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artificial sweeteners

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214853/chronic-consumption-of-artificial-sweetener-in-packets-or-tablets-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-evidence-from-the-e3n-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-study
#1
Guy Fagherazzi, Gaëlle Gusto, Aurélie Affret, Francesca Romana Mancini, Courtney Dow, Beverley Balkau, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Fabrice Bonnet, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
BACKGROUND: The influence of artificial sweeteners on metabolic diseases is controversial. Artificially sweetened beverages have been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) but biases and reverse causation have been suspected to have influenced the observed association. In addition, it has been suggested that investigation into the relationship between the frequency and duration of the consumption of packet or tablet artificial sweeteners and T2D risk is necessary...
February 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#2
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208093/oxidative-transformation-of-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-by-permanganate-reaction-kinetics-transformation-products-and-pathways-and-ecotoxicity
#3
Kai Yin, Fei Li, Ying Wang, Qunying He, Yongxiu Deng, Shuo Chen, Chengbin Liu
Acesulfame has attracted much attention due to its wide application, environmental persistence and potential safety risk of transformation products (TPs). Little information is known on acesulfame transformation in the presence of oxidants/disinfectants. The acesulfame oxidation by permanganate (Mn(VII)) in water under environmentally relevant conditions was systematically evaluated. The pH of water showed negligible influence in acesulfame oxidation. Inorganic ligand (pyrophosphate) exhibited insignificant effect whereas organic ligands (oxalate, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, and humic acid) exerted obvious suppression on acesulfame oxidation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198207/neurophysiological-symptoms-and-aspartame-what-is-the-connection
#4
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Yeong Yeh Lee
Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity...
February 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192727/ecotoxicological-assessments-show-sucralose-and-fluoxetine-affect-the-aquatic-plant-lemna-minor
#5
Cherisse Amy-Sagers, Keith Reinhardt, Danelle M Larson
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179381/consumption-of-artificial-sweeteners-in-pregnancy-increased-overweight-risk-in-infants
#6
Fahimeda Ali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133510/investigation-of-the-regulatory-effects-of-saccharin-on-cytochrome-p450s-in-male-icr-mice
#7
Jun Hyeon Jo, Sunjoo Kim, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Saccharin, the first artificial sweetener, was discovered in 1879 that do not have any calories and is approximately 200~700 times sweeter than sugar. Saccharin was the most common domestically produced sweetener in Korea in 2010, and it has been used as an alternative to sugar in many products. The interaction between artificial sweeteners and drugs may affect the drug metabolism in patients with diabetes, cancer, and liver damage, this interaction has not been clarified thus far. Here, we examined the effects of the potential saccharin-drug interaction on the activities of 5 cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in male ICR mice; further, we examined the effects of saccharin (4,000 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion after pretreatment of mice with saccharin for 7 days and after concomitant administration of bupropion and saccharin...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131587/reducing-gut-effects-from-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-dairy-calves-through-prophylactic-glucagon-like-peptide-2-therapy-or-feeding-of-an-artificial-sweetener
#8
E E Connor, E H Wall, D M Bravo, C M Evock-Clover, T H Elsasser, R L Baldwin, M Santín, B T Vinyard, S Kahl, M P Walker
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) therapy was shown previously to reduce inflammation-related gut damage from coccidiosis in dairy calves, and feeding of artificial sweetener stimulates GLP-2 secretion from intestinal L cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GLP-2 treatment or artificial sweetener feeding beginning 1 wk before an experimental inoculation with the coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum can reduce infection-related intestinal damage in Holstein bull calves. Newborn calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 6 calves each, including noninfected control calves injected s...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131539/acetylation-and-deacetylation-for-sucralose-preparation-by-a-newly-isolated-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-wzs01
#9
Jie Sun, Liang Chen, Bo Lou, Yanbing Bai, Xinjun Yu, Man Zhao, Zhao Wang
Sucralose is a non-nutritive artificial sweetener used in a broad range of foods and beverages. In the present study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WZS01 was isolated, identified, and used as a catalyst both in regioselective acylation and deacetylation for sucralose preparation. Bacterial cells were immobilized on polyurethane foam and utilized to synthesize sucrose-6-acetate regioselectively. The yield of sucrose-6-acetate was >95% with 60 mM sucrose after 22 h of reaction. Free cells could hydrolyze 75 mM sucralose-6-acetate to produce sucralose with >99% yield after 24 h of reaction...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118493/anticonvulsant-effect-of-sodium-cyclamate-and-propylparaben-on-ptz-induced-seizures-in-zebrafish
#10
Antonella Pisera-Fuster, Sofía Otero, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Ramón Bernabeu
Screening for novel anticonvulsant drugs requires appropriate animal seizure models. Zebrafish provide small, accessible and cost-efficient preclinical models applicable to high-throughput small molecule screening. Based in previous results in rodents, we have here examined the effects of artificial sweetener sodium cyclamate and antimicrobial agent sodium propylparaben on a model of PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. Sodium cyclamate reduced the bursts of hyperactivity, the spasms, increased the latency to spasms and the latency to seizure, while propylparaben increased the latency to spasms...
