungal homologs, and resolves three large loop regions that are unique to this bacterial sub-clade. The catalytic triad of the bacterial CE15, which includes Asp 332 as its third member, closely resembles that of family 1 carbohydrate esterases (CE1), despite the overall lower structural similarity with members of this family...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shi Yan, Jorick Vanbeselaere, Florian Wöls, Chunsheng Jin, Markus Blaukopf, Iain B H Wilson, Katharina Paschinger
Despite years of research, the glycome of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is still not fully understood. Certainly, data over the years have indicated that this organism synthesises unusual N-glycans with a range of galactose and fucose modifications on the Man2-3GlcNAc2 core region. Previously, up to four fucose residues were detected on its N-glycans, despite these lacking the fucosylated antennae typical of many other eukaryotes; some of these fucose residues are capped with hexose residues as shown by the studies of us and others...
November 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tomoko Maehara, Haruka Yagi, Tomoko Sato, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Zui Fujimoto, Kei Kamino, Yoshiaki Kitamura, Franz St John, Katsuro Yaoi, Satoshi Kaneko
Endoxylanases are important enzymes in bioenergy research because they specifically hydrolyze xylan, the predominant polysaccharide in the hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic biomass. For effective biomass utilization, it is important to understand the mechanism of substrate recognition by these enzymes. Recent studies have shown that the substrate specificity of bacterial and fungal endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 (GH30) were quite different. While the functional differences have been described the mechanism of substrate recognition is still unknown...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiaoling Zhao, Kai Luo, Yue Zhang, Zehui Zheng, Yafan Cai, Boting Wen, Zongjun Cui, Xiaofen Wang
In order to improve the methane yield, the alkaline and biological pretreatments on anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. Three treatments were tested: NaOH, biological (enzyme and fungi), and combined NaOH with biological. The maximum reducing sugar concentrations were obtained using Enzyme T (2.20 mg/mL) on the 6th day. The methane yield of NaOH + Enzyme A was 300.85 mL/g TS, 20.24% higher than the control. Methane yield obtained from Enzyme (T + A) and Enzyme T pretreatments were 277...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Hannah Menday, Bruce Neal, Jason H Y Wu, Michelle Crino, Surinder Baines, Kristina S Petersen
BACKGROUND: The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. DESIGN: This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610)...
December 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Joanna M Watt, Richard Graeff, Mark P Thomas, Barry V L Potter
The multifunctional, transmembrane glycoprotein human CD38 catalyses the synthesis of three key Ca(2+)-mobilising messengers, including cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cADPR), and CD38 knockout studies have revealed the relevance of the related signalling pathways to disease. To generate inhibitors of CD38 by total synthesis, analogues based on the cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cIDPR) template were synthesised. In the first example of a sugar hybrid cIDPR analogue, "L-cIDPR", the natural "northern" N1-linked D-ribose of cADPR was replaced by L-ribose...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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