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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106207/natural-sweetener-agave-inhibits-gastric-emptying-in-rats-by-a-cholecystokinin-2-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#1
E Bihter Gürler, Dilek Özbeyli, Hülya Buzcu, Sezin Bayraktar, İrem Carus, Beyza Dağ, Yasemin Geriş, Seda Jeral, Berrak Ç Yeğen
Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12...
January 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#2
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051308/a-review-of-the-analytical-methods-used-in-the-quality-control-of-honey
#3
Consuelo Pita-Calvo, María Esther Guerra-Rodriguez, Manuel Vazquez
Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by bees (Apis mellifera). In this work, the main parameters used in routine quality control of honey and the most commonly used analytical methods for their determination were reviewed. Honey can be adulterated with cheaper sweeteners or in an indirect way feeding the bees with sugars. Therefore, methods for detecting and quantifying adulteration are necessary. Chromatographic techniques are widely used in honey analysis. More recently, techniques such as Raman, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with chemometric data processing have been proposed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034739/behavioral-evidence-that-select-carbohydrate-stimuli-activate-t1r-independent-receptor-mechanisms
#4
Alan C Spector, Lindsey A Schier
Three decades ago Tony Sclafani proposed the existence of a polysaccharide taste quality that was distinguishable from the taste generated by common sweeteners and that it was mediated by a separate receptor mechanism. Since that time, evidence has accumulated, including psychophysical studies conducted in our laboratory, buttressing this hypothesis. The use of knockout (KO) mice that lack functional T1R2 + T1R3 heterodimers, the principal taste receptor for sugars and other sweeteners, have been especially informative in this regard...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027980/assessment-of-the-carcinogenic-potential-of-high-intense-sweeteners-through-the-test-for-detection-of-epithelial-tumor-clones-warts-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Mirley Alves Vasconcelos, Priscila Capelari Orsolin, Rosiane Gomes Silva-Oliveira, Júlio César Nepomuceno, Mário Antônio Spanó
High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0...
December 24, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019698/novel-product-specificity-toward-erlose-and-panose-exhibited-by-multi-site-engineered-mutants-of-amylosucrase
#6
Alizée Vergès, Emmanuelle Cambon, Sophie Barbe, Claire Moulis, Magali Remaud-Siméon, Isabelle André
A computer-aided engineering approach recently enabled to deeply reshape the active site of N. polysaccharea amylosucrase for recognition of non-natural acceptor substrates. Libraries of variants were constructed and screened on sucrose allowing the identification of 17 mutants able to synthesize molecules from sole sucrose, which are not synthesized by the parental wild-type enzyme. Three of the isolated mutants as well as the new products synthesized were characterized in details. Mutants contain between 7 and 11 mutations in the active site and the new molecules were identified as being a sucrose derivative, named erlose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-Fructose), and a new malto-oligosaccharide named panose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-Glucose)...
December 26, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979110/sweetness-prediction-of-natural-compounds
#7
Jean-Baptiste Chéron, Iuri Casciuc, Jérôme Golebiowski, Serge Antonczak, Sébastien Fiorucci
Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol(-1)...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976186/liquorice-as-a-feed-additive-a-health-promoting-natural-sweetener
#8
T Kaschubek, E Mayer, G Schatzmayr, K Teichmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956737/effects-of-aspartame-monk-fruit-stevia-and-sucrose-sweetened-beverages-on-postprandial-glucose-insulin-and-energy-intake
#9
S L Tey, N B Salleh, J Henry, C G Forde
BackgroundSubstituting sweeteners with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) may aid in glycaemic control and body weight management. Limited studies have investigated energy compensation, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to artificial and natural NNS.ObjectivesThis study compared the effects of consuming NNS (artificial vs. natural) and sucrose (65 g) on energy intake, blood glucose and insulin responses.MethodsThirty healthy males took part in this randomised, crossover study with four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, Stevia-, and sucrose-sweetened beverages...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925212/sucrose-replacement-in-high-ratio-white-layer-cakes
#10
Rebecca A Miller, Orelia E Dann, Amanda R Oakley, Megan E Angermayer, Katherine H Brackebusch
BACKGROUND: Several commercially available alternative sweeteners have potential in reducing the caloric content of baked products. Sugar alcohols and natural sweeteners have similar bulk as sucrose and can replace sucrose directly. High intensity sweeteners have high potency but light weight so bulking agents are often added. This study determined alternative sweeteners and combinations of alternative sweetener and a bulking agent that produced good quality white layer cakes. RESULTS: Cakes made with maltitol were acceptable but erythritol and fructose produced undesirable cakes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#11
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862504/assignment-of-sugar-arrangement-in-branched-steviol-glycosides-using-esi-qtof-ms-ms
#12
Wilmer H Perera, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan, James D McChesney
RATIONALE: Steviol glycosides with an ent-kaurene core are being used in the Food Industry as non-caloric sweeteners. These compounds are chemically similar in terms of sugar types and sugar arrangements. In order to assign sugar positions, we describe herein, the dissociation pattern for steviol glycosides under varying collision energies. METHODS: Steviol glycosides (1 mg/mL, 2 μL) were automatically injected into the mass spectrometer by direct infusion using a 100-well tray autosampler...
