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Immune metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457805/urinary-metabolomic-study-of-the-antagonistic-effect-of-p-ginseng-in-rats-with-estrogen-decline-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#1
He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457312/update-on-tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-correlates-of-risk-to-correlates-of-active-disease-and-of-cure-from-disease
#2
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456700/effects-of-hiv-on-metabolic-and-biological-pathways-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#3
Yanli Ma, Wenge Zhao, Changhe Shi, Ning Wang, Tianli Fan
The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the metabolic and biological pathways of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocytes were investigated. A total of 150 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 50 healthy individuals who were admitted to hospital for physical examination during the period of June 2016 to January 2017, were selected as subjects in the present study. According to the virus load, 150 AIDS patients were divided into three groups: i) Viral load >106 copies/ml (group A, n=39), ii) 104 copies/ml < viral load <105 copies/ml (group B, n=76), and iii) viral load <104 copies/ml (group C, n=35)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456693/seminal-bacterial-composition-in-patients-with-obstructive-and-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#4
Houyang Chen, Tao Luo, Tingtao Chen, Gongxian Wang
A number of culture-dependent and -independent studies have reported that the number and significance of bacterial species in semen may have been underestimated. The aim of the present study was to profile the seminal microbiome in patients with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia. A high-throughput sequencing method was adopted to sequence genomic DNA extracted from the semen of healthy people (C group), patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA group) and patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA group)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455847/the-fate-choice-between-effector-and-memory-t-cell-lineages-asymmetry-signal-integration-and-feedback-to-create-bistability
#5
Ronald A Backer, Pleun Hombrink, Christina Helbig, Derk Amsen
CD8+ T cells clear primary infections with intracellular pathogens and provide long-term immunity against reinfection. Two different types of CD8+ T cells are responsible for these functions: short-lived effector T cells and memory T cells. The cellular relationship between these two types of CD8+ T cells has been subject to much investigation. Both cell types can derive from a single naïve CD8+ T cell precursor. Their generation requires a fate choice early during a T cell response. As a result, two populations of T cells emerge...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455730/enhancement-of-oral-bioavailability-and-immune-response-of-ginsenoside-rh2-by-co-administration-with-piperine
#6
Zhao-Hui Jin, Wen Qiu, Hui Liu, Xue-Hua Jiang, Ling Wang
Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg-1 ) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg-1 ) was performed in rats...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455584/hepes-activates-a-mit-tfe-dependent-lysosomal-autophagic-gene-network-in-cultured-cells-a-call-for-caution
#7
Marc J Tol, Martijn J C van der Lienden, Tanit L Gabriel, Jacob J Hagen, Saskia Scheij, Tineke Veenendaal, Judith Klumperman, Wilma E Donker-Koopman, Arthur J Verhoeven, Hermen Overkleeft, Johannes M Aerts, Carmen A Argmann, Marco van Eijk
In recent years, the lysosome has emerged as a highly dynamic, transcriptionally regulated organelle that is integral to nutrient-sensing and metabolic rewiring. This is coordinated by a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling nexus in which MTORC1 controls the subcellular distribution of the microphthalmia-transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) family of "master lysosomal regulators". Yet, despite the importance of the lysosome in cellular metabolism, the impact of traditional in vitro culture media on lysosomal dynamics and/or MiT/TFE localization has not been fully appreciated...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455535/antioxidative-nanoparticles-significantly-enhance-therapeutic-efficacy-of-an-antibacterial-therapy-against-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#8
Yutaka Ikeda, Kazuhiro Shoji, Chitho P Feliciano, Shinji Saito, Yukio Nagasaki
Acute inflammatory conditions such as sepsis lead to fatal conditions, including multiple organ failure. However, currently no definite treatments are available against these conditions. Therefore, several treatments, such as steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, protease inhibitors, anti-human TNF-α monoclonal antibodies, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF), are currently being investigated in order to decrease the blood cytokine level, which increases remarkably. However, these treatments are not always reliable and effective, and none have drastically improved survival rates...