January 24, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113123/disruption-of-gel-phase-lipid-packing-efficiency-by-sucralose-studied-with-merocyanine-540
#11
Morgan Barker, Anthony Kennedy
Sucralose, an artificial sweetener, displays very different behavior towards membranes than its synthetic precursor sucrose. The impact of both sugars on model dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine model membranes was investigated using absorbance and flourescence spectroscopy and the membrane probe merocyanine 540. This probe molecule is highly sensitive to changes in membrane packing, microviscosity and polarity. This work focuses on the impact of sugars on the outer leaflet of unilamellar dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine model membranes...
January 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112866/sweetened-beverage-intake-in-association-to-energy-and-sugar-consumption-and-cardiometabolic-markers-in-children
#12
P Seferidi, C Millett, A A Laverty
BACKGROUND: Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. METHODS: One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109547/removal-and-attenuation-of-sewage-effluent-combined-tracer-signals-of-phosphorus-caffeine-and-saccharin-in-soil
#13
Samia Richards, Paul J A Withers, Eric Paterson, Colin W McRoberts, Marc Stutter
Contaminants in septic tank effluent (STE) are expected to be removed by the soil system before discharging to the environment. However, potential contaminants such as phosphorus (P), caffeine and artificial sweeteners do find their way to watercourses impacting aquatic eco systems. In this study, the attenuation of STE P, caffeine and saccharin were investigated in untreated soil and in soil with reduced microbial activity, in aqueous solutions and in the complex matrix of STE. Time series sorption and desorption experiments using batch equilibrium and a column experiment of STE P attenuation were conducted...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#14
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
: Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#15
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074617/soft-drink-intake-and-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Aditya Narain, Chun Shing Kwok, Mamas A Mamas
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063296/biodegradation-of-the-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-in-biological-wastewater-treatment-and-sandfilters
#17
Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Marco Scheurer, Karsten Nödler, Manoj Schulz, Thomas A Ternes
A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes...
March 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045913/artificially-sweetened-beverages-and-the-response-to-the-global-obesity-crisis
#18
Maria Carolina Borges, Maria Laura Louzada, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Anthony A Laverty, Diana C Parra, Josefa Maria Fellegger Garzillo, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Christopher Millett
Christopher Millett and colleagues argue that artificially sweetened beverages should not be promoted as part of a healthy diet.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042657/the-influence-of-mixers-containing-artificial-sweetener-or-different-doses-of-carbohydrate-on-breath-alcohol-responses-in-females
#19
Cassie Smith, Peter John Herzig, Andrew Davey, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Breath alcohol responses may be affected by the presence of carbohydrate (CHO) in a beverage. This study investigated the impact of consuming alcohol with mixers containing various doses of CHO or an artificial sweetener on breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), ratings of intoxication and impairment, and cognitive performance in females. METHODS: Twenty-six females (age 25.1 ± 0.7 years, mean ± standard deviation) completed a crossover study involving 4 trials...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039831/oxidative-degradation-of-emerging-micropollutant-acesulfame-in-aqueous-matrices-by-uva-induced-h2o2-fe-2-and-s2o8-2-fe-2-processes
#20
Eneliis Kattel, Marina Trapido, Niina Dulova
In the present study, UVA/H2O2/Fe(2+) and UVA/S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+) processes were applied to degrade the artificial sweetener, acesulfame (ACE) in ultrapure water (UW), groundwater (GW), and secondary effluent (WW). The degradation time and mineralization of 75 μM of ACE determined the efficacy of the procedures. The results indicated that the UVA-induced H2O2/Fe(2+) and S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+) systems are a promising alternative for the removal of ACE from different aqueous matrices as both studied processes completely degraded the target compound at an ACE/oxidant/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 1/10/1 and pH 3...
December 22, 2016: Chemosphere
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