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Immune flux

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769342/cotesia-congregata-bracovirus-circles-encoding-ptp-and-ankyrin-genes-integrate-into-the-dna-of-parasitized-manduca-sexta-hemocytes
#2
Germain Chevignon, Georges Periquet, Gabor Gyapay, Nathalie Vega-Czarny, Karine Musset, Jean-Michel Drezen, Elisabeth Huguet
Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are essential for the parasitism success of tens of thousands of species of parasitoid wasps. PDVs are present in wasp genomes as proviruses, which serve as template for the production of double stranded circular viral DNA carrying virulence genes that are injected into lepidopteran hosts. PDV circles do not contain genes coding for particle production hence impeding viral replication in caterpillar hosts during parasitism. Here we investigated the fate of PDV circles of Cotesia congregata bracovirus during parasitism of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta , by the wasp Cotesia congregata Sequences sharing similarities with Host integration Motifs (HIM) involved in integration into DNA of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) circles, could be identified in 12 CcBV circles, which encode PTP and VANK gene families involved in host immune disruption...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755459/type-i-interferons-autophagy-and-host-metabolism-in-leprosy
#3
REVIEW
Thiago Gomes Toledo Pinto, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes
For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by Mycobacterium leprae and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( NOD2 and TLR1 ), autophagic flux ( PARK2, LRRK2 , and RIPK2 ), effector immune cytokines ( TNF and IL12 ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751004/mutations-affecting-the-actin-regulator-wdr1-lead-to-aberrant-lymphoid-immunity
#4
Laurène Pfajfer, Nina K Mair, Raúl Jiménez-Heredia, Ferah Genel, Nesrin Gulez, Ömür Ardeniz, Birgit Hoeger, Sevgi Köstel Bal, Christoph Madritsch, Artem Kalinichenko, Rico Chandra Ardy, Bengü Gerçeker, Javier Rey-Barroso, Hanna Ijspeert, Stuart G Tangye, Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp, Johannes B Huppa, Mirjam van der Burg, Loïc Dupré, Kaan Boztug
BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WDR1 promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have recently been identified in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, we here investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in humans. METHODS: Histological and detailed immunological analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in development and function of B and T lymphocytes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739813/interleukin-1-%C3%AE-activates-a-myc-dependent-metabolic-switch-in-kidney-stromal-cells-necessary-for-progressive-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#5
Dario R Lemos, Michael McMurdo, Gamze Karaca, Julia Wilflingseder, Irina A Leaf, Navin Gupta, Tomoya Miyoshi, Koichiro Susa, Bryce G Johnson, Kirolous Soliman, Guanghai Wang, Ryuji Morizane, Joseph V Bonventre, Jeremy S Duffield
Background Kidney injury is characterized by persisting inflammation and fibrosis, yet mechanisms by which inflammatory signals drive fibrogenesis remain poorly defined. Methods RNA sequencing of fibrotic kidneys from patients with CKD identified a metabolic gene signature comprising loss of mitochondrial and oxidative phosphorylation gene expression with a concomitant increase in regulators and enzymes of glycolysis under the control of PGC1 α and MYC transcription factors, respectively. We modeled this metabolic switch in vivo , in experimental murine models of kidney injury, and in vitro in human kidney stromal cells (SCs) and human kidney organoids...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737913/pathophysiology-of-ibd-associated-diarrhea
#6
Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Shubha Priyamvada, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
Inflammatory bowel diseases broadly categorized into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with increasing prevalence worldwide. The etiology of the disease is complex and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, immunological and gut microbial factors. Recurring and bloody diarrhea is the most prevalent and debilitating symptom in IBD. The pathogenesis of IBD-associated diarrhea is multifactorial and is essentially an outcome of mucosal damage caused by persistent inflammation resulting in dysregulated intestinal ion transport, impaired epithelial barrier function and increased accessibility of the pathogens to the intestinal mucosa...
