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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216620/physicochemical-stability-of-an-oral-suspension-of-trimethoprim-20-mg-ml-in-combination-with-sulfadiazine-200-mg-ml-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#1
Richard A Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibacterial agent that, like sulfonamides, inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis, but at a different stage in the metabolic pathway. It has a similar spectrum of activity to the sulfonamides and is given by mouth or by injection, either alone or in conjunction with a sulfonamide, such as sulfadiazine. Sulfadiazine is a bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. The combination of the two drugs produces a synergistic effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, by inhibiting enzymes in the folic acid pathways, which in turn inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis...
September 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196787/erythritol-as-sweetener-wherefrom-and-whereto
#2
REVIEW
K Regnat, R L Mach, A R Mach-Aigner
Erythritol is a naturally abundant sweetener gaining more and more importance especially within the food industry. It is widely used as sweetener in calorie-reduced food, candies, or bakery products. In research focusing on sugar alternatives, erythritol is a key issue due to its, compared to other polyols, challenging production. It cannot be chemically synthesized in a commercially worthwhile way resulting in a switch to biotechnological production. In this area, research efforts have been made to improve concentration, productivity, and yield...
December 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191092/plant-derived-isoprenoid-sweeteners-recent-progress-in-biosynthetic-gene-discovery-and-perspectives-on-microbial-production
#3
Hikaru Seki, Keita Tamura, Toshiya Muranaka
Increased public awareness of negative health effects associated with excess sugar consumption has triggered increasing interest in plant-derived natural sweeteners. Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides contained in the leaves of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). Mogrosides, extracted from monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), are a group of cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides. Glycyrrhizin is an oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza plants (licorice)...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190370/best-practices-for-using-natural-experiments-to-evaluate-retail-food-and-beverage-policies-and-interventions
#4
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Anna H Grummon, Sheila Fleischhacker, Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Lucia Leone, Caitlin Eicher Caspi
Policy and programmatic change in the food retail setting, including excise taxes on beverages with added-caloric sweeteners, new supermarkets in food deserts, and voluntary corporate pledges, often require the use of natural experimental evaluation for impact evaluation when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Although natural experimental studies in the food retail setting provide important opportunities to test how nonrandomized interventions affect behavioral and health outcomes, researchers face several key challenges to maintaining strong internal and external validity when conducting these studies...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186927/estimating-free-and-added-sugar-intakes-in-new-zealand
#5
Rachael Kibblewhite, Alice Nettleton, Rachael McLean, Jillian Haszard, Elizabeth Fleming, Devonia Kruimer, Lisa Te Morenga
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170966/a-capture-selex-strategy-for-multiplexed-selection-of-rna-aptamers-against-small-molecules
#6
Lasse H Lauridsen, Holger B Doessing, Katherine S Long, Alex T Nielsen
In vitro selection of aptamers that recognize small organic molecules has proven difficult, in part due to the challenge of immobilizing small molecules on solid supports for SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment). This study describes the implementation of RNA Capture-SELEX, a selection strategy that uses an RNA library to yield ligand-responsive RNA aptamers targeting small organic molecules in solution. To demonstrate the power of this method we selected several aptamers with specificity towards either the natural sweetener rebaudioside A or the food-coloring agent carminic acid...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132732/the-role-of-artificial-and-natural-sweeteners-in-reducing-the-consumption-of-table-sugar-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131629/enzymatic-synthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-theanderose-through-transfructosylation-reaction-catalyzed-by-levansucrase-from-bacillus-subtilis-cect-39
#8
Laura Ruiz-Aceituno, Maria Luz Sanz, Blanca de Las Rivas, Rosario Muñoz, Sofia Kolida, Maria Luisa Jimeno, F Javier Moreno
This work addresses the high-yield and fast enzymatic production of theanderose, a naturally-occurring carbohydrate, also known as isomaltosucrose, whose chemical structure determined by NMR is α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranose. The ability of isomaltose to act as an acceptor in the Bacillus subtilis CECT 39 levansucrase-catalyzed transfructosylation reaction to efficiently produce theanderose in the presence of sucrose as a donor is described by using four different sucrose:isomaltose concentration ratios...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127847/effect-of-sucralose-on-the-enzyme-kinetics-of-invertase-using-real-time-nmr-spectroscopy-and-progress-curve-analysis
#9
Cheenou Her, Jaideep Singh, V V Krishnan
Sucralose, a derivative of sucrose, is widely used in noncaloric artificial sweeteners (NAS). Contrary to the belief that sucralose is physiologically inert and a healthy alternative sweetener to natural sugar, emerging studies indicate that sucralose alters the host metabolism as well as the composition of the microbiome. In this manuscript, we use real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to demonstrate that sucralose alters the enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose. The real-time NMR progress curve analysis suggests that sucralose has the characteristic of a competitive inhibitor on the kinetics of the enzymatic process...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099817/effectiveness-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-taxes-to-reduce-obesity-evidence-based-policy-brief
#10
Josefina Bascuñán, Cristóbal Cuadrado
The high prevalence of obesity in Chile, along with the increasing consumption of sugary drinks in the country, has made apparent the need to propose fiscal measures, through taxes on specific foods, as a complementary alternative to approach this problem. Since 2014, an additional 5% increase in the tax on sugar-sweetened nonalcoholic beverages has been in effect in Chile, an amount that may be insufficient to produce an impact on obesity levels. The evidence of the effectiveness of fiscal measures upon sugary beverages, in terms of price modification, generally reflects a high transfer of the tax to the final consumers, which is variable according to local conditions...
