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Platelets antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750963/concentration-and-value-of-endocan-on-outcome-in-adult-patients-after-severe-sepsis
#1
Sheng-Yuan Hsiao, Chia-Te Kung, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chih-Min Su, Chin-Cheng Huang, Yun-Ru Lai, Hung-Chen Wang, Ben-Chung Cheng, Yu-Jih Su, Wei-Che Lin, Yi-Fang Chiang, Cheng-Hsien Lu
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in severe sepsis. Endocan is constitutively expressed in human endothelial cells when sepsis occurs. We tested the hypothesis that endocan concentrations are substantially increased in severe sepsis and decrease after antimicrobial therapy, and that endocan concentrations can predict treatment outcomes. METHODS: Biomarkers of the endothelium including endocan and cell adhesion molecules were prospectively evaluated in 153 patients with severe sepsis on days 1, 4, and 7 after admission along with biochemical and clinical data...
May 8, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721399/emergency-management-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-clinical-review
#2
REVIEW
Tracy MacIntosh
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) has a high mortality rate; early antimicrobial therapy is essential for improving patient outcomes. Given that cirrhotic patients are often coagulopathic, the perceived risk of bleeding may prevent providers from performing a paracentesis and ruling out this potentially deadly disease. We examine the pathophysiology and risk factors for SBP, and current guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment. We then review the time-sensitive nature of performing a paracentesis, and the current controversies and contraindications for performing this procedure in patients at risk for SBP...
March 1, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700554/platelet-rich-plasma-as-an-additional-therapeutic-option-for-infected-wounds-with-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-study
#3
Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, Ercan Yenilmez, Patrizio Petrone, Soner Yılmaz, Bayhan Bektöre, Berksan Şimsek, Tuğba Kula Atik, Mustafa Özyurt, Aytekin Ünlü
PURPOSE: Infected wounds, such as diabetic foot infections, are mostly polymicrobial and microorganisms have high resistance rates to antimicrobials. Infected wounds in diabetic patients have high cost, morbidity, and mortality rates. Based on these facts, there is a need for supportive localized treatment options such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) implementations. Demonstrating the in vitro antimicrobial effect, our aim was to lead up to clinical trials of localized PRP implementations in infected wounds such as diabetic foot infections...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687885/antimicrobial-peptides-an-effective-approach-to-prevent-bacterial-biofilm-formation-in-platelet-concentrates
#4
Meshari Alabdullatif, Chintamani D Atreya, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: The safety of platelet concentrates (PCs) is a major concern in transfusion medicine due to contamination mainly with skin Gram-positive bacteria. The predominant contaminant, Staphylococcus epidermidis, forms bacterial cell aggregates (biofilms) in PCs posing a safety risk for transfusion patients. Combinations of synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have demonstrated bactericidal activity in PCs. Herein, we have evaluated the ability of a mix of AMPs to inhibit biofilm formation and/or eradicate S...
April 24, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670076/cathelicidins-prime-platelets-to-mediate-arterial-thrombosis-and-tissue-inflammation
#5
Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Andreas Ehrlich, Clemens Eberle, Erik Gaitzsch, Andreas Margraf, Jochen Grommes, Prakash Saha, Anna Titova, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Konstantin Stark, Tobias Petzold, Thomas Stocker, Ludwig T Weckbach, Julia Novotny, Markus Sperandio, Bernhard Nieswandt, Alberto Smith, Hanna Mannell, Barbara Walzog, David Horst, Oliver Soehnlein, Steffen Massberg, Christian Schulz
Leukocyte-released antimicrobial peptides contribute to pathogen elimination and activation of the immune system. Their role in thrombosis is incompletely understood. Here we show that the cathelicidin LL-37 is abundant in thrombi from patients with acute myocardial infarction. Its mouse homologue, CRAMP, is present in mouse arterial thrombi following vascular injury, and derives mainly from circulating neutrophils. Absence of hematopoietic CRAMP in bone marrow chimeric mice reduces platelet recruitment and thrombus formation...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618559/inhibition-of-ip6k1-suppresses-neutrophil-mediated-pulmonary-damage-in-bacterial-pneumonia
#6
Qingming Hou, Fei Liu, Anutosh Chakraborty, Yonghui Jia, Amit Prasad, Hongbo Yu, Li Zhao, Keqiang Ye, Solomon H Snyder, Yuanfu Xu, Hongbo R Luo
The significance of developing host-modulating personalized therapies to counteract the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is well-recognized because such resistance cannot be overcome using microbe-centered strategies alone. Immune host defenses must be finely controlled during infection to balance pathogen clearance with unwanted inflammation-induced tissue damage. Thus, an ideal antimicrobial treatment would enhance bactericidal activity while preventing neutrophilic inflammation, which can induce tissue damage...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607320/antilisterial-effect-of-rosa-damascena-and-nymphaea-alba-in-mus-musculus
#7
Rida Batool, Asma Kalsoom, Iqra Akbar, Najma Arshad, Nazia Jamil