May 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662454/the-biological-clock-a-pivotal-hub-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Salvatore De Cosmo, Tommaso Mazza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic pathology in the Western world and may evolve into steatohepatitis (NASH), increasing the risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD derives from the accumulation of hepatic fat due to discrepant free fatty acid metabolism. Other factors contributing to this are deranged nutrients and bile acids fluxes as well as alterations in nuclear receptors, hormones, and intermediary metabolites, which impact on signaling pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659573/whole-body-iron-transport-and-metabolism-mechanistic-multi-scale-model-to-improve-treatment-of-anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Joydeep Sarkar, Alka A Potdar, Gerald M Saidel
Iron plays vital roles in the human body including enzymatic processes, oxygen-transport via hemoglobin and immune response. Iron metabolism is characterized by ~95% recycling and minor replenishment through diet. Anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a lack of synthesis of erythropoietin leading to reduced red blood cell (RBC) formation and aberrant iron recycling. Treatment of CKD anemia aims to normalize RBC count and serum hemoglobin. Clinically, the various fluxes of iron transport and accumulation are not measured so that changes during disease (e...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657243/distinct-pattern-of-th17-treg-cells-in-pregnant-women-with-a-history-of-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#9
Jinfeng Qian, Na Zhang, Jing Lin, Caiyan Wang, Xinyao Pan, Lanting Chen, Dajin Li, Ling Wang
The aim of the current study was to determine the pattern of immune cells and related functional molecules in peripheral blood and at the maternal-fetal interface in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). In part I, 155 women were included and divided into four groups: non-pregnant controls with no history of URSA (NPCs), pregnant controls with no history of URSA (PCs), non-pregnant women with a history of URSA (NPUs), and pregnant women with a history of URSA (PUs). Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed...
April 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650758/the-fructose-2-6-bisphosphatase-tigar-suppresses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-by-directly-inhibiting-the-linear-ubiquitin-assembly-complex-lubac
#10
Yan Tang, Hyokjoon Kwon, Brian A Neel, Michal Kasher-Meron, Jacob Pessin, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin
The systems integration of whole-body metabolism and immune signaling are central homeostatic mechanisms necessary for maintenance of normal physiology, and dysregulation of these processes leads to a variety of chronic disorders. However, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for cell-autonomous cross talk between the inflammatory signaling pathways and metabolic flux have remained enigmatic. In this study, we discovered that the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR (Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator) critically regulates NF-κB activation...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621180/applications-of-crispr-cas-system-to-bacterial-metabolic-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Suhyung Cho, Jongoh Shin, Byung-Kwan Cho
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) adaptive immune system has been extensively used for gene editing, including gene deletion, insertion, and replacement in bacterial and eukaryotic cells owing to its simple, rapid, and efficient activities in unprecedented resolution. Furthermore, the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system including deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) with inactivated endonuclease activity has been further investigated for regulation of the target gene transiently or constitutively, avoiding cell death by disruption of genome...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616191/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-in-the-control-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondria-and-autophagy-in-cancer-a-maestro-with-a-large-orchestra
#12
REVIEW
Venturina Stagni, Claudia Cirotti, Daniela Barilà
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603091/platelet-proteomic-analysis-revealed-differential-pattern-of-cytoskeletal-and-immune-related-proteins-at-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Marta González-Sánchez, Teresa Díaz, Consuelo Pascual, Desiree Antequera, Alejandro Herrero-San Martín, Sara Llamas-Velasco, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Fernando Bartolome, Eva Carro
Platelets are considered a good model system to study a number of elements associated with neuronal pathways as they share biochemical similarities. Platelets represent the major source of amyloid-β (Aβ) in blood contributing to the Aβ accumulation in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. Peripheral blood platelet alterations including cytoskeletal abnormalities, abnormal cytoplasmic calcium fluxes or increased oxidative stress levels have been related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Therefore, platelets can be considered a peripheral model to study metabolic mechanisms occurring in AD...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597291/antiviral-and-inflammatory-cellular-signaling-associated-with-enterovirus-71-infection
#14
REVIEW
Yuefei Jin, Rongguang Zhang, Weidong Wu, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become a major threat to global public health, especially in infants and young children. Epidemiological studies have indicated that EV71 infection is responsible for severe and even fatal cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Accumulated evidence indicates that EV71 infection triggers a plethora of interactive signaling pathways, resulting in host immune evasion and inflammatory response. This review mainly covers the effects of EV71 infection on major antiviral and inflammatory cellular signal pathways...
