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Platelets antimicrobial

Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne, André Karch
BACKGROUND: Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model for differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children based on routinely available parameters (baseline characteristics, clinical/laboratory parameters, technical/medical support). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at a German tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Nihui Zhang, Ruijuan Yao, Jianglong Guo, Jing He, Guolong Meng, Fang Wu
Chitosan as a natural cationic polysaccharide has drawn wide interests as surface modification materials in orthopedic applications, with the potential to achieve combined osteogenic, antimicrobial and haemostatic functions. The cationicity of chitosan has been reported to play an important role in modifying the osteoblastic cell responses and the antibacterial activities, while its effect on the haemostatic properties has been rarely studied. To this aim, we prepared carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels with different cationicity through crosslinking with different concentrations of genipin (1%, 2...
February 25, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Abraham Siika, Leanne McCabe, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Cissy Kityo, Jane Mallewa, Jay Berkley, Kath Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Keith Baleeta, Shepherd Mudzingwa, James Abach, Kusum Nathoo, Margaret J Thomason, Andrew J Prendergast, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
Background: Severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have high mortality shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated predictors of early mortality and "late presenter" phenotypes. Methods: The Reduction of EArly MortaLITY (REALITY) trial enrolled ART-naive adults and children ≥5 years of age with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL initiating ART in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline predictors of mortality through 48 weeks were identified using Cox regression with backwards elimination (exit P > ...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yingfeng Wang, Maoli Yin, Zhiguang Li, Ying Liu, Xuehong Ren, Tung-Shi Huang
N-halamine polymers have been successfully attached surfaces of mesoporous materials. The modified mesoporous materials have been applied on the modification of cotton. Soaking in household bleach, the coated cotton shows good antimicrobial efficacy against S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7. The chlorinated samples could completely inactivate 100% S. aureus within 10 min, and 99.99% E. coli O157:H7 within 30 min. The chlorinated sample had better platelet adhesion and red blood cell cohesion than the control sample...
February 20, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Nikasha Patel, Ali Khademhosseini, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sailendra Naidu, Grace Knuttinen, Rahmi Oklu
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are ubiquitous in the healthcare industry and carry two common complications, catheter related infections and occlusion, particularly by thrombus. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are an important cause of nosocomial infections that increase patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Innovative design strategies for intravenous catheters can help reduce these preventable infections. Antimicrobial coatings can play a major role in preventing disease. These coatings can be divided into two major categories: drug eluting and non-drug eluting...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Prerna Ashok Karde, Kunal Sunder Sethi, Swapna Arunkumar Mahale, Smita Uday Khedkar, Agraja Ganpat Patil, Chaitanya Pradeep Joshi
Background: Platelet concentrates are used in various medical procedures to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. In recent times, their antimicrobial efficacy is also explored. However, various platelet concentrates have evolved which differ in the centrifugation protocols. One such recently introduced platelet concentrate is injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) concentrate. Hence, the aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial property, and platelet count of i-PRF in comparison to other platelet concentrates, i...
March 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Anna Henningham, Mark R Davies, Satoshi Uchiyama, Nina M van Sorge, Sean Lund, Kelsey T Chen, Mark J Walker, Jason N Cole, Victor Nizet
Classification of streptococci is based upon expression of unique cell wall carbohydrate antigens. All serotypes of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes), a leading cause of infection-related mortality worldwide, express the group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC, the classical Lancefield antigen, is comprised of a polyrhamnose backbone with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains. The immunodominant GlcNAc epitope of GAC is the basis of all rapid diagnostic testing for GAS infection. We previously identified the 12-gene GAC biosynthesis gene cluster and determined that the glycosyltransferase GacI was required for addition of the GlcNAc side chain to the polyrhamnose core...
January 30, 2018: MBio
Míriam Camargo Guarnieri, Jeanne Claíne de Albuquerque Modesto, Carlos Daniel Pérez, Tatiana Fontes Ottaiano, Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira, Fabrício Pereira Batista, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto Campos, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva
Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use...
January 19, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Reham L Aggour, Lina Gamil
Antimicrobial properties of platelet rich plasma (PRP) against various microorganisms have been recently pointed out. PRP could be an alternative to conventional antibiotics in preventing oral and periodontal infections. We examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers and 10 periodontitis patients...
March 30, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
R Palankar, T P Kohler, K Krauel, J Wesche, S Hammerschmidt, A Greinacher
BACKGROUND: Activated platelets release the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) stored in their granules. PF4 binds to polyanions (P) on bacteria, undergoes a conformational change and exposes neoepitopes. These neoepitopes induce production of anti-PF4/P antibodies. As PF4 binds to a variety of bacteria, anti-PF4/P IgG can bind and opsonize several bacterial species. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether platelets are able to kill bacteria directly after recognizing anti-PF4/P IgG opsonized bacteria in the presence of PF4 via their FcγRIIA...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Amith Shetty, Stephen Pj Macdonald, Gerben Keijzers, Julian M Williams, Benjamin Tang, Bas de Groot, Kelly Thompson, John F Fraser, Simon Finfer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jonathan Iredell
Sepsis is characterised by organ dysfunction resulting from infection, with no reliable single objective test and current diagnosis based on clinical features and results of investigations. In the ED, investigations may be conducted to diagnose infection as the cause of the presenting illness, identify the source, distinguish sepsis from uncomplicated infection (i.e. without organ dysfunction) and/ or risk stratification. Appropriate sample collection for microbiological testing remains key for subsequent confirmation of diagnosis and rationalisation of antimicrobials...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Ali K Sig, Mustafa Guney, Aylin Uskudar Guclu, Erkan Ozmen
Complementary medicine methods have a long history, but modern medicine has just recently focused on their possible modes of action. Medicinal leech therapy (MLT) or hirudotherapy, an old technique, has been studied by many researchers for possible effects on various diseases such as inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, and after different surgeries. Hirudo medicinalis has widest therapeutic usage among the leeches, but worldwide, many different species were tested and studied. Leeches secrete more than 20 identified bioactive substances such as antistasin, eglins, guamerin, hirudin, saratin, bdellins, complement, and carboxypeptidase inhibitors...
