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artificial sweeteners

Ande Rostvall, Wen Zhang, Wiebke Dürig, Gunno Renman, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens, Pablo Gago-Ferrero
This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Avshalom Leibowitz, Ariel Bier, Mayan Gilboa, Edna Peleg, Iris Barshack, Ehud Grossman
Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS) may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac) (0.1 mg/mL) placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg) levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Hue T Nguyen, Phong K Thai, Sarit L Kaserzon, Jake W O'Brien, Geoff Eaglesham, Jochen F Mueller
Wastewater samples were collected at the influent and effluent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and then pooled to daily samples over multiple days using 6 hourly grab samples. The aim was to provide a first assessment of the occurrence, consumption, removal and release of a range of organic chemicals including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), illicit drugs, an artificial sweetener, tobacco and its metabolites and alcohol biomarkers (referred to here as DPCPBs)...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhi Yu, Sylvia H Ley, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu, Vasanti S Malik
Few studies have evaluated the relationships between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and intermediate biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. Associations between artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juice with cardiometabolic biomarkers are also unclear. We investigated habitual SSB, ASB and fruit juice intake in relation to biomarkers of hepatic function, lipid metabolism, inflammation and glucose metabolism. We analysed cross-sectional data from 8492 participants in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of diabetes and CVD...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Anton Kaufmann, Mirjam Widmer, Kathryn Maden, Patrick Butcher, Stephan Walker
A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Anukrati Goel, Kishore Gajula, Rakesh Gupta, Beena Rai
Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models appear to be an ideal tool for quick screening of promising candidates from a vast library of molecules, which can then be further designed, synthesized and tested using a combination of rigorous first principle simulations, such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and experiments. In this study, QSAR models have been built with an extensive dataset of 487 compounds to predict the sweetness potency relative to sucrose (ranging 0.2-220,000)...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Luana Silva Monteiro, Bruna Kulik Hassan, Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues, Edna Massae Yokoo, Rosely Sichieri, Rosangela Alves Pereira
The study aimed to describe the use of table sugar and artificial sweeteners (AS) in Brazil. A representative sample ( n = 32,749) of individuals aged > 10 years was examined from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey (2008-2009). Participants reported whether they use table sugar, AS, both, or none as sweeteners for their foods and beverages. Energy intake and the contribution of selected food groups to energy intake were evaluated according to the type of sweetener reported. Sample weights and design effects were considered in the analysis...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Shaoli Li, Jinju Geng, Gang Wu, Xingsheng Gao, Yingying Fu, Hongqiang Ren
Concern is growing over contamination of the environment with artificial sweeteners (ASWs) because of their widespread existence in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To evaluate ASWs removal and the effect on activated sludge, acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC) were introduced individually or in mixture to sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) in environmentally relevant concentrations (100 ppb) for 100 days. Comparisons between ACE removal in a full-scale WWTP and in lab-scale SBRs were conducted...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Allison M Hodge, Julie K Bassett, Roger L Milne, Dallas R English, Graham G Giles
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks...
