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Immune metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036899/targeting-strategies-for-the-combination-treatment-of-cancer-using-drug-delivery-systems
#1
REVIEW
Janel Kydd, Rahul Jadia, Praveena Velpurisiva, Aniket Gad, Shailee Paliwal, Prakash Rai
Cancer cells have characteristics of acquired and intrinsic resistances to chemotherapy treatment-due to the hostile tumor microenvironment-that create a significant challenge for effective therapeutic regimens. Multidrug resistance, collateral toxicity to normal cells, and detrimental systemic side effects present significant obstacles, necessitating alternative and safer treatment strategies. Traditional administration of chemotherapeutics has demonstrated minimal success due to the non-specificity of action, uptake and rapid clearance by the immune system, and subsequent metabolic alteration and poor tumor penetration...
October 14, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036612/cd40l-controls-obesity-associated-vascular-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mice-translational-aspects-for-man
#2
Sebastian Steven, Mobin Dib, Michael Hausding, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Alina Hanf, Steffen Daub, Siyer Roohani, Yves Gramlich, Esther Lutgens, Eberhard Schulz, Christian Becker, Karl J Lackner, Hartmut Kleinert, Christoph Knosalla, Beate Niesler, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Aims: CD40 ligand (CD40L) signaling controls vascular oxidative stress and related dysfunction in angiotensin-II-induced arterial hypertension by regulating vascular immune cell recruitment and platelet activation. Here we investigated the role of CD40L in experimental hyperlipidemia. Methods and Results: Male wild type and CD40L-/- mice (C57BL/6 background) were subjected to high fat diet for sixteen weeks. Weight, cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, endothelial function (isometric tension recording), oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase expression, dihydroethidium fluorescence) and inflammatory parameters (inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 expression) were assessed...
September 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035946/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#3
Meera K Shenoy, Susan V Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected patients and associated pulmonary diseases, and the relationship of airway microbial communities to metabolic and immune signatures within this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The lung microbiome in HIV infection is a relatively new and rapidly developing field; early studies in the field produced inconclusive evidence as to whether HIV-infection changes the lower airway microbiome...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035945/the-functional-consequences-of-the-microbiome-in-hiv-insights-from-metabolomic-studies
#4
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Santiago Moreno, Manuel Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is critical to gain insight into the metabolic pathways by which the microbiota might influence HIV immunopathogenesis to exploit host-microbiota interactions. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of recent advances in our knowledge of how HIV might affect the microbiota, with a focus on specific gene products, particularly, metabolites produced by the microbiota that may affect HIV immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: First, we describe the different approaches used to explore imbalances in effector microbial products during HIV infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035749/chemical-remodeling-cell-surface-glycans-for-immunotargeting-of-tumor-cells
#5
Xuexia Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Xiongjian Rao, Yinping Tian, Wen Yi
Recruitment of human endogenous antibodies to target and eliminate tumor cells is a promising therapeutic strategy in the biomedical field. Current antibody-recruiting molecules are typically bi-functional agents that utilize cell-surface receptor binding property for targeting. This approach has intrinsic limitations due to the heterogeneity of tumor cells and the limited number of receptors on the cell surface. Here we report a targeting strategy based on remodeling of cell surface glycans through metabolic engineering and bioorthogonal chemical ligation...
October 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035673/extracellular-pyridine-nucleotides-as-immune-elicitors-in-arabidopsis
#6
Zhonglin Mou
The pyridine nucleotides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP) are coenzymes that function in both metabolic reactions and intracellular signaling. Emerging evidence from animal research indicates that NAD(P) also acts in the extracellular space (ECS). We have shown in the model plant Arabidopsis that (1) exogenous NAD(P) induces immune responses, (2) pathogen infection causes leakage of intracellular NAD(P) into the extracellular fluid at concentrations sufficient to induce immune responses, and (3) removal of extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)] by expressing the human NAD(P)-metabolizing ectoenzyme CD38 partially compromises systemic acquired resistance...
October 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035404/-biological-significance-of-chromium-iii-for-the-human-organism
#7
REVIEW
Anna Piotrowska, Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Gabriel Nowak
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035384/effect-of-anthelmintic-treatment-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
D L Tahapary, K de Ruiter, I Martin, E A T Brienen, L van Lieshout, Y Djuardi, C C Djimandjaja, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Soewondo, E Sartono, T Supali, J W A Smit, M Yazdanbakhsh
Emerging evidence suggests that helminths might confer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the role of adipokines in mediating the effect of helminths on insulin resistance. Serum samples were obtained from a randomized-controlled trial of anthelmintic treatment in an area endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Flores Island, Indonesia. In STH-infected subjects, anthelmintic treatment significantly increased the ratio of leptin to adiponectin (treatment effect factor (95% confidence interval (CI)), P-value for interaction: 1...
October 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#9
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034843/research-progress-in-reversal-of-tumor-multi-drug-resistance-via-natural-products
#10
Qi Guo, Hongyan Cao, Xianghui Qi, Huikai Li, Peizhi Ye, Zhiguo Wang, Danqiao Wang, Hua Zhou, Jingui Xue, Mingyu Sun
Multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs when a tumor develops resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, which may include antitumor drugs with different chemical structures and mechanisms. MDR limits the treatment effects of antitumor drugs, and is the main cause of chemotherapy failure. MDR is caused by numerous factors including changes in ABC transporters, target proteins, detoxification, DNA repair, drug metabolic enzymes, and signal pathways of apoptosis. Clinical research indicates that natural products have great potential to treat tumors and reverse MDR...
