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Macrophage metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343338/expression-of-typical-osteoclast-markers-by-pbmcs-after-peg-induced-fusion-as-a-model-for-studying-osteoclast-differentiation
#1
Luz M Castillo, Carlos A Guerrero, Orlando Acosta
Bone is a metabolically active organ subjected to continuous remodeling process that involves resorption by osteoclast and subsequent formation by osteoblasts. Osteoclast involvement in this physiological event is regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Fusion of mono-nuclear pre-osteoclasts is a critical event for osteoclast differentiation and for bone resorption. Here we show that PBMCs can be successfully fused with polyethylenglicol (PEG) in order to generated viable osteoclast-like cells that exhibit tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone resorptive activities...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342790/lipocalin-2-and-iron-trafficking-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Michaela Jung, Christina Mertens, Rebekka Bauer, Claudia Rehwald, Bernhard Brüne
Iron is an essential element for virtually all organisms. It facilitates cell proliferation and growth but also contributes to major hallmarks of cancer such as tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Often, iron handling of tumor cells is disturbed, with altered iron acquisition, efflux, and storage. Targeting perturbed iron metabolic pathways might open opportunities towards novel approaches in cancer treatment. It is becoming clear that cells of the tumor microenvironment such as macrophages contribute to tumor progression...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338217/fasting-up-regulates-ferroportin-1-expression-via-a-ghrelin-ghsr-mapk-signaling-pathway
#3
Qian-Qian Lou, Yu-Fu Zhou, Mesona Yung-Jin Chen, Li Liu, Juan Ma, Meng-Wan Zhang, Fa-Li Zhang, Ya Ke, Zhong-Ming Qian
The significant positive correlation between ghrelin and iron and hepcidin levels in the plasma of children with iron deficiency anemia prompted us to hypothesize that ghrelin may affect iron metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of fasting or ghrelin on the expression of hepcidin, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), ferritin light chain (Ft-L) proteins and ghrelin, and also hormone secretagogue receptor 1 alpha (GHSR1α) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) mRNAs in the spleen and/or macrophage...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337956/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#4
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337427/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-virulent-mycobacterium-bovis
#5
Pei Li, Rui Wang, Wenqi Dong, Linlin Hu, Bingbing Zong, Yanyan Zhang, Xiangru Wang, Aizhen Guo, Anding Zhang, Yaozu Xiang, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the most common pathogens of tuberculosis (TB), is virulent to human and cattle, and transmission between cattle and humans warrants reconsideration concerning food safety and public health. Recently, efforts have begun to analyze cellular proteomic responses induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). However, the underlying mechanisms by which virulent M. bovis affects human hosts are not fully understood. For the present study, we utilized a global and comparative labeling strategy of isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to assess proteomic changes in the human monocyte cell line (THP-1) using a vaccine strain and two virulent strains H37Rv and M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#6
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335738/genome-wide-expression-profiling-establishes-novel-modulatory-roles-of-vitamin-c-in-thp-1-human-monocytic-cell-line
#7
Sakshi Dhingra Batra, Malobi Nandi, Kriti Sikri, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (vit C) is an essential dietary nutrient, which is a potent antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. Vit C is also considered to enhance the immune effector function of macrophages, which are regarded to be the first line of defence in response to any pathogen. The THP-1 cell line is widely used for studying macrophage functions and for analyzing host cell-pathogen interactions. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide temporal gene expression and functional enrichment analysis of THP-1 cells treated with 100 μM of vit C, a physiologically relevant concentration of the vitamin...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334683/combined-metformin-and-insulin-treatment-reverses-metabolically-impaired-omental-adipogenesis-and-accumulation-of-4-hydroxynonenal-in-obese-diabetic-patients
#8
Morana Jaganjac, Shamma Almuraikhy, Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Mashael Al-Jaber, Moataz Bashah, Nayef A Mazloum, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Wael Kafienah, Mohamed A Elrayess
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM) adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. METHODS: OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery...
March 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#9
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332276/dual-ccr2-ccr5-antagonist-treatment-attenuates-adipose-inflammation-but-not-microvascular-complications-in-ob-ob-mice
#10
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Sebastian D Parlee, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Hongyu Zhang, Lijun Ma, Stacey A Sakowski, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are common diabetic complications with limited treatment options. Experimental studies show that targeting inflammation using chemokine receptor (CCR) antagonists ameliorates DKD, presumably by reducing macrophage accumulation or activation. As inflammation is implicated in DPN development, we assessed whether CCR2 and CCR5 antagonism could also benefit DPN. Five-week-old ob/ob mice were fed a diet containing MK-0812, a dual CCR2-CCR5 receptor antagonist, for 8 weeks and DPN, DKD, and metabolic phenotyping were then performed to determine the effect of CCR inhibition...