February 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Stefanie Kahl, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Jaime Nivala, Manfred van Afferden, Thorsten Reemtsma
The persistence of acesulfame (ACE) in wastewater treatment (and subsequently the aquatic environment) has led to its use as a marker substance for wastewater input into surface water and groundwater. However, ACE degradation of >85% during summer and autumn was observed in nine German wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Annual removal performance was more stable in larger plants, enhanced by low biological oxygen demand and impeded by water temperatures below 10 °C. Literature data suggest that the potential to degrade ACE emerged in WWTPs around the year 2010...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Joeri Jan Pen, Galina Khorosheva, Ursule Van de Velde, Corinne Debroye, André Huyghebaert, Raoul Rottiers, Bart Keymeulen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sweetening agents are sugar substitutes with a low glycemic index, used to obtain a better glycemic control in diabetes patients. However, they also may have a role in other subjects, as a high glycemic index is thought to cause many pathological conditions. Unfortunately, not all artificial sweeteners are perceived as sweet as sugar by patients. Consumers refer often to an after taste present in foods sweetened with intensive sweeteners. The objective of this study was to explore whether Zùsto® had a low glycemic index, to replace glucose as a sweetener...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Daisuke Ibi, Fumika Suzuki, Masayuki Hiramatsu
People preferably take zero or low-calorie beverages and foods with artificial sweeteners even though it has been recently suggested that long-term artificial sweetener use affects physiological functions. In addition, a lower body weight was considered to be more healthful, but an abnormally low body weight caused by an excessive diet has been reported to cause health problems. Acesulfame potassium (AceK) is one of the most commonly used for foods and beverages because of its resistance to thermal degradation and marked sweetness...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Vikas Purohit, Sundeep Mishra
Artificial sweeteners are thought to be beneficial for diabetics or obese where refined sugar can be a problem. These low-calorie sweeteners are seemingly safe to use, provide sweetness without calories, and provide a choice of sweet foods to those who otherwise cannot partake them (refined sugars). However, while artificial sweeteners may indeed restrict calories most of them have no beneficial effects on control of diabetes mellitus; rather possibly increase its risk. Additionally, there could be some other safety concerns possibly risk of cancer...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Liang Chi, Xiaoming Bian, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Yunjia Lai, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Although artificial sweeteners are widely used in food industry, their effects on human health remain a controversy. It is known that the gut microbiota plays a key role in human metabolism and recent studies indicated that some artificial sweeteners such as saccharin could perturb gut microbiome and further affect host health, such as inducing glucose intolerance. Neotame is a relatively new low-caloric and high-intensity artificial sweetener, approved by FDA in 2002. However, the specific effects of neotame on gut bacteria are still unknown...
February 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daniel Koester, Benjamin Wolbert, Marcel Schulte, Maik A Jochmann, Torsten Claus Schmidt
The sugar replacement compound xylitol has gained increasing attention due to its use in many commercial food products, dental hygiene articles and pharmaceuticals. It can be classified by the origin of the raw material used for the production. The traditional "birch xylitol" is considered a premium product in contrast to xylitol produced from agriculture byproducts such as corn husks or sugar cane straw. Bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA) as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) by LC-IRMS for chewing gum extracts was used to determine δ13C isotope signatures for xylitol...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sam LaMagna, Kerstin Olsson, Deena Warshaw, Gabriela Fazilov, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Richard J Bodnar
Murine genetic variance affects sucrose's ability to condition flavor preferences (CFP) relative to saccharin. Whereas BALB/c mice display robust sucrose- and fructose-CFP, C57BL/6 mice only display sucrose-CFP. Prior exposure to sucrose or saccharin solutions alters subsequent food choice responsiveness. The present study examined whether pre-exposure for one month to 10% sucrose or 0.2% saccharin altered subsequent sucrose-CFP in male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Two weeks later, food-restricted mice were exposed to 10 CFP training trials with uniquely flavored 16% sucrose and 0...
February 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ngoc Han Tran, Martin Reinhard, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and artificial sweeteners, are recognized as new classes of water contaminants due to their proven or potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This review provides comprehensive data on the occurrence of 60 emerging contaminants (ECs) in influent, treated effluent, sludge, and biosolids in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In particular, data on the occurrence of ECs in the influents and effluents of WWTPs are systematically summarized and categorized according to geographical regions (Asia, Europe, and North America)...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
Martha Tamez, Adriana Monge, Ruy López-Ridaura, Guy Fagherazzi, Sabina Rinaldi, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Elsa Yunes, Isabelle Romieu, Martin Lajous
Background: Soda intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of diet sodas, often considered healthy alternatives to sodas, could also increase the likelihood of cardiovascular outcomes. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relation between soda and diet soda and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 825 Mexican women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and for whom serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), C-peptide, adiponectin, and leptin were available...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Harry L Taylor, Ching-Lin Wu, Yung-Chih Chen, Pin-Ging Wang, Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise is thought to play a key role in increased post-exercise insulin action. However, the effects of replacing carbohydrate utilized during exercise on postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity are yet to be determined. This study therefore isolated the extent to which the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise are dependent on the carbohydrate deficit induced by exercise, relative to other exercise-mediated mechanisms. Fourteen healthy adults performed a 90-min run at 70% V ˙ O 2 max starting at 1600-1700 h before ingesting either a non-caloric artificially-sweetened placebo solution (CHO-DEFICIT) or a 15% carbohydrate solution (CHO-REPLACE; 221...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
Kathrine Bolt-Evensen, Frøydis N Vik, Tonje Holte Stea, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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