December 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
Dihia Allane, Habiba Oussedik-Oumehdi, Zoubir Harrat, Michel Seve, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Investigating new antimicrobial and antiparasitic components from Viperidae venoms represents an alternative therapeutic strategy. In this study, we report the characterization of a disintegrin isolated from Cerastes cerastes venom, exhibiting antiparasitic activity on Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Indeed, isolated disintegrin, referred to Disintegrin_Cc, induced 84.75% of parasiticidal activity and deep morphological alterations on the parasites. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that this disintegrin was homogenous...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Li-Chong Xu, Zhongjing Li, Zhicheng Tian, Chen Chen, Harry R Allcock, Christopher A Siedlecki
A new poly[bis(octafluoropentoxy) phosphazene] (OFP) was synthesized for the purpose of blood contacting medical devices. OFP was further either developed into crosslinkable polyphosphazene (X-OFP) or blended with polyurethane (PU) as the mixture (OFP/PU) for improvement of mechanical property of polyphosphazene polymers. All the materials were fabricated as smooth films or further textured with submicron pillars for the assay of antimicrobial and antithrombotic properties. Results showed that crosslinkable OFP (X-OFP) and blends of OFP/PU successfully improved the mechanical strength of OFP and fewer defects of pillars were found on the textured polyphosphazene surfaces...
February 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sabrina Marcazzan, Silvio Taschieri, Roberto Lodovico Weinstein, Massimo Del Fabbro
In the presence of large bone defects, delayed bone union, or nonunion and fractures, bone reconstruction may be necessary. Different strategies have been employed to enhance bone healing among which the use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs). Due to the high content of platelets and platelet-derived bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, antimicrobial peptides), they are promising candidates to enhance bone healing. However, both preclinical and clinical studies produced contrasting results, mainly due to a high heterogeneity in study design, objectives, techniques adopted, and outcomes assessed...
December 5, 2017: Platelets
C Koutserimpas, E Papachristou, N Nikitakis, N Zannes, A Tellos, G Velimezis
Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare and extremely difficult diagnosis. A rare case of a ruptured SAA in a 38-year old female, firstly treated with endovascular embolization and then with splenectomy, is presented. A 38-year old female presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain and fainting episodes. Direct catheter angiography revealed a ruptured SAA and distal, as well as proximal coil embolization was performed. Due to abdominal compartment syndrome the patient underwent open surgery with splenic artery ligation and splenectomy...
July 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Marek Stępniewski, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Jerzy Gosk
For many years, research has been carried out on finding an ideal bone substitute. Chitosan (CTS) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, obtained mainly from, inter alia, the shells of crustaceans. It is characterized by its high level of biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties as well as its support in the healing of wounds. Chitosan, due to its ability to form porous structures, can be used in the production of scaffolds used in the treatment of bone defects. There are numerous studies on the use of CTS in combination with other substances which aim to improve its biological and mechanical properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Adriana Silva Pontes, Andreimar Martins Soares, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
LAAOs (EC are found in concentrations that vary according to each species of snakes; Viperidae, Crotalidae and Elapidae contain 1-9% of this enzyme in their venoms. This review focuses on an update on molecular mechanisms, platelet activities, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, induction of apoptosis and inflammatory potential underlying the actions of SV-LAAOs. Snake venom LAAOs (SV-LAAOs) have become an interesting subject for pharmacological, structural and molecular studies. Although the mechanisms of action of these enzymes are not well understood they are a subject of a variety of studies, because LAAOs are multifunctional enzymes exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological effects, including the inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation, hemolysis and hemorrhage, in addition to the stimulation of apoptosis, the activation of leukocytes and the formation of edema...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jan Gessmann, Dominik Seybold, Fahim Ayami, Elvira Peter, Hinnerk Baecker, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Manfred Koeller
Platelet-free blood plasma clots were loaded either with antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, or linezolid) at concentrations of 5-300 µg/ml or with silver ions (silver acetate) at concentrations of 3.3-129 µg/ml. The release of antibiotics or silver from the clot matrix was analyzed after repeated immersion of the plasma clots using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, tissue cell compatibility was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)...
November 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Thien Vu Tran, Anh Ngoc Hoang, Trang Thuy Thi Nguyen, Trung Van Phung, Khoa Cuu Nguyen, Alexey V Osipov, Igor A Ivanov, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Scorpion venoms are complex polypeptide mixtures, the ion channel blockers and antimicrobial peptides being the best studied components. The coagulopathic properties of scorpion venoms are poorly studied and the data about substances exhibiting these properties are very limited. During research on the Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom, we have isolated low-molecular compounds with anticoagulant activity. Determination of their structure has shown that one of them is adenosine, and two others are dipeptides LeuTrp and IleTrp...
October 26, 2017: Toxins
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