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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193207/a-novel-point-mutation-in-rpob-improves-osmotolerance-and-succinic-acid-production-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Mengyong Xiao, Xinna Zhu, Hongtao Xu, Jinlei Tang, Ru Liu, Changhao Bi, Feiyu Fan, Xueli Zhang
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli suffer from osmotic stress during succinic acid (SA) production, which reduces the performance of this microbial factory. RESULTS: Here, we report that a point mutation leading to a single amino acid change (D654Y) within the β-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RpoB) significantly improved the osmotolerance of E. coli. Importation of the D654Y mutation of RpoB into the parental strain, Suc-T110, increased cell growth and SA production by more than 40% compared to that of the control under high glucose osmolality...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192727/ecotoxicological-assessments-show-sucralose-and-fluoxetine-affect-the-aquatic-plant-lemna-minor
#2
Cherisse Amy-Sagers, Keith Reinhardt, Danelle M Larson
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188667/chronic-condition-as-a-mediator-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-cognition-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-moderating-role-of-sex
#3
Hui Foh Foong, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Rahimah Ibrahim, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Suzana Shahar
AIM: Metabolic syndrome and chronic conditions are significant predictors of cognition; however, few studies have examined how they work together in predicting cognition in old age. Therefore, the present study examines whether a chronic condition mediates the association between metabolic syndrome and cognition. In addition, it discusses the moderating role of sex in the relationships between metabolic syndrome, chronic conditions and cognition. METHODS: Secondary analysis was carried out of data from the Malaysian national survey that involved 2322 community residents aged 60 years or older in Peninsular Malaysia...
February 11, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183287/price-elasticity-of-the-demand-for-soft-drinks-other-sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-energy-dense-food-in-chile
#4
Carlos M Guerrero-López, Mishel Unar-Munguía, M Arantxa Colchero
BACKGROUND: Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. METHODS: We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods...
February 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160110/brettanomyces-acidodurans-sp-nov-a-new-acetic-acid-producing-yeast-species-from-olive-oil
#5
Gábor Péter, Dénes Dlauchy, Andrea Tóbiás, László Fülöp, Martina Podgoršek, Neža Čadež
Two yeast strains representing a hitherto undescribed yeast species were isolated from olive oil and spoiled olive oil originating from Spain and Israel, respectively. Both strains are strong acetic acid producers, equipped with considerable tolerance to acetic acid. The cultures are not short-lived. Cellobiose is fermented as well as several other sugars. The sequences of their large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain are very divergent from the sequences available in the GenBank. They differ from the closest hit, Brettanomyces naardenensis by about 27%, mainly substitutions...
February 3, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155810/fungal-enzymes-and-yeasts-for-conversion-of-plant-biomass-to-bioenergy-and-high-value-products
#6
Lene Lange
Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126702/stevia-based-sweeteners-as-a-promising-alternative-to-table-sugar-the-effect-on-listeria-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-typhimurium-growth-dynamics
#7
María M Lobete, Maria Baka, Estefanía Noriega, Etienne Jooken, Annick Monballiu, Sam de Beurme, Boudewijn Meesschaert, Jan F Van Impe
Sugar is commonly substituted with stevia-based products in food industry and in our daily-life. This substitution results in a change in food product characteristic formula and properties that may affect the growth dynamics of food pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. This work studies the effect of table sugar (TS), laboratory sucrose (LS), commercial stevia (St) and steviol glycosides (SG) on the growth dynamics of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Experiments were carried out in general and minimal culture media at 3 equivalent concentration levels in terms of sweetness intensity (TS and LS at 3, 9 and 15% (w/v); St at 0...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111895/distortion-of-the-ligand-molecule-as-a-strategy-for-modulating-binding-affinity-further-studies-involving-complexes-of-jacalin-with-%C3%AE-substituted-disaccharides
#8
K V Abhinav, Kaushal Sharma, A Surolia, Mamannamana Vijayan
Crystal structures of jacalin in complex with GlcNAc β-(1,3) Gal-β-OMe and Gal β-(1,3) Gal-β-OMe have been determined. The binding of the ligands to jacalin is similar to that of analogous α-substituted disaccharides. However, the β-substituted β-(1,3) linked disaccharides get distorted at the anomeric center and the glycosidic linkage. The distortion results in higher internal energies of the ligands leading to lower affinity to the lectin. This confirms the possibility of using ligand distortion as a strategy for modulating binding affinity...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#9
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075556/biosynthesis-of-the-methylthioxylose-capping-motif-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Shiva Kumar Angala, Michael R McNeil, Libin Shi, Maju Joe, Ha Pham, Sophie Zuberogoitia, Jérôme Nigou, Claudia M Boot, Todd L Lowary, Martine Gilleron, Mary Jackson
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipoglycan found in abundant quantities in the cell envelope of all mycobacteria. The nonreducing arabinan termini of LAM display species-specific structural microheterogeneity that impacts the biological activity of the entire molecule. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for instance, produces mannoside caps made of one to three α-(1 → 2)-Manp-linked residues that may be further substituted with an α-(1 → 4)-linked methylthio-d-xylose (MTX) residue. While the biological functions and catalytic steps leading to the formation of the mannoside caps of M...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046007/substrates-and-inhibitors-of-samhd1
