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Cardiovascular disease risk

R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Stefanie C Vuotto, Kevin R Krull, Chenghong Li, Kevin C Oeffinger, Daniel M Green, Sunita K Patel, Deokumar Srivastava, Marilyn Stovall, Kirsten K Ness, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Tara M Brinkman
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Ho Sun Kim, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Me-Riong Kim, Young-Hyeon Bae, Ki Byung Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Joo-Hee Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis...
2016: PloS One
Hidemi Takeuchi, Michihiro Okuyama, Haruhito A Uchida, Yuki Kakio, Ryoko Umebayashi, Yuka Okuyama, Yasuhiro Fujii, Susumu Ozawa, Masashi Yoshida, Yu Oshima, Shunji Sano, Jun Wada
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of CKD and DM with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: We enrolled 261 patients with AAA (AAA+) and age-and-sex matched 261 patients without AAA (AAA-) at two hospitals between 2008 and 2014, and examined the association between the risk factors and the presence of AAA...
2016: PloS One
Rafael O Alvim, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Camila M Oliveira, Luiz A Bortolotto, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, it has been recognized that arterial stiffness has familial aggregation; however, there are no studies involving Brazilian families. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population. METHODS: In this study, 1675 eligible individuals (both sexes and aged 18-102 years) were distributed in 125 families resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the southeast of Brazil...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ashley Winning, M Maria Glymour, Marie C McCormick, Paola Gilsanz, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: Prior research on the relationship between early adversity and adult chronic disease has often relied on retrospective reports of a limited range of exposures and has not considered childhood psychological distress as a mediator. We investigate whether distress in childhood is one pathway by which early social disadvantage leads to greater cardiometabolic risk in middle adulthood. METHODS: Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort study (sample n = 6027)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Herman G Sprenger, Wouter F Bierman, Melanie I Martes, Reindert Graaff, Tjip S Van Der Werf, Andries J Smit
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as stable markers of glycemic and oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) as marker of accumulated AGEs is increased and predictive of CVD events in diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and pre-existing CVD. We determined SAF levels in HIV-1 infected patients, testing the hypothesis that SAF predicts CVD events in HIV infection...
October 18, 2016: AIDS
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
M A Hussain, M Al-Omran, M Mamdani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Parham Parto, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Samantha Bond, Dejana Popovic, Hector O Ventura
The prevalence of obesity among adults and children worldwide has reached epic proportions and has become a major independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF), in addition to a contributor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The implications of obesity in the development of HF involve adverse effects on cardiac structure and function. Despite all of this, in the setting of chronic HF, excess body mass is associated with improved clinical outcomes, demonstrating the presence of an obesity paradox...
October 20, 2016: Future Cardiology
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Michael B Boffa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are an independent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. This review summarizes the rationale for Lp(a) lowering and surveys relevant clinical trial data using a variety of agents capable of lowering Lp(a). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary guidelines and recommendations outline populations of patients who should be screened for elevated Lp(a) and who might benefit from Lp(a) lowering...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Masayoshi Okumi, Yasuyuki Sato, Kohei Unagami, Toshihito Hirai, Hideki Ishida, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND: The reasons for improved outcomes associated with preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) are incompletely understood, and post-transplant complications have been scarcely investigated. METHODS: We evaluated the outcomes of PKT in both unmatched (n = 1060) and propensity score matched cohorts (n = 186) of adults who underwent living kidney transplant between 2000 and 2014. Outcomes were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), biopsy-proven rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), graft failure (non-censored for death), and malignancy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
N C Harvey, E Biver, J-M Kaufman, J Bauer, J Branco, M L Brandi, O Bruyère, V Coxam, A Cruz-Jentoft, E Czerwinski, H Dimai, P Fardellone, F Landi, J-Y Reginster, B Dawson-Hughes, J A Kanis, R Rizzoli, C Cooper
The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing...
October 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Alexander Breitenstein, Simon F Stämpfli, Martin F Reiner, Yi Shi, Stephan Keller, Alexander Akhmedov, Ariane Schaub Clerigué, Remo D Spescha, Hans-Jürg Beer, Thomas F Lüscher, Felix C Tanner, Giovanni G Camici
Despite public awareness of its deleterious effects, smoking remains a major cause of death. Indeed, it is a risk factor for atherothrombotic complications and in line with this, the introduction of smoking ban in public areas reduced smoking-associated cardiovascular complications. Nonetheless, smoking remains a major concern, and molecular mechanisms by which it causes cardiovascular disease are not known. Peripheral blood monocytes from healthy smokers displayed increased JNK2 and tissue factor (TF) gene expression compared to non-smokers (n=15, p<0...
October 20, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Suganya Venkateshan, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Velmurugan Chinnasamy, Sarath Chandiran
OBJECTIVE: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Shabnam Niroumand, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Babak Eghbali, Maryam Abrishami, Arash Gholoobi, Hamid Reza Bahrami Taghanaki, Mohammad Khajedaluee
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran)...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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