October 16, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034492/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-pigs
#11
J Zhang, L Cui, J Ma, C Chen, B Yang, L Huang
Fatty acid composition is associated with meat quality in pigs as well as with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in humans. Liver and muscle are important tissues for fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated correlations between liver and muscle transcriptomes and fatty acid composition traits in muscle and abdominal fat tissues in 335 F2 pigs from a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. Transcripts significantly correlated with fatty acid composition traits were enriched for genes involved in the categories of triglyceride catabolic process, mitochondrial function, hematological and immune system, and disease such as Type II diabetes...
October 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034184/understanding-nutrition-and-immunity-in-disease-management
#12
REVIEW
Edwin L Cooper, Melissa J Ma
As we search for answers to modern medicine's most prevalent and challenging problems, the relationship between nutrition, immunity, and biological function of various natural compounds are preimminent. Nutritional research involving genomics provides rational capabilities for preventing disease. Scientific advances in genomic sequencing reveal opportunities for exploring diet-health relationships and potential for individual, genotype based dietary recommendations. Utilizing molecular and genetic technology to analyze impact of nutrition on genomics and metabolism reveals that nutrients may influence certain innate and/or acquired immune functions...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#14
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033903/protective-effect-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-against-immune-mediated-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#15
Wenrui Wu, Longxian Lv, Ding Shi, Jianzhong Ye, Daiqiong Fang, Feifei Guo, Yating Li, Xingkang He, Lanjuan Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota participates in the pathogenesis and progression of liver diseases. The severity of immune-mediated liver injury is associated with different microbial communities. Akkermansia muciniphila can regulate immunologic and metabolic functions. However, little is known about its effects on gut microbiota structure and function. This study investigated the effect of A. muciniphila on immune-mediated liver injury and potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two C57BL/6 mice were assigned to three groups (N = 7-8 per group) and continuously administrated A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032487/pathological-and-therapeutic-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-diverse-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Jisu Kim, Geon Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently defined type of innate-immunity cells that belong to the lymphoid lineage and have lymphoid morphology but do not express an antigen-specific B cell or T-cell receptor. ILCs regulate immune functions prior to the formation of adaptive immunity and exert effector functions through a cytokine release. ILCs have been classified into three groups according to the transcription factors that regulate their development and function and the effector cytokines they produce...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032473/oligosaccharide-biotechnology-an-approach-of-prebiotic-revolution-on-the-industry
#17
REVIEW
Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Juliana Bueno da Silva, Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessoa, Gláucia Maria Pastore
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032352/physiological-impacts-of-acute-cu-exposure-on-deep-sea-vent-mussel-bathymodiolus-azoricus-under-a-deep-sea-mining-activity-scenario
#18
Inês Martins, Joana Goulart, Eva Martins, Rosa Morales-Román, Sergio Marín, Virginie Riou, Ana Colaço, Raul Bettencourt
Over the past years, several studies have been dedicated to understanding the physiological ability of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus to overcome the high metal concentrations present in their surrounding hydrothermal environment. Potential deep-sea mining activities at Azores Triple junction hydrothermal vent deposits would inevitably lead to the emergence of new fluid sources close to mussel beds, with consequent emission of high metal concentrations and potential resolubilization of Cu from minerals formed during the active phase of the vent field...
October 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032295/innate-sensing-of-cancer-s-non-immunologic-hallmarks
#19
REVIEW
Ruth Seelige, Stephen Searles, Jack D Bui
A cancer mass consists of a complex composition of cancer cells, stromal cells, endothelial cells and also immune cells, which can represent more than half of the cellularity of a solid cancer. These immune cells become activated when they sense cancer antigens and stress ligands. Innate immune cells also detect various aspects of cellular stress that characterize a growing tumor mass. These key hallmarks of cellular stress are also detected by the cancer cell itself. In this review, we highlight studies that show that the cancer cell itself could be considered an 'innate cell' that senses and reacts to non-immunologic hallmarks of cancer, including displaced nucleic acids, proteotoxic stress, oxidative stress, and metabolic alterations...
October 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031942/morbidity-in-new-zealand-pesticide-producers-exposed-to-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd
#20
Andrea 't Mannetje, Amanda Eng, Chris Walls, Evan Dryson, Jeroen Douwes, Pier Bertazzi, Simon Ryder-Lewis, David Scott, Collin Brooks, Dave McLean, Soo Cheng, Neil Pearce
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cross-sectional morbidity survey among 245 former employees of a pesticide production plant exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in New Zealand. METHODS: Demographic factors and health information were collected in face-to-face interviews. TCDD, lipids, thyroid hormones, glucose and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in non-fasting blood. For 111 participants, a neurological examination was conducted. Associations between health outcomes and working in a TCDD exposed job (prevalence 49%) and serum TCDD concentration≥10pg/g lipid (18%) were assessed using logistic regression whilst controlling for age, gender, smoking, body mass index and ethnicity...
October 11, 2017: Environment International
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