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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629533/design-of-new-traditional-chinese-medicine-herbal-formulae-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-based-on-network-pharmacology
#1
Rui-Feng Hu, Xiao-Bo Sun
In the present study, 28 Chinese medicinal herbs belonging to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes were selected to explore the application of network pharmacology in developing new Chinese herbal medicine formulae for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These herbs have the highest appearance rate in the literature, and their compounds are listed. The human protein-protein interaction network and the T2DM disease protein interaction network were constructed...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626803/estimation-of-insulin-secretion-glucose-uptake-by-tissues-and-liver-handling-of-glucose-using-a-mathematical-model-of-glucose-insulin-homeostasis-in-lean-and-obese-mice
#2
Michael Brenner, Sakineh Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Ramin Balouchzadeh, H Felix Lee, Hoo Sang Ko, Michael Johns, Nehal Malik, Joshua J Lee, Guim Kwon
Destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells is the key determinant of diabetes mellitus regardless of their types. Due to their anatomical location within the islets of Langerhans scattered throughout the pancreas, it is difficult to monitor β-cell function and mass clinically. To this end, we propose to use a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis to estimate insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and hepatic handling of glucose. We applied the mathematical model by Lombarte et al. (2013) to compare various rate constants representing glucose-insulin homeostasis between lean (11% fat)- and high fat diet (HFD; 45% fat)-fed mice...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625914/prioritizing-disease-causing-microbes-based-on-random-walking-on-the-heterogeneous-network
#3
Xianjun Shen, Yao Chen, Xingpeng Jiang, Xiaohua Hu, Tingting He, Jincai Yang
As we all know, the microbiota show remarkable variability within individuals. At the same time, those microorganisms living in the human body play a very important role in our health and disease, so the identification of the relationships between microbes and diseases will contribute to better understanding of microbes interactions, mechanism of functions. However, the microbial data which are obtained through the related technical sequencing is too much, but the known associations between the diseases and microbes are very less...
June 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625707/-algorithms-based-on-medico-administrative-data-in-the-field-of-endocrine-nutritional-and-metabolic-diseases-especially-diabetes
#4
S Fosse-Edorh, A Rigou, S Morin, L Fezeu, L Mandereau-Bruno, A Fagot-Campagna
BACKGROUND: Medico-administrative databases represent a very interesting source of information in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The objective of this article is to describe the early works of the Redsiam working group in this field. METHODS: Algorithms developed in France in the field of diabetes, the treatment of dyslipidemia, precocious puberty, and bariatric surgery based on the National Inter-schema Information System on Health Insurance (SNIIRAM) data were identified and described...
June 15, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623387/retinal-vascular-geometry-and-6%C3%A2-year-incidence-and-progression-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Antony Kwan-Pui Law, Neelam Kumari, Daniel Shu-Wei Ting, Gavin Tan, Paul Mitchell, Ching Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine prospectively the association between a range of retinal vascular geometric variables measured from retinal photographs and the 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study of Asian Malay individuals aged 40-80 years at baseline (n = 3280) who returned for a 6 year follow-up. Retinal vascular geometric variables (tortuosity, branching, fractal dimension, calibre) were measured from baseline retinal photographs using a computer-assisted program (Singapore I Vessel Assessment)...
June 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619766/diagnostic-performance-of-an-automatic-blood-pressure-measurement-device-microlife-watchbp-home-a-for-atrial-fibrillation-screening-in-a-real-world-primary-care-setting
#6
Pak-Hei Chan, Chun-Ka Wong, Louise Pun, Yu-Fai Wong, Michelle Man-Ying Wong, Daniel Wai-Sing Chu, Chung-Wah Siu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence-recommended automatic oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurement device incorporated with an atrial fibrillation (AF) detection algorithm (Microlife WatchBP Home A) for real-world AF screening in a primary healthcare setting. SETTING: Primary healthcare setting in Hong Kong. INTERVENTIONS: This was a prospective AF screening study carried out between 1 September 2014 and 14 January 2015...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617703/using-self-reports-or-claims-to-assess-disease-prevalence-it-s-complicated
#7
Patricia St Clair, Étienne Gaudette, Henu Zhao, Bryan Tysinger, Roxanna Seyedin, Dana P Goldman
BACKGROUND: Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. OBJECTIVE: Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence...
June 14, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617187/retrospective-analysis-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-data-with-the-surveillance-error-grid-supports-nonadjunctive-dosing-decisions
#8
John B Welsh, Tomas Walker, David Price
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess clinical risks of inaccurate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system readings as estimated by the surveillance error grid (SEG). METHODS: Values from Dexcom G4 Platinum system with an advanced algorithm (Software 505) were plotted on the SEG with temporally matched reference venous (YSI) values collected during clinic visits on days 1, 4, and 7 of sensor wear. Data from a pediatric study (N = 79, age [mean ± SD] 12.2 ± 4...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606059/observed-versus-predicted-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-death-in-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Giacomo Pucci, Franco Baldelli, Giuseppe Schillaci
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian cohort of HIV-positive subjects. METHODS: The study was an observational longitudinal cohort study. The probability for 10-year CVD events according to the Framingham algorithm was assessed in 369 consecutive HIV-positive participants free from overt CVD enrolled in 2004, who were followed for a median of 10...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605458/prioritizing-tests-of-epistasis-through-hierarchical-representation-of-genomic-redundancies
#10
Tyler Cowman, Mehmet Koyutürk
Epistasis is defined as a statistical interaction between two or more genomic loci in terms of their association with a phenotype of interest. Epistatic loci that are identified using data from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) provide insights into the interplay among multiple genetic factors, with applications including assessment of susceptibility to complex diseases, decision making in precision medicine, and gaining insights into disease mechanisms. Since the number of genomic loci assayed by GWAS is extremely large (usually in the order of millions), identification of epistatic loci is a statistically difficult and computationally intensive problem...
