keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Immune flux

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911401/an-optimized-protocol-to-analyze-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-lymphocytes
#1
Javier Traba, Pietro Miozzo, Billur Akkaya, Susan K Pierce, Munir Akkaya
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation, and cytokine production. All of these events are tightly linked to the energy status of the cell, and therefore studying the energy-producing pathways may give clues about the overall functionality of these cells. The extracellular flux analyzer is a commonly used device for evaluating the performance of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in many cell types...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900586/role-of-prolactin-in-promotion-of-immune-cell-migration-into-the-mammary-gland
#2
Riva Dill, Ameae M Walker
Immune cells in the mammary gland play a number of important roles, including protection against infection during lactation and, after passing into milk, modulation of offspring immunity. However, little is known about the mechanism of recruitment of immune cells to the lactating gland in the absence of infection. Given the importance of prolactin to other aspects of lactation, we hypothesized it would also play a role in immune cell recruitment. Prolactin treatment of adult female mice for a period equivalent to pregnancy and the first week of lactation increased immune cell flux through the mammary gland, as reflected in the number of immune cells in mammary gland-draining, but not other lymph nodes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896219/enhanced-therapeutic-efficacy-in-cancer-patients-by-short-term-fasting-the-autophagy-connection
#3
REVIEW
Gustav van Niekerk, Suzèl M Hattingh, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Preclinical studies suggest that fasting prior to chemotherapy may be an effective strategy to protect patients against the adverse effects of chemo-toxicity. Fasting may also sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. It is further suggested that fasting may similarly augment the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The primary mechanism mediating these beneficial effects is thought to relate to the fact that fasting results in a decrease of circulating growth factors. In turn, such fasting cues would prompt normal cells to redirect energy toward cell maintenance and repair processes, rather than growth and proliferation...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883961/molecular-visualizing-and-quantifying-immune-associated-peroxynitrite-fluxes-in-phagocytes-and-mouse-inflammation-model
#4
Zan Li, Shi-Hai Yan, Chen Chen, Zhi-Rong Geng, Jia-Yin Chang, Chun-Xia Chen, Bing-Huan Huang, Zhi-Lin Wang
Reactions of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) with biomolecules can lead to cytotoxic and cytoprotective events. Due to the difficulty of directly and unambiguously measuring its levels, most of the beneficial effects associated with ONOO(-) in vivo remain controversial or poorly characterized. Recently, optical imaging has served as a powerful noninvasive approach to studying ONOO(-) in living systems. However, ratiometric probes for ONOO(-) are currently lacking. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of F482, a novel fluorescence indicator that relies on ONOO(-)-induced diene oxidation...
November 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827303/an-hdac6-inhibitor-confers-protection-and-selectively-inhibits-b-cell-infiltration-in-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#5
Anh Do, Robert C Reid, Rink-Jan Lohman, Matthew J Sweet, David P Fairlie, Abishek Iyer
Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity may be candidates for targeting intestinal inflammatory pathways in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated whether treatment with a potent HDAC6 inhibitor, BML-281, could protect against colonic inflammation and prevent inflammatory cell infiltration into the colon to drive disease pathology in a mouse model of acute DSS-colitis. Control and acute DSS-colitis mice were treated with BML-281 (1mg/kg/day s.c...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815390/kv1-3-channels-mark-functionally-competent-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#6
Ameet A Chimote, Peter Hajdu, Alexandros M Sfyris, Brittany N Gleich, Trisha Wise-Draper, Keith A Casper, Laura Conforti
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are potent mediators of an anti-tumor response. However, their function is attenuated in solid tumors. CD8(+) T cell effector functions such as cytokine and granzyme production depend on cytoplasmic Ca(2+), which is controlled by ion channels. In particular, Kv1.3 channels regulate the membrane potential and Ca(2+) influx in human effector memory T (TEM) cells. In this study, we assessed the contribution of reduced Kv1.3 and Ca(2+) flux on TIL effector function in head and neck cancer (HNC)...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780657/metabolic-reprogramming-inflammation-fuelling-the-host-response-to-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Laura E Gleeson, Frederick J Sheedy
Successful immune responses to pathogens rely on efficient host innate processes to contain and limit bacterial growth, induce inflammatory response and promote antigen presentation for the development of adaptive immunity. This energy intensive process is regulated through multiple mechanisms including receptor-mediated signaling, control of phago-lysomal fusion events and promotion of bactericidal activities. Inherent macrophage activities therefore are dynamic and are modulated by signals and changes in the environment during infection...