The present study was proposed to investigate the toxicological and prophylactic potential of ethanolic extracts of Rosa damascena and Nymphaea alba and their mixture in albino mice. For toxicity study, three different doses of plant extracts were orally administrated to three groups of mice for 14 successive days. Blood biochemistry and histological examinations of liver and kidney revealed that these extracts had no harmful effects up to 1000 mg/kg. To determine the prophylactic effects of Rosa damascena , Nymphaea alba , and their mixture, an infection model of Listeria monocytogenes was established in a pilot study...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580525/assessment-of-effects-of-phenolic-fractions-from-leaves-and-petals-of-dandelion-in-selected-components-of-hemostasis
#8
Bernadetta Lis, Dariusz Jędrejek, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Aerial parts and roots of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) have been found to be rich sources of polyphenols, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and triterpenoids, which exert different biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial. Additionally, the whole plant is recognized as safe and well tolerated by humans, with no reported adverse effects. Nowadays, dandelion is a commonly available dietary supplement and a component of pharmaceutical preparations used for the treatment of bladder, liver, and spleen...
May 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580123/ethnic-and-racial-difference-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia-treated-at-a-major-urban-medical-center
#9
Caitlin M O'Neill, Ilene C Weitz, Casey O'Connell, Howard A Liebman
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder with a complex immunopathology and pathogenesis characterized by thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. The disorder is separated into primary (idiopathic) ITP and secondary ITP, when associated with other immune or lymphoproliferative disorders and certain chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a recognized bacterial cause of ITP. In regions with high prevalence of infection, bacterial eradication has resulted in improvement in platelet count...
March 26, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574214/mechanistic-insights-into-functional-characteristics-of-native-crotamine
#10
Daniel Batista da Cunha, Ana Vitória Pupo Silvestrini, Ana Carolina Gomes da Silva, Deborah Maria de Paula Estevam, Flávia Lino Pollettini, Juliana de Oliveira Navarro, Armindo Antônio Alves, Ana Laura Remédio Zeni Beretta, Joyce M Annichino Bizzacchi, Lilian Cristina Pereira, Maurício Ventura Mazzi
The chemical composition of snake venoms is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides that can be pharmacologically active. Crotamine, a cell-penetrating peptide, has been described to have antimicrobial properties and it exerts its effects by interacting selectively with different structures, inducing changes in the ion flow pattern and cellular responses. However, its real therapeutic potential is not yet fully known. Bearing in mind that crotamine is a promising molecule in therapeutics, this study investigated the action of purified molecule in three aspects: I) antibacterial action on different species of clinical interest, II) the effect of two different concentrations of the molecule on platelet aggregation, and III) its effects on isolated mitochondria...
March 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553813/amicus-or-adversary-revisited-platelets-in-acute-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#11
Elizabeth A Middleton, Matthew T Rondina, Hansjorg Schwertz, Guy A Zimmerman
Platelets are essential cellular effectors of hemostasis and contribute to disease as circulating effectors of pathologic thrombosis. These are their most widely known biologic activities. Nevertheless, recent observations demonstrate that platelets have a much more intricate repertoire beyond these traditional functions, and are specialized for contributions to vascular barrier integrity, organ repair, antimicrobial host defense, inflammation, and activities across the immune continuum. Paradoxically, some of these newly-discovered activities of platelets appear to contribute to tissue injury based on clinical investigations and animal models of disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544449/development-and-validation-of-a-diagnostic-model-for-early-differentiation-of-sepsis-and-non-infectious-sirs-in-critically-ill-children-a-data-driven-approach-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#12
Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne, André Karch
BACKGROUND: Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model for differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children based on routinely available parameters (baseline characteristics, clinical/laboratory parameters, technical/medical support). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at a German tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529506/modulation-of-osteogenic-and-haemostatic-activities-by-tuning-cationicity-of-genipin-crosslinked-chitosan-hydrogels
#13
Nihui Zhang, Ruijuan Yao, Jianglong Guo, Jing He, Guolong Meng, Fang Wu
Chitosan as a natural cationic polysaccharide has drawn wide interests as surface modification materials in orthopedic applications, with the potential to achieve combined osteogenic, antimicrobial and haemostatic functions. The cationicity of chitosan has been reported to play an important role in modifying the osteoblastic cell responses and the antibacterial activities, while its effect on the haemostatic properties has been rarely studied. To this aim, we prepared carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels with different cationicity through crosslinking with different concentrations of genipin (1%, 2...