March 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331434/successful-reduction-of-inflammatory-responses-and-arachidonic-acid-cyclooxygenase-2-pathway-in-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells-by-silencing-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein
#11
Qian Wang, Guanglin Shi, Ying Teng, Xia Li, Jin Xie, Qin Shen, Caixin Zhang, Songshi Ni, Zhiyuan Tang
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, also known as aP2 or fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays an important role in inflammatory and metabolic responses in adipocytes and macrophages. Recent work has demonstrated that macrophage FABP4 integrates inflammatory and lipid metabolic responses, thereby contributing to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, it is not known whether FABP4 in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells(HPAECs) modulates inflammation...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330947/linking-hemorrhage-angiogenesis-macrophages-and-iron-metabolism-in-atherosclerotic-vascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Liang Guo, Emanuel Harari, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330703/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-phosphatase-1-mkp-1-in-macrophage-biology-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-redox-regulated-master-controller-of-monocyte-function-and-macrophage-phenotype
#13
REVIEW
Hong Seok Kim, Reto Asmis
MAPK pathways play a critical role in the activation of monocytes and macrophages by pathogens, signaling molecules and environmental cues and in the regulation of macrophage function and plasticity. MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) has emerged as the main counter-regulator of MAPK signaling in monocytes and macrophages. Loss of MKP-1 in monocytes and macrophages in response to metabolic stress leads to dysregulation of monocyte adhesion and migration, and gives rise to dysfunctional, proatherogenic monocyte-derived macrophages...
March 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330428/toxicity-of-airborne-dust-as-an-indicator-of-moisture-problems-in-school-buildings
#14
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Hanna Leppänen, Matti Peltonen, William Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Kati Huttunen
Moisture-damaged indoor environments are thought to increase the toxicity of indoor air particulate matter (PM), indicating that a toxicological assay could be used as a method for recognizing buildings with indoor air problems. We aimed to test if our approach of analyzing the toxicity of actively collected indoor air PM in vitro differentiates moisture-damaged from non-damaged school buildings. We collected active air samples with NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Samplers from moisture-damaged (index) and non-damaged (reference) school buildings (4 + 4)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329220/prolonged-exposures-to-intermittent-hypoxia-promote-visceral-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-severe-sleep-apnea-effect-of-normoxic-recovery
#15
Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Recep Nigdelioglu, Zhuanhong Qiao, Robert B Hamanaka, Gökhan M Mutlu, Mahzad Akbarpour, David Gozal
Study Objectives: Increased visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) mass results in infiltration of inflammatory macrophages that drive inflammation and insulin resistance. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suffer from increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Murine models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking moderate-severe OSA manifest insulin resistance following short-term IH. We examined in mice the effect of long-term IH on the inflammatory cellular changes within vWAT, and the potential effect of normoxic recovery (IH-R)...
December 22, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326040/effects-of-topical-icing-on-inflammation-angiogenesis-revascularization-and-myofiber-regeneration-in-skeletal-muscle-following-contusion-injury
#16
Daniel P Singh, Zohreh Barani Lonbani, Maria A Woodruff, Tony J Parker, Roland Steck, Jonathan M Peake
Contusion injuries in skeletal muscle commonly occur in contact sport and vehicular and industrial workplace accidents. Icing has traditionally been used to treat such injuries under the premise that it alleviates pain, reduces tissue metabolism, and modifies vascular responses to decrease swelling. Previous research has examined the effects of icing on inflammation and microcirculatory dynamics following muscle injury. However, whether icing influences angiogenesis, collateral vessel growth, or myofiber regeneration remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325853/deletion-of-macrophage-mineralocorticoid-receptor-protects-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-through-er%C3%AE-hgf-met-pathway
#17
Yu-Yao Zhang, Chao Li, Gao-Feng Yao, Lin-Juan Du, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Shuai Yan, Jian-Yong Sun, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Liu, Xiaoran Zhang, Gang Wei, Wenxin Tong, Xiaobei Chen, Yong Wu, Shuyang Sun, Suling Liu, Qiurong Ding, Ying Yu, Huiyong Yin, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Although the importance of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized, it remains elusive how macrophages impact hepatocytes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implied to play important roles in NAFLD and T2DM. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report that myeloid MR knockout (MRKO) improves glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Estrogen signaling is sufficient and necessary for such improvements...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325817/papers-of-note-in-nature543-7645
#18
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight a function for disordered protein domains, how fish sense electric fields, the subcellular localization of nutrient sensing, metabolism in intestinal stem cells, the bone as an endocrine organ, signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cervical cancer, and a drug that stimulates the recruitment of antitumor macrophages.
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324010/separating-the-anti-inflammatory-and-diabetogenic-effects-of-glucocorticoids-through-lxr%C3%AE-antagonism
#19
Rucha Patel, Lilia Magomedova, Ricky Tsai, Stéphane Angers, Arturo Orellana, Carolyn L Cummins
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) including dexamethasone (DEX) are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. Long-term use of GCs, however, can result in metabolic side effects such as hyperglycemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) regulate overlapping genes involved in gluconeogenesis and inflammation. We have previously shown that Lxrβ-/- mice are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of DEX, but still sensitive to its immunosuppressive actions...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323956/hyperhomocysteinemia-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-pcos-mice-through-modulating-m2-macrophage-polarization-via-estrogen-suppression
#20
Xinyu Qi, Bochun Zhang, Yue Zhao, Rong Li, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yanli Pang, Jie Qiao
It has been shown that serum homocycteine (Hcy) levels are higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the specific role of hyperhomocycteinemia (HHcy) in the development of PCOS has never been reported. Adipose tissue inflammation is featured by the infiltration of macrophages that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glucose and insulin intolerance. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and/or high methionine diet to induce PCOS and HHcy mice models...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
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