#11
Joseph A Hollenbaugh, Jadd Shelton, Sijia Tao, Sheida Amiralaei, Peng Liu, Xiao Lu, Russell W Goetze, Longhu Zhou, James H Nettles, Raymond F Schinazi, Baek Kim
SAMHD1 hydrolyzes 2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphates (dNTPs) into 2'-deoxynucleosides and inorganic triphosphate products. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of 2' sugar moiety substitution for different nucleotides on being substrates for SAMHD1 and mechanisms of actions for the results. We found that dNTPs ((2'R)-2'-H) are only permissive in the catalytic site of SAMHD1 due to L150 exclusion of (2'R)-2'-F and (2'R)-2'-OH nucleotides. However, arabinose ((2'S)-2'-OH) nucleoside-5'-triphosphates analogs are permissive to bind in the catalytic site and be hydrolyzed by SAMHD1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040392/modifications-of-bordetella-bronchiseptica-core-lipopolysaccharide-influence-immune-response-without-affecting-protective-activity
#12
Federico Sisti, Julieta Fernández, Andrés Cordero, Adriana Casabuono, Alicia Couto, Daniela Hozbor
Bordetella bronchiseptica produces respiratory disease primarily in mammals including humans. Although a considerably amount of research has been generated regarding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) role during infection and stimulating innate and adaptive immune response, mechanisms involved in LPS synthesis are still unknown. In this context we searched in B. bronchiseptica genome for putative glycosyltransferases. We found possible genes codifying for enzymes involved in sugar substitution of the LPS structure. We decided to analyse BB3394 to BB3400 genes, closed to a previously described LPS biosynthetic locus in B...
December 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#13
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003201/effects-of-free-sugars-on-blood-pressure-and-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-nutritional-isoenergetic-intervention-trials
#14
Elena Fattore, Francesca Botta, Carlo Agostoni, Cristina Bosetti
BACKGROUND: Sugar has been suggested as a central risk factor in the development of noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the evidence of the effects of free sugars compared with complex carbohydrates on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials to compare diets that provide a given amount of energy from free sugars with a control diet that provides the same amount of energy from complex carbohydrates...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#15
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997218/inhibition-of-the-gut-enzyme-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-may-explain-how-aspartame-promotes-glucose-intolerance-and-obesity-in-mice
#16
Sarah S Gul, A Rebecca L Hamilton, Alexander R Munoz, Tanit Phupitakphol, Wei Liu, Sanjiv K Hyoju, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Sara Morrison, Dong Hu, Weifeng Zhang, Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Haizhong Huo, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992898/the-scientific-basis-of-guideline-recommendations-on-sugar-intake-a-systematic-review
#17
Jennifer Erickson, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lyubov Lytvyn, Joanne Slavin, Bradley C Johnston
Background: The relationship between sugar and health is affected by energy balance, macronutrient substitutions, and diet and lifestyle patterns. Several authoritative organizations have issued public health guidelines addressing dietary sugars. Purpose: To systematically review guidelines on sugar intake and assess consistency of recommendations, methodological quality of guidelines, and the quality of evidence supporting each recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science (1995 to September 2016); guideline registries; and gray literature (bibliographies, Google, and experts)...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992562/two-subclasses-of-differentially-expressed-tps1-genes-and-biochemically-active-tps1-proteins-may-contribute-to-sugar-signalling-in-kiwifruit-actinidia-chinensis
#18
Charlotte Voogd, Lara A Brian, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. Four class I TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1) genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. The transcript with highest sequence homology to Arabidopsis TPS1, designated TPS1.1a was the most highly abundant TPS1 transcript in all examined kiwifruit tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990650/phenotypic-characterization-of-qualitative-parameters-and-antioxidant-contents-in-peach-and-nectarine-fruit-and-changes-after-jam-preparation
#19
P Drogoudi, D Gerasopoulos, M Kafkaletou, E Tsantili
BACKGROUND: Sugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars. RESULTS: Pronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range)...
December 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989484/significant-impact-of-divalent-metal-ions-on-the-fidelity-sugar-selectivity-and-drug-incorporation-efficiency-of-human-primpol
#20
E John Tokarsky, Petra C Wallenmeyer, Kenneth K Phi, Zucai Suo
Human PrimPol is a recently discovered bifunctional enzyme that displays DNA template-directed primase and polymerase activities. PrimPol has been implicated in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication fork progression and restart as well as DNA lesion bypass. Published evidence suggests that PrimPol is a Mn(2+)-dependent enzyme as it shows significantly improved primase and polymerase activities when binding Mn(2+), rather than Mg(2+), as a divalent metal ion cofactor. Consistently, our fluorescence anisotropy assays determined that PrimPol binds to a primer/template DNA substrate with affinities of 29 and 979nM in the presence of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively...
November 25, 2016: DNA Repair
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