October 22, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703191/measuring-populations-to-improve-vaccination-coverage
#8
Nita Bharti, Ali Djibo, Andrew J Tatem, Bryan T Grenfell, Matthew J Ferrari
In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698456/microbial-degradation-of-cellular-kinases-impairs-innate-immune-signaling-and-paracrine-tnf%C3%AE-responses
#9
Kenneth Barth, Caroline Attardo Genco
The NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways are critical components of innate immunity that orchestrate appropriate immune responses to control and eradicate pathogens. Their activation results in the induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFα a potent bioactive molecule commonly secreted by recruited inflammatory cells, allowing for paracrine signaling at the site of an infection. In this study we identified a novel mechanism by which the opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis dampens innate immune responses by disruption of kinase signaling and degradation of inflammatory mediators...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692616/the-intracellular-cholesterol-landscape-dynamic-integrator-of-the-immune-response
#10
REVIEW
Michael B Fessler
Cholesterol has typically been considered an exogenous, disease-related factor in immunity; however, recent literature suggests that a paradigm shift is in order. Sterols are now recognized to ligate several immune receptors. Altered flux through the mevalonic acid synthesis pathway also appears to be a required event in the antiviral interferon (IFN) response of macrophages and in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells. In this review, evidence is discussed that suggests an intrinsic, 'professional' role for sterols and oxysterols in macrophage and T-cell immunity...
December 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689012/inhibition-of-ror%C3%AE-%C3%AE-suppresses-atherosclerosis-via-inhibition-of-both-cholesterol-absorption-and-inflammation
#11
Cyrielle Billon, Sadichha Sitaula, Thomas P Burris
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Western countries. Atherosclerosis is a multi-step inflammatory disease characterized at early stages by accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial wall followed by recruitment of immune cells. We sought to determine if pharmacological suppression of RORα/γ activity is beneficial in treatment of atherosclerosis. METHODS: To identify the role of RORα and RORγ in atherosclerosis, we used the LDL-R(-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis placed on a high cholesterol diet treated with SR1001, a RORα/γ inverse agonist, for four weeks...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666190/salmonella-spv-locus-suppresses-host-innate-immune-responses-to-bacterial-infection
#12
Shu-Yan Wu, Li-Dan Wang, Jin-Ling Li, Guang-Mei Xu, Mei-Ling He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Rui Huang
Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is globally distributed and causes massive morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. S. typhimurium carries Salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) locus, which is highly conserved and closely related to bacterial pathogenicity, while its exact role in host immune responses during infection remains to be elucidated. To counteract the invaders, the host has evolved numerous strategies, among which the innate immunity and autophagy act as the first defense...
September 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665486/dynamic-flux-of-microvesicles-modulate-parasite-host-cell-interaction-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-eukaryotic-cells
#13
M I Ramirez, P Deolindo, I J de Messias-Reason, Emma A Arigi, H Choi, I C Almeida, I Evans-Osses
Extracellular vesicles released from pathogens may alter host cell functions. We previously demonstrated the involvement of host cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) during early interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (META) stage and THP-1 cells. Here, we aim to understand the contribution of different parasite stages and their extracellular vesicles in the interaction with host cells. First, we observed that infective host cell-derived trypomastigote (tissue culture-derived trypomastigote [TCT]), META, and noninfective epimastigote (EPI) stages were able to induce different levels of MV release from THP-1 cells; however, only META and TCT could increase host cell invasion...
