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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388286/evaluation-of-childhood-nutrition-by-dietary-survey-and-stable-isotope-analyses-of-hair-and-breath
#1
Luciano O Valenzuela, Shannon P O'Grady, Lindsey E Enright, Maureen Murtaugh, Carol Sweeney, James R Ehleringer
OBJECTIVES: The natural abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes in hair, and of carbon isotopes in breath serve as quantitative biomarkers of protein and carbohydrate sources, but applicability of isotopes for evaluating children's diet has not been demonstrated. In this study, we sought to describe the stable isotope patterns observed in the hair and breath of children and to assess dietary variations in relation to age and ethnicity, hypothesizing that these would reflect dietary differences across age and ethnic groups and would correlate with intake variables derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378049/the-%C3%AE-13c-value-of-fingerstick-blood-is-a-valid-reliable-and-sensitive-biomarker-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Carly R MacDougall, Catelyn E Hill, A Hope Jahren, Jyoti Savla, Shaun K Riebl, Valisa E Hedrick, Hollie A Raynor, Julie C Dunsmore, Madlyn I Frisard, Brenda M Davy
Background: Reliance on self-reported dietary intake methods is a commonly cited research limitation, and dietary misreporting is a particular problem in children and adolescents. Objective indicators of dietary intake, such as dietary biomarkers, are needed to overcome this research limitation. The added sugar (AS) biomarker δ13C, which measures the relative abundance of 13C to 12C, has demonstrated preliminary validity in adults. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the comparative validity, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity of the δ13C biomarker to detect AS and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake using fingerstick blood samples in children and adolescents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375180/designing-a-food-tax-to-impact-food-related-non-communicable-diseases-the-case-of-chile
#3
Juan Carlos Caro, Lindsey Smith-Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Barry Popkin
The global shift towards diets high in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy dense ultra-processed foods is linked to higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and most other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), causing significant health costs. Chile has the highest SSB consumption in the world, very high junk food intake and very rapid increases in these poor components of the diet plus obesity prevalence. This study's purpose is to compare the effect of different tax schemes for SSBs and ultra-processed foods on nutrient availability, utilizing price-elasticities, which are estimated from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model, using the 2011-2012 Income and Expenditure survey...
August 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367749/glucansucrase-mutant-enzymes-from-lactobacillus-reuteri-180-efficiently-transglucosylate-stevia-component-rebaudioside-a-resulting-in-a-superior-taste
#4
Evelien M Te Poele, Tim Devlamynck, Manuel Jäger, Gerrit J Gerwig, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck, Anna K H Hirsch, Johannis P Kamerling, Wim Soetaert, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Steviol glycosides from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana are high-potency natural sweeteners but suffer from a lingering bitterness. The Lactobacillus reuteri 180 wild-type glucansucrase Gtf180-ΔN, and in particular its Q1140E-mutant, efficiently α-glucosylated rebaudioside A (RebA), using sucrose as donor substrate. Structural analysis of the products by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that both enzymes exclusively glucosylate the Glc(β1→C-19 residue of RebA, with the initial formation of an (α1→6) linkage...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355459/enhancement-of-erythritol-production-by-trichosporonoides-oedocephalis-atcc-16958-through-regulating-key-enzyme-activity-and-the-nadph-nadp-ratio-with-metal-ion-supplementation
#5
Liangzhi Li, Pei Kang, Xin Ju, Jiajia Chen, Huibin Zou, Cuiying Hu, Lishi Yan
Erythritol, a well-known natural sweetener, is mainly produced by microbial fermentation. Various metal ions (Al3+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+) were added to the culture medium of Trichosporonoides oedocephalis ATCC 16958 at 30 mg/L in shake flask cultures. Compared with controls, Cu2+ increased the erythritol content by 86% and decreased the glycerol byproduct by 31%. After 48 h of shake flask culture, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that expression levels of erythrose reductase (ER) in presence of 30 mg/L CuSO4 · 5H2O were higher than those obtained after treatment with other examined metal ions...