June 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595241/stratifying-patients-with-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-based-on-sensory-profiles-algorithm-and-sample-size-recommendations
#11
Jan Vollert, Christoph Maier, Nadine Attal, David L H Bennett, Didier Bouhassira, Elena K Enax-Krumova, Nanna B Finnerup, Rainer Freynhagen, Janne Gierthmühlen, Maija Haanpää, Per Hansson, Philipp Hüllemann, Troels S Jensen, Walter Magerl, Juan D Ramirez, Andrew S C Rice, Sigrid Schuh-Hofer, Märta Segerdahl, Jordi Serra, Pallai R Shillo, Soeren Sindrup, Solomon Tesfaye, Andreas C Themistocleous, Thomas R Tölle, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Ralf Baron
In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and/or allodynia, or loss of thermal detection and mild mechanical hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. Here, we present an algorithm for allocation of individual patients to these subgroups. The algorithm is nondeterministic-ie, a patient can be sorted to more than one phenotype-and can separate patients with neuropathic pain from healthy subjects (sensitivity: 78%, specificity: 94%)...
June 7, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589542/is-insulin-the-preferred-treatment-for-a1c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-9
#12
EDITORIAL
Zachary Bloomgarden
The algorithms/guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and of the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) having HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% ((1) ) and 10% ((2) ), respectively.
June 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586608/adherence-to-diabetes-mellitus-treatment-guidelines-from-theory-to-practice-the-missing-link
#13
Noreen Rahat Hashmi, Shahzad Ali Khan
Diabetes mellitus is a complex multisystem disease that requires high quality care. Clinical practice guidelines help physicians and patients make the best possible health care decisions and improve health care management of diabetic patients. These guidelines provide the norms for clinical management as well as monitoring of diabetes care. They are not simple algorithms but are based on structured evidence based diabetic management protocols developed from randomized controlled trials. Despite the widespread availability of this diabetic guideline, their use is suboptimal at best...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585877/future-of-automated-insulin-delivery-systems
#14
Jessica R Castle, J Hans DeVries, Boris Kovatchev
Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated insulin delivery (AID) systems in development. A system that automates basal insulin delivery has already received Food and Drug Administration approval, and more systems are likely to follow. As the field of AID matures, future systems may incorporate additional hormones and/or multiple inputs, such as activity level...
June 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581821/randomized-controlled-trial-of-technology-assisted-case-management-in-low-income-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Leonard E Egede, Joni S Williams, Delia C Voronca, Rebecca G Knapp, Jyotika K Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of technology-assisted case management (TACM) with medication titration by nurses using guideline-based algorithms, under physician supervision in improving glycemic control in low-income rural adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults (aged ≥18 years) from the southeastern United States with hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≥8% were randomized to TACM or usual care. Evidence-based guidelines were used to develop medication titration algorithms in conjunction with clinic physicians...
June 5, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579550/the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-retinal-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Kumar Sambhav, Sandeep Grover, K V Chalam
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates real time volumetric data of chorioretinal vasculature and its flow pattern. With the advent of high-speed optical coherence tomography, established en-face chorioretinal segmentation, and efficient algorithms, OCTA generate images that resembles an angiogram. The principle of OCTA involves determining the change in backscattering between consecutive B-scans and then attributing the differences to the flow of erythrocytes through retinal blood vessels...
June 1, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574177/review-of-basal-plus-insulin-regimen-options-for-simpler-insulin-intensification-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
D Raccah, D Huet, A Dib, F Joseph, B Landers, J Escalada, H Schmitt
AIMS: To identify simple insulin regimens for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus that can be accepted and implemented earlier in primary and specialist care, taking into consideration each individual's needs and capabilities. METHODS: Using randomized clinical trials identified by a search of the PubMed database, as well as systematic reviews, meta-analyses and proof-of-concept studies, this review addresses topics of interest related to the progressive intensification of a basal insulin regimen to a basal-plus regimen (one basal insulin injection plus stepwise addition of one to three preprandial short-acting insulin injections/day) vs a basal-bolus regimen (basal insulin plus three short-acting insulin injections per day) in people with Type 2 diabetes...
June 2, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560245/assistive-lesion-emphasis-system-an-assistive-system-for-fundus-image-readers
#18
Samrudhdhi B Rangrej, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550608/shifting-paradigms-in-the-medical-management-of-type-2-diabetes-reflections-on-recent-cardiovascular-outcome-trials
#19
Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Etie Moghissi, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi
An important challenge in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While it is well established that intensive glycemic control prevents the onset and slows the progression of certain microvascular complications, such a strategy utilized in multiple clinical trials over the past few decades has failed to show a similar benefit with regard to cardiovascular events, including mortality. Despite this, a major hope has been the discovery of glucose-lowering medications that simultaneously improve cardiovascular outcomes...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546992/identification-of-transcription-factors-potentially-involved-in-human-adipogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Michael Sean Pepper
BACKGROUND: Increased adiposity in humans leads to obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. We previously conducted an extensive unbiased in vitro transcriptomic analysis of adipogenesis, using human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Here, we have applied computational methods to these data to identify transcription factors (TFs) that constitute the upstream gene regulatory networks potentially, driving adipocyte formation in human ASCs...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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