September 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664235/recent-insights-into-the-function-of-autophagy-in-cancer
#14
Ravi Amaravadi, Alec C Kimmelman, Eileen White
Macroautophagy (referred to here as autophagy) is induced by starvation to capture and degrade intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes, which recycles intracellular components to sustain metabolism and survival. Autophagy also plays a major homeostatic role in controlling protein and organelle quality and quantity. Dysfunctional autophagy contributes to many diseases. In cancer, autophagy can be neutral, tumor-suppressive, or tumor-promoting in different contexts. Large-scale genomic analysis of human cancers indicates that the loss or mutation of core autophagy genes is uncommon, whereas oncogenic events that activate autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis have been identified...
September 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622059/immune-checkpoint-blockade-reveals-the-stimulatory-capacity-of-tumor-associated-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-late-stage-ovarian-cancer
#15
Dallas B Flies, Tomoe Higuchi, Jaryse C Harris, Vibha Jha, Phyllis A Gimotty, Sarah F Adams
Although immune infiltrates in ovarian cancer are associated with improved survival, the ovarian tumor environment has been characterized as immunosuppressive, due in part to functional shifts among dendritic cells with disease progression. We hypothesized that flux in dendritic cell subpopulations with cancer progression were responsible for observed differences in antitumor immune responses in early and late-stage disease. Here we identify three dendritic cell subsets with disparate functions in the ovarian tumor environment...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558337/chloride-flux-in-phagocytes
#16
REVIEW
Guoshun Wang
Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557596/iron-deficiency-or-anemia-of-inflammation-differential-diagnosis-and-mechanisms-of-anemia-of-inflammation
#17
Manfred Nairz, Igor Theurl, Dominik Wolf, Günter Weiss
Iron deficiency and immune activation are the two most frequent causes of anemia, both of which are based on disturbances of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency anemia results from a reduction of the body's iron content due to blood loss, inadequate dietary iron intake, its malabsorption, or increased iron demand. Immune activation drives a diversion of iron fluxes from the erythropoietic bone marrow, where hemoglobinization takes place, to storage sites, particularly the mononuclear phagocytes system in liver and spleen...
October 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553635/a-short-term-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure-increases-circulating-leukocyte-numbers-and-affects-hpa-axis-signaling-in-mice
#18
Stan de Kleijn, Gerben Ferwerda, Michelle Wiese, Jos Trentelman, Jan Cuppen, Tamas Kozicz, Linda de Jager, Peter W M Hermans, B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade
There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT...
October 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513637/metabolic-network-for-the-biosynthesis-of-intra-and-extracellular-%C3%AE-glucans-required-for-virulence-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Hendrik Koliwer-Brandl, Karl Syson, Robert van de Weerd, Govind Chandra, Ben Appelmelk, Marina Alber, Thomas R Ioerger, William R Jacobs, Jeroen Geurtsen, Stephen Bornemann, Rainer Kalscheuer
Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes intra- and extracellular α-glucans that were believed to originate from separate pathways. The extracellular glucose polymer is the main constituent of the mycobacterial capsule that is thought to be involved in immune evasion and virulence. However, the role of the α-glucan capsule in pathogenesis has remained enigmatic due to an incomplete understanding of α-glucan biosynthetic pathways preventing the generation of capsule-deficient mutants. Three separate and potentially redundant pathways had been implicated in α-glucan biosynthesis in mycobacteria: the GlgC-GlgA, the Rv3032 and the TreS-Pep2-GlgE pathways...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496003/exposure-to-zidovudine-adversely-affects-mitochondrial-turnover-in-primary-t-cells
#20
Zoë R Wallace, Sharon Sanderson, Anna Katarina Simon, Lucy Dorrell
Zidovudine (ZDV) is a widely used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, despite its known adverse effects, which include mitochondrial toxicity in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. It has also been associated with impaired immunological recovery. We hypothesised that ZDV might impair mitochondrial health and survival of primary T cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of mitochondrial function, mitophagy and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy donor primary T cells after exposure to ZDV in vitro, together with T cells from patients who were virologically suppressed on ZDV-containing ART regimens for ≥1 year and age-matched subjects receiving non-ZDV ART regimens...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
keyword
keyword
92057
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"