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Macrophage metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212523/redox-regulation-in-metabolic-programming-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Helen R Griffiths, Dan Gao, Chathyan Pararasa
Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212304/methylglyoxal-derived-advanced-glycation-endproducts-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Suzan Wetzels, Kristiaan Wouters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Tim Vanmierlo, Jerome J A Hendriks
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of inflammatory cells is crucial for the development of MS and is shown to induce intracellular glycolytic metabolism in pro-inflammatory microglia and macrophages, as well as CNS-resident astrocytes. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are stable endproducts formed by a reaction of the dicarbonyl compounds methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) with amino acids in proteins, during glycolysis. This suggests that, in MS, MGO-derived AGEs are formed in glycolysis-driven cells...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211012/f4-80-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-via-downregulation-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1
#3
Ju-Hee Kang, Jung-Sun Sim, Ting Zheng, Mijung Yim
Osteoclastogenesis is an essential process in bone metabolism, which can be induced by RANKL stimulation. The F4/80 glycoprotein is a member of the EGF-transmembrane 7 (TM7) family and has been established as a specific cell-surface marker for murine macrophages. This study aimed to identify the role of F4/80 in osteoclastogenesis. Using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), we observed that the mRNA level of F4/80 was dramatically reduced as these cells differentiated into osteoclasts. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis was decreased in F4/80(high) BMMs compared to F4/80(-/low) BMMs...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#4
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207870/impaired-hdl2-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-families-with-early-onset-coronary-heart-disease-and-low-hdl-cholesterol-level
#5
Timo Paavola, Sanna Kuusisto, Matti Jauhiainen, Sakari Kakko, Tiia Kangas-Kontio, Jari Metso, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Risto Bloigu, Minna L Hannuksela, Markku J Savolainen, Tuire Salonurmi
OBJECTIVE: The potential of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to facilitate cholesterol removal from arterial foam cells is a key function of HDL. We studied whether cholesterol efflux to serum and HDL subfractions is impaired in subjects with early coronary heart disease (CHD) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in families where a low HDL-cholesterol level (HDL-C) predisposes to early CHD. METHODS: HDL subfractions were isolated from plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207301/mucosal-chemokines
#6
Marcela Hernández-Ruiz, Albert Zlotnik
Several chemokines have important functions in mucosal immunity. While there are many chemokines, 4 of them (CCL25, CCL28, CXCL14, and CXCL17) are especially important in mucosal immunity because they are homeostatically expressed in mucosal tissues. Of these, only CCL25 and CCL28 have been widely recognized as mucosal chemokines. In this study, we review the physiology of these chemokines with specific emphasis on their function in mucosal immunity. CCL25 recruits certain important subsets of T cells that express CCR9 to the small intestine...
February 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205069/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thp-1-macrophages-exposed-to-lipoprotein-hydrolysis-products-generated-by-lipoprotein-lipase
#7
Narmadaa Thyagarajan, Jenika D Marshall, Arthur T Pickett, Clemens Schumacher, Yanbo Yang, Sherri L Christian, Robert J Brown
Macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) induces lipid accumulation and promotes atherosclerosis. However, the effects of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on macrophage-derived foam cell formation are not clearly understood. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptomic response to hydrolysis products via microarray analyses on RNA isolated from human THP-1 macrophages incubated with total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. The expression of 183 transcripts was significantly upregulated and 133 transcripts were significantly downregulated...
February 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204822/melittin-inhibits-osteoclast-formation-through-the-downregulation-of-the-rankl-rank-signaling-pathway-and-the-inhibition-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-murine-macrophages
#8
Jung-Yoon Choe, Seong-Kyu Kim
Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203119/higher-phagocytic-activity-of-thioglycollate-elicited-peritoneal-macrophages-is-related-to-metabolic-status-of-the-cells
#9
Sofia Pavlou, Luxi Wang, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal macrophages are widely used in immunological studies. The cells can be collected under non-elicited (resident) or elicited (e.g., with Brewer thioglycollate broth injection) conditions, and their phenotype and functions differ. Recent studies have shown that macrophage phenotype and function are related to their metabolic states, and metabolic reprogramming has been an emerging concept for controlling macrophage function. In this study, we examined the metabolic state of resident and elicited macrophages and investigated how their metabolic state may affect cell function, including phagocytosis...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199198/the-immunological-function-of-gabaergic-system
#10
Chenlu Wu, Xiaobin Qin, Huihui Du, Nengzhang Li, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
As a well-known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid also has critical roles in immune system. Immune cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages) express the components of GABAergic system, including GABA receptors, GABA transporters, and GABA metabolic enzymes. The functions of immune cells are highly impacted on GABA signaling. GABAergic components negatively regulate the immune responses, particularly the T cell-mediated immunity, via their effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of signal pathways, like mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198418/circulating-classical-monocytes-are-associated-with-cd11c-macrophages-in-human-visceral-adipose-tissue
#11
Kristiaan Wouters, Katrien Gaens, Mitchell Bijnen, Kenneth Verboven, Johan Jocken, Suzan Wetzels, Erwin Wijnands, Dominique Hansen, Marleen van Greevenbroek, Adriaan Duijvestijn, Erik A L Biessen, Ellen E Blaak, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
Immune cell accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) is associated with the development of AT inflammation, resulting in metabolic dysfunction. Circulating immune cell patterns may reflect immune cell accumulation in expanding AT. However, data linking human leukocytes in blood and AT is lacking. We investigated whether blood immune cell populations are associated with their counterparts in subcutaneous (scAT) or visceral AT (vAT). Flow cytometry was performed on blood, scAT and vAT from 16 lean and 29 obese men...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#12
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197827/phloretin-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-improves-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
Sary Alsanea, Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet...