January 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328659/syntheses-of-tripterifordin-and-neotripterifordin-from-stevioside
#6
Shoji Kobayashi, Keisuke Shibukawa, Yoshiki Hamada, Takuma Kuruma, Asako Kawabata, Araki Masuyama
We report short syntheses of (-)-tripterifordin and (-)-neotripterifordin, potent inhibitors of HIV replication, from stevioside, a natural sweetener used worldwide. The key transformations are reduction at C13 through the formation of a tertiary chloride and subsequent three-step lactonization including a selective iodination at C20 by the photoreaction of the C19-alcohol. The title compounds were reliably obtained from stevioside in 9 and 11 steps (with 5-7 isolation steps), respectively. Additionally, the related lactone-containing ent-kaurenes, doianoterpenes A and B, and two more natural products were synthesized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322598/erythritol-production-by-yeasts-a-snapshot-of-current-knowledge
#7
REVIEW
Frédéric Carly, Patrick Fickers
Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It could be used as a natural sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Here, a snapshot on current knowledge on erythritol metabolism and synthesis, optimization of its production, more precisely process and producer strain improvement is presented.
January 11, 2018: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319532/the-ability-of-a-novel-strain-scheffersomyces-syn-candida-shehatae-isolated-from-rotten-wood-to-produce-arabitol
#8
Monika Kordowska-Wiater, Adam Kuzdraliński, Tomasz Czernecki, Zdzisław Targoński, Magdalena Frąc, Karolina Oszust
Arabitol is a polyalcohol which has about 70% of the sweetness of sucrose and an energy density of 0.2 kcal/g. Similarly to xylitol, it can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as a natural sweetener, a texturing agent, a dental caries reducer, and a humectant. Biotechnological production of arabitol from sugars represents an interesting alternative to chemical production. The yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae strain 20BM-3 isolated from rotten wood was screened for its ability to produce arabitol from L-arabinose, glucose, and xylose...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318755/sugar-intake-by-type-added-vs-naturally-occurring-and-physical-form-liquid-vs-solid-and-its-varying-association-with-children-s-body-weight-nhanes-2009-2014
#9
J A Welsh, Y Wang, J Figueroa, C Brumme
BACKGROUND: Sugars and their primary dietary sources (milk, fruits, sweetened foods and beverages) are associated, in different ways, with a range of health outcomes, including obesity. The contribution made to total sugar intake and how the different types and forms of sugar associate with body weight is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe sugar consumption and examine its association with weight status among U.S. children by sugar type [added {AS} vs. naturally occurring {NOS}] and form (solid vs...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288052/hydrophobic-interactions-of-sucralose-with-protein-structures
#10
Nimesh Shukla, Enrico Pomarico, Cody J S Hecht, Erika A Taylor, Majed Chergui, Christina M Othon
Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that appears to destabilize protein native structures. This is in direct contrast to the bio-preservative nature of its natural counterpart, sucrose, which enhances the stability of biomolecules against environmental stress. We have further explored the molecular interactions of sucralose as compared to sucrose to illuminate the origin of the differences in their bio-preservative efficacy. We show that the mode of interactions of sucralose and sucrose in bulk solution differ subtly through the use of hydration dynamics measurement and computational simulation...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216620/physicochemical-stability-of-an-oral-suspension-of-trimethoprim-20-mg-ml-in-combination-with-sulfadiazine-200-mg-ml-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#11
Richard A Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibacterial agent that, like sulfonamides, inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis, but at a different stage in the metabolic pathway. It has a similar spectrum of activity to the sulfonamides and is given by mouth or by injection, either alone or in conjunction with a sulfonamide, such as sulfadiazine. Sulfadiazine is a bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. The combination of the two drugs produces a synergistic effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, by inhibiting enzymes in the folic acid pathways, which in turn inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis...
September 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196787/erythritol-as-sweetener-wherefrom-and-whereto
#12
REVIEW
K Regnat, R L Mach, A R Mach-Aigner
Erythritol is a naturally abundant sweetener gaining more and more importance especially within the food industry. It is widely used as sweetener in calorie-reduced food, candies, or bakery products. In research focusing on sugar alternatives, erythritol is a key issue due to its, compared to other polyols, challenging production. It cannot be chemically synthesized in a commercially worthwhile way resulting in a switch to biotechnological production. In this area, research efforts have been made to improve concentration, productivity, and yield...