November 8, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848976/tea-induced-calmness-sugar-sweetened-tea-calms-consumers-exposed-to-acute-stressor
#13
Shilpa S Samant, Katherine Wilkes, Zephania Odek, Han-Seok Seo
The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821754/the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-the-nonsugar-high-intensity-sweetener-mogroside-v-from-siraitia-grosvenorii
#14
Maxim Itkin, Rachel Davidovich-Rikanati, Shahar Cohen, Vitaly Portnoy, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Elad Oren, Shiri Freilich, Galil Tzuri, Nadine Baranes, Shmuel Shen, Marina Petreikov, Rotem Sertchook, Shifra Ben-Dor, Hugo Gottlieb, Alvaro Hernandez, David R Nelson, Harry S Paris, Yaakov Tadmor, Yosef Burger, Efraim Lewinsohn, Nurit Katzir, Arthur Schaffer
The consumption of sweeteners, natural as well as synthetic sugars, is implicated in an array of modern-day health problems. Therefore, natural nonsugar sweeteners are of increasing interest. We identify here the biosynthetic pathway of the sweet triterpenoid glycoside mogroside V, which has a sweetening strength of 250 times that of sucrose and is derived from mature fruit of luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii, monk fruit). A whole-genome sequencing of Siraitia, leading to a preliminary draft of the genome, was combined with an extensive transcriptomic analysis of developing fruit...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797642/sweetened-soft-drinks-consumption-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#15
Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Maria Del Carmen B Molina, Isabela M Benseñor, Leticia O Cardoso, Maria de Jesus M Fonseca, Alexandra D Moreira, Taísa Sabrina S Pereira, Sandhi M Barreto
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788518/association-between-type-amount-and-pattern-of-carbohydrate-consumption-with-dental-caries-in-12-year-olds-in-puerto-rico
#16
Cristina Palacios, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Evangelia Morou-Bermúdez, Alina M Colon, Roxana Y Torres, Augusto R Elías-Boneta
OBJECTIVE: To identify the types, food sources, and pattern of carbohydrates that significantly contribute to dental caries in Puerto Rican children. METHODS: As part of an island-wide cross-sectional oral health study in 1,587 twelve-year-olds, diet intake was assessed in a representative subset (n = 801) with a 24-hour dietary recall. Carbohydrate intake was quantified using a computer-based diet analysis program. Caries was assessed using the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria...
2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776614/stevia-preferences-in-wistar-rats
#17
Paula Núñez Martínez, Juan Argüelles Luis, Carmen Perillán Méndez
BACKGROUND: The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals...
November 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775193/draft-genome-assembly-and-annotation-of-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-a-medicinal-legume
#18
Keiichi Mochida, Tetsuya Sakurai, Hikaru Seki, Takuhiro Yoshida, Kotaro Takahagi, Satoru Sawai, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito
Chinese liquorice/licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a leguminous plant species whose roots and rhizomes have been widely used as a herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Whole-genome sequencing is essential for gene discovery studies and molecular breeding in liquorice. Here, we report a draft assembly of the approximately 379-Mb whole-genome sequence of strain 308-19 of G. uralensis; this assembly contains 34 445 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses suggested well-conserved genomic components and collinearity of gene loci (synteny) between the genome of liquorice and those of other legumes such as Medicago and chickpea...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735864/dietary-intake-of-trans-fatty-acids-in-children-aged-4-5-in-spain-the-inma-cohort-study
#19
Alexander Scholz, Daniel Gimenez-Monzo, Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz, Manuela Garcia-de-la-Hera, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Adonina Tardon, Loreto Santa Marina, Amaia Irazabal, Dora Romaguera, Mònica Guxens, Jordi Julvez, Sabrina Llop, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Jesus Vioque
Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4-5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642557/gene-transcription-and-steviol-glycoside-accumulation-in-stevia-rebaudiana-under-polyethylene-glycol-induced-drought-stress-in-greenhouse-cultivation
#20
Shokoofeh Hajihashemi, Jan M C Geuns
Stevia rebaudiana is a sweet herb of the Astraceae family, which is cultivated for the natural sweeteners it contains. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of drought, simulated by the application of polyethylene glycol (5%, 10%, and 15% w/v), on the content of steviol glycosides (SVglys) and transcription levels of six genes involved in the biosynthesis of these natural sweeteners. The transcription levels of ent-kaurene synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase, ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, and three UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases, UGT85C2,UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 were downregulated under polyethylene glycol treatment...
September 2016: FEBS Open Bio
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