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Macrophage metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150432/the-ikk-related-kinase-tbk1-activates-mtorc1-directly-in-response-to-growth-factors-and-innate-immune-agonists
#1
Cagri Bodur, Dubek Kazyken, Kezhen Huang, Bilgen Ekim Ustunel, Kate A Siroky, Aaron Seth Tooley, Ian E Gonzalez, Daniel H Foley, Hugo A Acosta-Jaquez, Tammy M Barnes, Gabrielle K Steinl, Kae-Won Cho, Carey N Lumeng, Steven M Riddle, Martin G Myers, Diane C Fingar
The innate immune kinase TBK1 initiates inflammatory responses to combat infectious pathogens by driving production of type I interferons. TBK1 also controls metabolic processes and promotes oncogene-induced cell proliferation and survival. Here, we demonstrate that TBK1 activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) directly. In cultured cells, TBK1 associates with and activates mTORC1 through site-specific mTOR phosphorylation (on S2159) in response to certain growth factor receptors (i.e., EGF-receptor but not insulin receptor) and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) (i...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150190/metabolic-adaptation-of-intracellular-bacteria-and-fungi-to-macrophages
#2
REVIEW
Marcel Sprenger, Lydia Kasper, Michael Hensel, Bernhard Hube
The mature phagosome of macrophages is a hostile environment for the vast majority of phagocytosed microbes. In addition to active destruction of the engulfed microbes by antimicrobial compounds, restriction of essential nutrients in the phagosomal compartment contributes to microbial growth inhibition and killing. However, some pathogenic microorganisms have not only developed various strategies to efficiently withstand or counteract antimicrobial activities, but also to acquire nutrients within macrophages for intracellular replication...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149454/melatonin-alleviates-adipose-inflammation-through-elevating-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-and-diverting-adipose-derived-exosomes-to-macrophages-in-mice
#3
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tiantian Zhang, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration and metabolic inflammation, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Melatonin is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammatory response of adipocytes and macrophages activation. However, the effects of melatonin on the communication between adipocytes and macrophages during adipose inflammation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated melatonin alleviated inflammation and elevated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) level in adipose tissue of obese mice...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146487/mitochondria-a-master-regulator-in-macrophage-and-t-cell-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Pu-Ste Liu, Ping-Chih Ho
Orchestrating biological activities of immune cells through metabolic reprogramming reveals a new approach to harnessing immune responses. Increasing evidence reveals that the mitochondrion is a central regulator for modulating metabolic reprogramming and controlling immune cell activation and functions. In addition to supporting bioenergetic demands, the mitochondrion serves as a signaling platform through the generation of reactive oxygen species and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to modulate signaling cascades controlling immune cell activation and immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144803/endocrine-manifestations-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#6
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144234/lrp1-integrates-murine-macrophage-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-responses-in-atherosclerosis
#7
Xunde Xian, Yinyuan Ding, Marco Dieckmann, Li Zhou, Florian Plattner, Mingxia Liu, John S Parks, Robert E Hammer, Philippe Boucher, Shirling Tsai, Joachim Herz
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor with diverse physiological roles, ranging from cellular uptake of lipoproteins and other cargo by endocytosis to sensor of the extracellular environment and integrator of a wide range of signaling mechanisms. As a chylomicron remnant receptor, LRP1 controls systemic lipid metabolism in concert with the LDL receptor in the liver, whereas in smooth muscle cells (SMC) LRP1 functions as a co-receptor for TGFβ and PDGFRβ in reverse cholesterol transport and the maintenance of vascular wall integrity...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#8
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#11
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140265/anti-inflammatory-potential-of-1-nitro-2-phenylethylene
#12
Michelle A Sugimoto, Márcia de Jesus Amazonas da Silva, Larissa Froede Brito, Rosivaldo Dos Santos Borges, Flávio Almeida Amaral, Ana Paula de Araujo Boleti, Maritza Echevarria Ordoñez, Jose Carlos Tavares, Lirlandia Pires Sousa, Emerson Silva Lima