December 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191092/plant-derived-isoprenoid-sweeteners-recent-progress-in-biosynthetic-gene-discovery-and-perspectives-on-microbial-production
#13
Hikaru Seki, Keita Tamura, Toshiya Muranaka
Increased public awareness of negative health effects associated with excess sugar consumption has triggered increasing interest in plant-derived natural sweeteners. Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides contained in the leaves of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). Mogrosides, extracted from monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), are a group of cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycosides. Glycyrrhizin is an oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza plants (licorice)...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190370/best-practices-for-using-natural-experiments-to-evaluate-retail-food-and-beverage-policies-and-interventions
#14
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Anna H Grummon, Sheila Fleischhacker, Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Lucia Leone, Caitlin Eicher Caspi
Policy and programmatic change in the food retail setting, including excise taxes on beverages with added-caloric sweeteners, new supermarkets in food deserts, and voluntary corporate pledges, often require the use of natural experimental evaluation for impact evaluation when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Although natural experimental studies in the food retail setting provide important opportunities to test how nonrandomized interventions affect behavioral and health outcomes, researchers face several key challenges to maintaining strong internal and external validity when conducting these studies...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186927/estimating-free-and-added-sugar-intakes-in-new-zealand
#15
Rachael Kibblewhite, Alice Nettleton, Rachael McLean, Jillian Haszard, Elizabeth Fleming, Devonia Kruimer, Lisa Te Morenga
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170966/a-capture-selex-strategy-for-multiplexed-selection-of-rna-aptamers-against-small-molecules
#16
Lasse H Lauridsen, Holger B Doessing, Katherine S Long, Alex T Nielsen
In vitro selection of aptamers that recognize small organic molecules has proven difficult, in part due to the challenge of immobilizing small molecules on solid supports for SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment). This study describes the implementation of RNA Capture-SELEX, a selection strategy that uses an RNA library to yield ligand-responsive RNA aptamers targeting small organic molecules in solution. To demonstrate the power of this method we selected several aptamers with specificity towards either the natural sweetener rebaudioside A or the food-coloring agent carminic acid...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132732/the-role-of-artificial-and-natural-sweeteners-in-reducing-the-consumption-of-table-sugar-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131629/enzymatic-synthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-theanderose-through-transfructosylation-reaction-catalyzed-by-levansucrase-from-bacillus-subtilis-cect-39
#18
Laura Ruiz-Aceituno, Maria Luz Sanz, Blanca de Las Rivas, Rosario Muñoz, Sofia Kolida, Maria Luisa Jimeno, F Javier Moreno
This work addresses the high-yield and fast enzymatic production of theanderose, a naturally-occurring carbohydrate, also known as isomaltosucrose, whose chemical structure determined by NMR is α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranose. The ability of isomaltose to act as an acceptor in the Bacillus subtilis CECT 39 levansucrase-catalyzed transfructosylation reaction to efficiently produce theanderose in the presence of sucrose as a donor is described by using four different sucrose:isomaltose concentration ratios...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127847/effect-of-sucralose-on-the-enzyme-kinetics-of-invertase-using-real-time-nmr-spectroscopy-and-progress-curve-analysis
#19
Cheenou Her, Jaideep Singh, V V Krishnan
Sucralose, a derivative of sucrose, is widely used in noncaloric artificial sweeteners (NAS). Contrary to the belief that sucralose is physiologically inert and a healthy alternative sweetener to natural sugar, emerging studies indicate that sucralose alters the host metabolism as well as the composition of the microbiome. In this manuscript, we use real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to demonstrate that sucralose alters the enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose. The real-time NMR progress curve analysis suggests that sucralose has the characteristic of a competitive inhibitor on the kinetics of the enzymatic process...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099817/effectiveness-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-taxes-to-reduce-obesity-evidence-based-policy-brief
#20
Josefina Bascuñán, Cristóbal Cuadrado
The high prevalence of obesity in Chile, along with the increasing consumption of sugary drinks in the country, has made apparent the need to propose fiscal measures, through taxes on specific foods, as a complementary alternative to approach this problem. Since 2014, an additional 5% increase in the tax on sugar-sweetened nonalcoholic beverages has been in effect in Chile, an amount that may be insufficient to produce an impact on obesity levels. The evidence of the effectiveness of fiscal measures upon sugary beverages, in terms of price modification, generally reflects a high transfer of the tax to the final consumers, which is variable according to local conditions...
October 25, 2017: Medwave
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