February 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455533/effect-of-dietary-protein-level-on-the-expression-of-proteins-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-young-pigs
#9
Xianyong Ma, Xianyong Ma, Zhimei Tian, Dun Deng, Yiyan Cui, Yueqin Qiu
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of protein level on proteins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Eighteen piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) were weaned at 28 days of age and randomly assigned to 3 diets with 20%, 17%, and 14% CP level and four essential AA: Lys, Met, Thr and Trp in three diets meet the requirements of weaned piglets. The experimental period lasts 45d. RESULTS: Compared with the control (20% CP level), the average daily feed intake, the average daily gain and gain feed ratio of the 17% CP group did not decrease (P > 0...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454707/crystal-structure-of-the-capsid-protein-from-zika-virus
#10
Zifang Shang, Hao Song, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern, and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, e.g., causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454579/nucleus-accumbens-inflammation-mediates-anxiodepressive-behavior-and-compulsive-sucrose-seeking-elicited-by-saturated-dietary-fat
#11
Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Victor Issa Garcia, Philip A Barker, Nathalie Arbour, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454575/targeting-complement-mediated-immunoregulation-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Martin Kolev, Maciej M Markiewski
Complement was initially discovered as an assembly of plasma proteins "complementing" the cytolytic activity of antibodies. However, our current knowledge places this complex system of several plasma proteins, receptors, and regulators in the center of innate immunity as a bridge between the initial innate responses and adaptive immune reactions. Consequently, complement appears to be pivotal for elimination of pathogens, not only as an early response defense, but by directing the subsequent adaptive immune response...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454560/bioactive-lipid-mediators-profiles-in-human-psoriasis-skin-and-blood
#13
Alexander V Sorokin, Anthony Domenichiello, Amit K Dey, Aditya Goyal, Shawn M Rose, Martin P Playford, Christopher E Ramsden, Nehal N Mehta
Psoriasis (PSO) is a chronic immune-mediated disease that represents a unique model for investigating inflammation at local and systemic levels. Bioactive lipid mediators (LM) are potent compounds reported to play a role in the development and resolution of inflammation. Currently, it is not known to what extent these LM are involved in PSO pathophysiology and related metabolic dysfunction. Here we use targeted and untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) approaches to quantify LM in skin and peripheral blood from PSO and compared them to those of healthy subjects...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#14
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453887/coronary-artery-disease-in-heart-transplantation-new-concepts-for-an-old-disease
#15
REVIEW
Mandy Langstraat, Kyra J S Musters, Olivier Manintveld, Marco Masetti, Luciano Potena
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains one of the main long-term complications after heart transplantation. We performed a systematic review focused on articles published in the previous 6 years to reappraise the novel evidences supporting risk-factors, pathology, prevention and treatment of CAV. METHODS: We identified a search string for a literature search on PubMed. We excluded articles specifically focused on diagnosis/biomarkers/imaging only or complications of other diseases...
February 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453726/advances-in-probiotic-regulation-of-bone-and-mineral-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Probiotics have been consumed by humans for thousands of years because they are beneficial for long-term storage of foods and promote the health of their host. Ingested probiotics reside in the gastrointestinal tract where they have many effects including modifying the microbiota composition, intestinal barrier function, and the immune system which result in systemic benefits to the host, including bone health. Probiotics benefit bone growth, density, and structure under conditions of dysbiosis, intestinal permeability, and inflammation (recognized mediators of bone loss and osteoporosis)...
February 16, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453545/cytotoxicity-and-physiological-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-marine-invertebrates
#17
Adriano Magesky, Émilien Pelletier
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation in commercial products is increasing due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties and their low cost on the market. Silver has been known for a long time to be highly toxic to bacterial communities, aquatic organisms, and particularly to marine biota. Strong chloro-complexes dominate Ag speciation in seawater and facilitate its persistence in dissolved form. It has a great impact on marine organisms because low concentration of silver can lead to strong bioaccumulation, partly because the neutral silver chloro complex (AgCl 0 ) is highly bioavailable...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453534/nanoparticles-caused-oxidative-imbalance
#18
Mariusz Zuberek, Agnieszka Grzelak
Application of nanomaterials in nearly every single branch of industry results in their accumulation in both abiotic environment and tissues of living organisms. Despite the common use of nanomaterials, we are not able to precisely define their toxicity towards humans and surrounding biota. Although we were able to determine final effects of chronic exposure to nanoparticles which consist of many pathologies such as respiratory diseases, allergies, diseases of cardiovascular system, disorders in embryonic life differentiation and growth disorders, toxic effects on the immune system and cancers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453411/the-impact-of-a-helminth-modified-microbiome-on-host-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Tara P Brosschot, Lisa A Reynolds
Intestinal helminths have well-characterized modulatory effects on mammalian immune pathways. Ongoing helminth infection has been associated with both the suppression of allergies and an altered susceptibility to microbial infections. Enteric helminths share a niche with the intestinal microbiota, and the presence of helminths alters the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature of the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that the helminth-modified intestinal microbiome has the capacity to modify host immune responses even in the absence of live helminth infection...
February 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453260/a-new-cell-extraction-method-reveals-hemolymph-microbiome-of-three-aquatic-invertebrates
#20
Xinxu Zhang, Zaiqiao Sun, Xusheng Zhang, Ming Zhang, Shengkang Li
Symbiotic microorganisms have been found in the hemolymph (blood) of many aquatic invertebrates, such as crabs, shrimps and oysters. Hemolymph is a critical site in host immune response. Currently, studies on hemolymph microorganisms are mostly performed with culture-dependent strategies using selective media (e.g., TCBS, 2216E, and LB) for enumerating and isolating microbial cells. However, doubts remain about the "true" representation of the microbial abundance and diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in hemolymph, particularly for uncultivable microorganisms which are believed to be more abundant than the cultured...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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