March 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594839/o-glcnac-in-cancer-an-oncometabolism-fueled-vicious-cycle
#15
REVIEW
John A Hanover, Weiping Chen, Michelle R Bond
Cancer cells exhibit unregulated growth, altered metabolism, enhanced metastatic potential and altered cell surface glycans. Fueled by oncometabolism and elevated uptake of glucose and glutamine, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) sustains glycosylation in the endomembrane system. In addition, the elevated pools of UDP-GlcNAc drives the O-GlcNAc modification of key targets in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondrion. These targets include transcription factors, kinases, key cytoplasmic enzymes of intermediary metabolism, and electron transport chain complexes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594070/autophagy-and-ubiquitination-in-salmonella-infection-and-the-related-inflammatory-responses
#16
REVIEW
Lidan Wang, Jing Yan, Hua Niu, Rui Huang, Shuyan Wu
Salmonellae are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause globally distributed diseases with massive morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. In the past decades, numerous studies were focused on host defenses against Salmonella infection. Autophagy has been demonstrated to be an important defense mechanism to clear intracellular pathogenic organisms, as well as a regulator of immune responses. Ubiquitin modification also has multiple effects on the host immune system against bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588275/differential-ubiquitination-in-nets-regulates-macrophage-responses-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Ana Barrera-Vargas, Diana Gómez-Martín, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Javier Merayo-Chalico, Jiram Torres-Ruiz, Zerai Manna, Sarfaraz Hasni, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Mariana J Kaplan
OBJECTIVES: To assess if ubiquitinated proteins potentially present in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can modify cellular responses and induce inflammatory mechanisms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 74 subjects with SLE and 77 healthy controls. Neutrophils and low-density granulocytes were isolated, and NETs were induced. Ubiquitin content was quantified in NETs by western blot analysis, ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy, while ubiquitination of NET proteins was assessed by immunoprecipitation...
March 27, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568366/selenoprotein-k-deficiency-inhibits-melanoma-by-reducing-calcium-flux-required-for-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#18
Michael P Marciel, Vedbar S Khadka, Youpeng Deng, Pascal Kilicaslan, Andrew Pham, Pietro Bertino, Katie Lee, Suzie Chen, Natalija Glibetic, FuKun W Hoffmann, Michelle L Matter, Peter R Hoffmann
Interest has emerged in the therapeutic potential of inhibiting store operated calcium (Ca2+ ) entry (SOCE) for melanoma and other cancers because malignant cells exhibit a strong dependence on Ca2+ flux for disease progression. We investigated the effects of deleting Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) in melanoma since previous work in immune cells showed SELENOK was required for efficient Ca2+ flux through the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel protein, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which is due to the role SELENOK plays in palmitoylating and stabilizing the expression of IP3R...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562198/mitochondria-er-pas-de-deux-controls-memory-t-cell-function
#19
Elizabeth M Steinert, Navdeep S Chandel
Memory CD8+ T cells mediate protective secondary immune responses. In this issue, Bantug et al. (2018) demonstrate that mTORC2-AKT-GSK3β signaling at mitochondria-ER contact sites enables the TCA cycle flux that is necessary for memory CD8+ T cells to produce IFN-γ.
March 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560104/coordinate-effects-of-p2x7-and-extracellular-acidification-in-microglial-cells
#20
Ponarulselvam Sekar, Duen-Yi Huang, Shwu-Fen Chang, Wan-Wan Lin
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and contributes to inflammation associated diseases including cancer. Extracellular acidosis is a novel danger signal in the inflammatory sites, where it can modulate inflammation, immunity and tumor growth. Extracellular acidification was shown to inhibit P2X7-mediated channel currents, while it remains unknown how acidification and P2X7 together affect cellular responses. Here, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with ATP in a short period (<15 min) or a sustained acidified condition...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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