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Macrophage metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922564/obesity-alters-b-cell-and-macrophage-populations-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#1
Kristin R Peterson, David K Flaherty, Alyssa H Hasty
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise, and it is understood that regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) function is important to systemic metabolic homeostasis. Immune cells play a central role in the maintenance of WAT, and their compositions change in number and inflammatory phenotype with the progression of obesity. Because of its energy-burning capabilities, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become a focus of obesity research. Although novel studies have focused on the function of brown adipocytes in thermogenesis, the tissue as a whole has not been immunologically characterized...
September 18, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919555/disturbances-of-systemic-and-hippocampal-insulin-sensitivity-in-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-knockout-male-mice-lead-to-behavioral-changes-associated-with-decreased-psa-ncam-levels
#2
Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursać, Nataša Veličković, Ljupka Gligorovska, Djurdjica Ignjatović, Mirko Tomić, Gordana Matić
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine well known for its role in inflammation enhancement. However, a growing body of evidence is emerging on its role in energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues such as hippocampus, a brain region implicated in cognition, learning and memory. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of MIF may result in the specific behavioral changes, which may be linked tо impairments in brain or systemic insulin sensitivity by possible changes of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919001/pharmacological-inhibition-of-aldh1a-enzymes-suppresses-weight-gain-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Michael Haenisch, Piper M Treuting, Thea Brabb, Alex S Goldstein, Kathryn Berkseth, John K Amory, Jisun Paik
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) is known to play a role in weight regulation. Because mice without ALDH1A1, a major RA synthesizing enzyme, are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we tested a hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of RA synthesis can suppress weight gain in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then randomized to a HFD with or without WIN 18,446, an RA synthesis inhibitor, for an additional 9 weeks...
September 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#4
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#5
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914667/metabolic-regulation-of-macrophages-in-tumor-microenvironment
#6
Jaehong Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insight into the metabolic changes in cancer has become so important that cancer is regarded as a disease entity full of metabolic implications. We summarize the recent findings pertaining to cancer cell-derived metabolic changes that regulate the function of macrophages to favor cancer cell survival, and the reported approaches to reverse these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the observation and dramatic revitalization of the Warburg effect, metabolic changes were thought to be confined in cancer cells...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912717/global-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ox-ldl-induced-macrophage-derived-foam-cells
#7
Wenjuan Xu, Ziyi Wei, Jiaojiao Dong, Feipeng Duan, Kuikui Chen, Chang Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaowei Yang, Lianming Chen, Hongbin Xiao, An Liu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic disorder of large arteries that is a major risk factors of high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative modification LDL is one of the important contributors to atherogenesis. Macrophages take up ox-LDL and convert into foam cells, which is the hallmark of AS. To advance the understanding of the metabolic perturbation involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage-derived foam cells and discover the potential biomarkers of early AS, a global metabolomics approach was applied based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911168/developmental-programming-impact-of-gestational-steroid-and-metabolic-milieus-on-mediators-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-prenatal-testosterone-treated-female-sheep
#8
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Victoria Andriessen, Makeda Mesquitta, Lixia Zeng, Subramaniam Pennathur, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910408/effects-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upon-the-metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Jessica Karlsson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J Fowler
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906002/anti-inflammatory-activities-and-glycerophospholipids-metabolism-in-kla-stimulated-raw-264-7-macrophage-cells-by-diarylheptanoids-from-the-rhizomes-of-alpinia-officinarum
#10
Guogai Zhang, Lifang Zhao, Jiancheng Zhu, Yifan Feng, Xia Wu
Alpinia officinarum was used for anti-inflammatory activity historically in China. Diarylheptanoids isolated from Alpinia officinarum play important biological roles in prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders. Seven diarylheptanoids (1-7) were isolated from Alpinia officinarum. The cell viabilities and anti-inflammatory activities of diarylheptanoids were evaluated by MTT assay and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) production in KLA-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Meanwhile, the relationships between their anti-inflammatories and structure-activities were discussed...