October 25, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038317/change-in-non-alcoholic-beverage-sales-following-a-10-pence-levy-on-sugar-sweetened-beverages-within-a-national-chain-of-restaurants-in-the-uk-interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-a-natural-experiment
#11
Laura Cornelsen, Oliver T Mytton, Jean Adams, Antonio Gasparrini, Dalia Iskander, Cecile Knai, Mark Petticrew, Courtney Scott, Richard Smith, Claire Thompson, Martin White, Steven Cummins
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages in Jamie's Italian, a national chain of commercial restaurants in the UK, following the introduction of a £0.10 per-beverage levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and supporting activity including beverage menu redesign, new products and establishment of a children's health fund from levy proceeds. METHODS: We used an interrupted time series design to quantify changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages 12 weeks and 6 months after implementation of the levy, using itemised electronic point of sale data...
November 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018785/regulation-of-inflammation-by-sucrose-isomer-turanose-in-raw-264-7-cells
#12
Joo-Yeon Chung, Yoo-Sun Kim, Yuri Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo
Increased sugar consumption has been proposed to be a risk factor for obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of turanose in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Turanose (3-O-α-D-glucosyl-D-fructose), an isomer of sucrose, naturally exists in honey. For these studies, macrophages were treated with total glucose (Glu), 50% Glu/50% turanose (T50), 25% Glu/75% turanose (T75), and 100% turanose (T100), each with a total concentration of 25 mM in cell media...
September 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993555/complete-chloroplast-genome-and-45s-nrdna-sequences-of-the-medicinal-plant-species-glycyrrhiza-glabra-and-glycyrrhiza-uralensis
#13
Sang-Ho Kang, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyun Oh Lee, Byoung Ohg Ahn, So Youn Won, Seong-Han Sohn, Jung Sun Kim
Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively...
October 6, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987582/rheological-and-sensory-performance-of-a-protein-based-sweetener-mnei-sucrose-and-aspartame-in-yogurt
#14
Nicoletta A Miele, Erliza K Cabisidan, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Serena Leone, Paolo Masi, Rossella Di Monaco, Silvana Cavella
Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970510/identification-of-isoliquiritigenin-as-an-activator-that-stimulates-the-enzymatic-production-of-glycyrrhetinic-acid-monoglucuronide
#15
Xiaoxue Wang, Dong Wang, Yixin Huo, Dazhang Dai, Chihua Li, Chun Li, Guiyan Liu
Glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (GAMG) is a great value-added and has considerable commercial interest due to its strong pharmacological activities and functional low-calorie sweetener. However GAMG is quite rare in natural plants, and it must be prepared from glycyrrhizin (GL) by hydrolysing one terminal glucuronic acid. β-Glucuronidase is the key enzyme in the biotransformation of GL to GAMG, but its activities need to be enhanced to facilitate the industrial large-scale production of GAMG. In this study, we identified that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), as one of chemical compositions from the total flavonoids glycyrrhiza (TFG), can significantly enhance β-glucuronidase activity in vitro...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954540/recent-advances-in-biological-production-of-erythritol
#16
Dorota A Rzechonek, Adam Dobrowolski, Waldemar Rymowicz, Aleksandra M Mirończuk
Erythritol is a natural sweetener commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant, it is an ideal sucrose substitute for diabetics or overweight persons due to its almost zero calorie content. Currently, erythritol is produced on an industrial scale through the fermentation of sugars by some yeasts, such as Moniliella sp. However, the popularity of erythritol as a sweetener is still small because of its high retail price. This creates an opportunity for further process improvement...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947927/glycosides-from-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-possess-insulin-mimetic-and-antioxidant-activities-in-rat-cardiac-fibroblasts
#17
Cecilia Prata, Laura Zambonin, Benedetta Rizzo, Tullia Maraldi, Cristina Angeloni, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Diana Fiorentini, Silvana Hrelia
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934139/phyllodulcin-a-natural-sweetener-regulates-obesity-related-metabolic-changes-and-fat-browning-related-genes-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932048/use-of-jaggery-and-honey-as-adjunctive-cytological-fixatives-to-ethanol-for-oral-smears
#19
Deepak Pandiar, Harakh Chand Baranwal, Sandip Kumar, Vellaichamy Ganesan, Piyush Kumar Sonkar, Kausik Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Ethanol has satisfactorily been used as cyto-fixative. Owing to its limitations, pathologists have always searched for new fixatives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two natural sweeteners as cyto-fixatives. An attempt has also been made to understand the underlying mechanism by which these fixatives fix the oral mucosal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three smears were collected from 25 healthy volunteers. One smear was fixed in ethanol and the other two in 20% aqueous honey solution and 30% aqueous jaggery solution for 15-30 min followed by Papanicolaou staining...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#20
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (ie, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar-containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity, and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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