Inflammation is a reaction of the host to infectious or sterile stimuli and has the physiological purpose of restoring tissue homeostasis. However, uncontrolled or unresolved inflammation can lead to tissue damage, giving rise to a plethora of chronic inflammatory diseases, including metabolic syndrome and autoimmunity pathologies with eventual loss of organ function. Beta-nitrostyrene and its derivatives are known to have several biological activities, including anti-edema, vasorelaxant, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#13
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137982/adipose-tissue-complement-factor-b-promotes-adipocyte-maturation
#14
Hiroaki Matsunaga, Misaki Iwashita, Takanori Shinjo, Akiko Yamashita, Mitsudai Tsuruta, Shoichiro Nagasaka, Ataru Taniguchi, Mitsuo Fukushima, Naoya Watanabe, Fusanori Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: It is well-known that the complement system plays an essential role in host immunity. Observational studies have indicated that complement system-related molecules such as complement factor B (CfB) and other components are correlated with obesity and/or insulin resistance parameters. In this study, we investigated the role of adipocyte-derived CfB in adipose tissue metabolism. METHODS: We investigated the expression level of complement system-related genes in adipocytes...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137283/c1q-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-protein-3-protects-macrophages-against-lps-induced-lipid-accumulation-inflammation-and-phenotype-transition-via-ppar%C3%AE-and-tlr4-mediated-pathways
#15
Jiale Lin, Qi Liu, Hui Zhang, Xingtao Huang, Ruoxi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Xuedong Wang, Bo Yu, Jingbo Hou
Macrophage inflammation and foam cell formation are critical events during the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipokine with anti-inflammatory and cardioprotection properties; however, little is known regarding the influence of CTRP3 on AS. As macrophages play a key role in AS, this study investigated the effects of CTRP3 on macrophage lipid metabolism, inflammatory reactions, and phenotype transition, as well as underlying mechanisms, to reveal the relationship between CTRP3 and AS...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137202/differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-macrophages-after-exposure-to-the-penicillium-mycotoxins-citrinin-and-or-ochratoxin-a
#16
Kristen M Brennan, Se-Young Oh, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Daniel E Graugnard, Niel A Karrow
Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25)) to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome...
November 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#17
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#18
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132171/metabolic-endotoxemia-activated-macrophages-promote-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-death-via-ifn%C3%AE-xaf1-pathway
#19
Mitsudai Tsuruta, Misaki Iwashita, Takanori Shinjo, Hiroaki Matsunaga, Akiko Yamashita, Fusanori Nishimura
Metabolic endotoxemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In addition to adipose tissue inflammation, inflammatory cell infiltration is also observed in islets, although its effect on islets is largely unknown. We hypothesized that macrophage infiltration into islets leads to impairment of α or β cell function, which ultimately act to exacerbate the pathophysiology of diabetes. Gene expression in a murine α cell line, αTC1, and β cell line, βTC6, was investigated by DNA microarray after co-culturing the cells with a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264...
November 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131162/the-3d-orbisims-label-free-metabolic-imaging-with-subcellular-lateral-resolution-and-high-mass-resolving-power
#20
Melissa K Passarelli, Alexander Pirkl, Rudolf Moellers, Dmitry Grinfeld, Felix Kollmer, Rasmus Havelund, Carla F Newman, Peter S Marshall, Henrik Arlinghaus, Morgan R Alexander, Andy West, Stevan Horning, Ewald Niehuis, Alexander Makarov, Colin T Dollery, Ian S Gilmore
We report the development of a 3D OrbiSIMS instrument for label-free biomedical imaging. It combines the high spatial resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS; under 200 nm for inorganic species and under 2 μm for biomolecules) with the high mass-resolving power of an Orbitrap (>240,000 at m/z 200). This allows exogenous and endogenous metabolites to be visualized in 3D with subcellular resolution. We imaged the distribution of neurotransmitters-gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and serotonin-with high spectroscopic confidence in the mouse hippocampus...
November 13, 2017: Nature Methods
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