September 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#11
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904551/suppressive-effect-of-the-n-hexane-extract-of-litsea-japonica-fruit-flesh-on-monosodium-iodoacetate-induced-osteoarthritis-in-rats
#12
Seung-Hyung Kim, Hye-Jin Choi, Won-Kyung Yang, Ji-Eun Lee, Ju-Hyun Cho, In-Jae Park, Sunyoung Park, Bo-Kyung Park, Mirim Jin
We examined the antiosteoarthritic effect of the n-hexane extract of Litsea japonica fruit flesh (LJF-HE) in a rat model of monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis. LJF-HE significantly reduced the difference in weight-bearing capabilities of the hind paws between healthy and MIA-treated rats. Histological examination of the knee joints indicated that LJF-HE suppressed cartilage and bone destruction. Additionally, there were decreases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the joints...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904022/pi3k%C3%AE-ablation-does-not-promote-diabetes-in-db-db-mice-but-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis
#13
Ludovic Breasson, Claudia Sardi, Barbara Becattini, Fabio Zani, Giovanni Solinas
PI3Kγ has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance; however, previous studies have indicated that PI3Kγ activity in pancreatic β-cells is required for normal insulin secretion in response to glucose. Hence, a possible deterioration of insulin secretion capacity in patients who are predisposed to the failure of pancreatic β-cell function is a major concern for the pharmacologic inhibition of PI3Kγ. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of PI3Kγ ablation in db/db diabetic mice, a genetic model of obesity-driven β-cell failure and diabetes...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903946/ppara-agonist-fenofibrate-enhances-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-attenuates-polycystic-kidney-and-liver-disease-in-mice
#14
Ronak Lakhia, Matanel Yheskel, Andrea Flaten, Ezekiel B Quittner-Strom, William L Holland, Vishal Patel
PPARA is nuclear hormone receptor that promotes fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We and others have recently shown that PPARA and its target genes are downregulated, and FAO and OXPHOS are impaired in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, whether PPARA and FAO/OXPHOS are causally linked to ADPKD progression is not entirely clear. We report that expression of PPARA and FAO/OXPHOS genes is downregulated and in-vivo β-oxidation rate of 3H-labelled triolein is reduced in Pkd1RC/RC mice, a slowly-progressing orthologous model of ADPKD that closely mimics the human ADPKD phenotype...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902388/transcriptional-repression-in-macrophages-basic-mechanisms-and-alterations-in-metabolic-inflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Eckardt Treuter, Rongrong Fan, Zhiqiang Huang, Tomas Jakobsson, Nicolas Venteclef
Macrophage differentiation and signal responses are coordinated by closely linked transcriptional and epigenomic mechanisms that trigger gene expression. In contrast to well-characterized transcriptional activation pathways in response to diverse metabolic and inflammatory signals, we just begin appreciating that transcriptional repression is equally important. Here we will highlight macrophage pathways that are controlled by multifaceted repression events, along with a discussion of underlying regulatory mechanisms and components...
September 13, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901194/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#16
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Generally, the kidneys are assumed to not be no direct targets of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to 2 different intensity protocols...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898277/iron-imaging-reveals-tumor-and-metastasis-macrophage-hemosiderin-deposits-in-breast-cancer
#17
Avigdor Leftin, Nir Ben-Chetrit, Florian Klemm, Johanna A Joyce, Jason A Koutcher
Iron-deposition is a metabolic biomarker of macrophages in both normal and pathological situations, but the presence of iron in tumor and metastasis-associated macrophages is not known. Here we mapped and quantified hemosiderin-laden macrophage (HLM) deposits in murine models of metastatic breast cancer using iron and macrophage histology, and in vivo MRI. Iron MRI detected high-iron pixel clusters in mammary tumors, lung metastasis, and brain metastasis as well as liver and spleen tissue known to contain the HLMs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895372/-tipping-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-towards-regression-of-liver-fibrosis-novel-concepts
#18
Fernando Magdaleno, Robert Schierwagen, Frank E Uschner, Jonel Trebicka
Fibrosis development was initially conceived as an incessant progressive condition. Nowadays, it has become evident that fibrotic tissue undergoes a continuous two-way process: fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis, characterizing the remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, in established fibrosis, this two-way process is tipped towards fibrogenesis and this leads to a self-perpetuating accumulation of ECM, a distinct metabolic unit, as well as other cells and processes promoting fibrosis deposition. Several mechanisms promote fibrosis regression, such as degradation of ECM, infiltration of restorative macrophages, prevention of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocytes, restoration of the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells' differentiation phenotype, and reversion to quiescence, apoptosis and senescence of hepatic stellate cells (HSC)...
September 11, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894448/sirtuin-2-deficiency-increases-bacterial-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-and-protects-from-chronic-staphylococcal-infection
#19
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Charlotte Théroude, Jacobus Herderschee, Matteo Mombelli, Jérôme Lugrin, Marc Pfefferlé, Beatrice Tyrrell, Sarah Lensch, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the seven members of the family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuins target histones and non-histone proteins according to their subcellular localization, influencing various biological processes. SIRT2 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle, and metabolic pathways. As such, SIRT2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, metabolic, oncologic, and chronic inflammatory disorders. This motivated the development of SIRT2-directed therapies for clinical purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894119/evidence-for-biochemical-barrier-restoration-topical-solenopsin-analogs-improve-inflammation-and-acanthosis-in-the-kc-tie2-mouse-model-of-psoriasis
#20
Jack L Arbiser, Ron Nowak, Kellie Michaels, Yuliya Skabytska, Tilo Biedermann, Monica J Lewis, Michael Y Bonner, Shikha Rao, Linda C Gilbert, Nabiha Yusuf, Isabella Karlsson, Yi Fritz, Nicole L Ward
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2.5-6 million patients in the United States. The cause of psoriasis remains unknown. Previous human and animal studies suggest that patients with a susceptible genetic background and some stimulus, such as barrier disruption, leads to a coordinated signaling events involving cytokines between keratinocytes, endothelial cells, T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Ceramides are endogenous skin lipids essential for maintaining skin barrier function and loss of ceramides may underlie inflammatory and premalignant skin...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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