June 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514235/late-presentation-with-hiv-in-africa-phenotypes-risk-and-risk-stratification-in-the-reality-trial
#14
Abraham Siika, Leanne McCabe, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Cissy Kityo, Jane Mallewa, Jay Berkley, Kath Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Keith Baleeta, Shepherd Mudzingwa, James Abach, Kusum Nathoo, Margaret J Thomason, Andrew J Prendergast, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
Background: Severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have high mortality shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated predictors of early mortality and "late presenter" phenotypes. Methods: The Reduction of EArly MortaLITY (REALITY) trial enrolled ART-naive adults and children ≥5 years of age with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL initiating ART in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline predictors of mortality through 48 weeks were identified using Cox regression with backwards elimination (exit P > ...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482131/preparation-of-antimicrobial-and-hemostatic-cotton-with-modified-mesoporous-particles-for-biomedical-applications
#15
Yingfeng Wang, Maoli Yin, Zhiguang Li, Ying Liu, Xuehong Ren, Tung-Shi Huang
N-halamine polymers have been successfully attached surfaces of mesoporous materials. The modified mesoporous materials have been applied on the modification of cotton. Soaking in household bleach, the coated cotton shows good antimicrobial efficacy against S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7. The chlorinated samples could completely inactivate 100% S. aureus within 10 min, and 99.99% E. coli O157:H7 within 30 min. The chlorinated sample had better platelet adhesion and red blood cell cohesion than the control sample...
May 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399528/anti-fouling-strategies-for-central-venous-catheters
#16
REVIEW
Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Nikasha Patel, Ali Khademhosseini, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sailendra Naidu, Grace Knuttinen, Rahmi Oklu
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are ubiquitous in the healthcare industry and carry two common complications, catheter related infections and occlusion, particularly by thrombus. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are an important cause of nosocomial infections that increase patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Innovative design strategies for intravenous catheters can help reduce these preventable infections. Antimicrobial coatings can play a major role in preventing disease. These coatings can be divided into two major categories: drug eluting and non-drug eluting...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398852/comparative-evaluation-of-platelet-count-and-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-injectable-platelet-rich-fibrin-with-other-platelet-concentrates-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Prerna Ashok Karde, Kunal Sunder Sethi, Swapna Arunkumar Mahale, Smita Uday Khedkar, Agraja Ganpat Patil, Chaitanya Pradeep Joshi
Background: Platelet concentrates are used in various medical procedures to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. In recent times, their antimicrobial efficacy is also explored. However, various platelet concentrates have evolved which differ in the centrifugation protocols. One such recently introduced platelet concentrate is injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) concentrate. Hence, the aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial property, and platelet count of i-PRF in comparison to other platelet concentrates, i...
March 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382733/virulence-role-of-the-glcnac-side-chain-of-the-lancefield-cell-wall-carbohydrate-antigen-in-non-m1-serotype-group-a-streptococcus
#18
Anna Henningham, Mark R Davies, Satoshi Uchiyama, Nina M van Sorge, Sean Lund, Kelsey T Chen, Mark J Walker, Jason N Cole, Victor Nizet
Classification of streptococci is based upon expression of unique cell wall carbohydrate antigens. All serotypes of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes ), a leading cause of infection-related mortality worldwide, express the group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC, the classical Lancefield antigen, is comprised of a polyrhamnose backbone with N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains. The immunodominant GlcNAc epitope of GAC is the basis of all rapid diagnostic testing for GAS infection. We previously identified the 12-gene GAC biosynthesis gene cluster and determined that the glycosyltransferase GacI was required for addition of the GlcNAc side chain to the polyrhamnose core...
January 30, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360533/zoanthid-mucus-as-new-source-of-useful-biologically-active-proteins
#19
Míriam Camargo Guarnieri, Jeanne Claíne de Albuquerque Modesto, Carlos Daniel Pérez, Tatiana Fontes Ottaiano, Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira, Fabrício Pereira Batista, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto Campos, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva
Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use...
March 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359696/antimicrobial-effects-of-platelet-rich-plasma-against-selected-oral-and-periodontal-pathogens
#20
Reham L Aggour, Lina Gamil
Antimicrobial properties of platelet rich plasma (PRP) against various microorganisms have been recently pointed out. PRP could be an alternative to conventional antibiotics in preventing oral and periodontal infections. We examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers and 10 periodontitis patients...
March 30, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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