February 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197151/metabolism-supports-macrophage-activation
#14
REVIEW
P Kent Langston, Munehiko Shibata, Tiffany Horng
Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196866/sglt2-expression-is-increased-in-human-diabetic-nephropathy-sglt2-inhibition-decreases-renal-lipid-accumulation-inflammation-and-the-development-of-nephropathy-in-diabetic-mice
#15
Xiaoxin X Wang, Jonathan Levi, Yuhuan Luo, Komuraiah Myakala, Michal Herman-Edelstein, Liru Qiu, Dong Wang, Yingqiong Peng, Almut Grenz, Scott Lucia, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Vivette D D'Agati, Hermann Koepsell, Jeffrey B Kopp, Avi Rosenberg, Moshe Levi
There is very limited human renal sodium gradient dependent glucose transporter protein SGLT2 mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. Aim 1 of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice which had no changes in renal SGLT-2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196858/the-2016-walter-b-cannon-lecture-deconstructing-metabolic-inflammation-using-cellular-systems
#16
Kenny L Chan, Parastoo Boroumand, Marciane Milanski, Nicolas J Pillon, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Over the past years we have embarked in a systematic analysis of the effect of obesity or fatty acids on circulating monocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, macrophages and skeletal muscle cells. Using cell culture strategies, we have deconstructed complex physiological systems, then reconstructed 'partial equations' to better understand cell-to-cell communication. Through these approaches we identified that in high saturated fat environments, cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory pathways are activated in monocytes and endothelial cells, promoting monocyte adhesion and transmigration...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196513/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-may-be-involved-in-macrophage-plasticity
#17
Lali Shanshiashvili, Elene Tsitsilashvili, Nino Dabrundashvili, Irine Kalandadze, David Mikeladze
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are a functionally heterogeneous cell population and depending on microenvironments they polarize in two main groups: M1 and M2. Glutamic acid and glutamate receptors may participate in the regulation of macrophage plasticity. To investigate the role of glutamatergic systems in macrophages physiology, we performed the transfection of mGluR5 cDNAs into RAW-264.7 cells. RESULTS: Comparative analysis of modified (RAW-mGluR5 macrophages) and non-modified macrophages (RAW-macrophages) has shown that the RAW-mGluR5 macrophages absorbed more glutamate than control cells and the amount of intracellular glutamate correlated with the expression of excitatory amino acid transporters -2 (EAAT-2)...
February 14, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195347/characterization-of-ferroptosis-in-murine-models-of-hemochromatosis
#18
Hao Wang, Peng An, Enjun Xie, Qian Wu, Xuexian Fang, Hong Gao, Zhuzhen Zhang, Yuzhu Li, Xudong Wang, Jiaying Zhang, Guoli Li, Lei Yang, Wei Liu, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
Ferroptosis is a recently identified iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death implicated in brain, kidney, and heart pathology. However, the biological roles of iron and iron metabolism in ferroptosis remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the functional role of iron and iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of ferroptosis. We found that ferric citrate potently induces ferroptosis in murine primary hepatocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Next, we screened for ferroptosis in mice fed a high-iron diet and in mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis with iron overload...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#19
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193589/head-kidney-liver-and-skin-histopathology-and-gene-expression-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-exposed-to-highly-polluted-marine-sediments-from-portman-bay-spain
#20
Said Ben Hamed, Francisco Guardiola, Alberto Cuesta, Salvadora Martínez, María José Martínez-Sánchez, Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, María Ángeles Esteban
Biomarkers have become crucial tools in modern environmental assessment as they can help to predict magnitude of pollution. The head-kidney (HK) and liver (hematopoietic and xenobiotic metabolism organs, respectively) are the key organs in all fish toxicological studies, although the skin has received less attention in this respect. The impact of two different types of polluted sediment collected from Portman Bay (Spain) on HK, liver and skin gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed for two weeks to the sediments was determined by real time-PCR...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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