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Platelets antimicrobial

Deqiu Xu, Yuling Su, Lili Zhao, Fancui Meng, Chang Liu, Yayuan Guan, Jiya Zhang, Jianbin Luo
Inspired by mussel-adhesion phenomena in nature, a simple, mild surface modification process was elaborated to endow the polyurethane (PU) substrate with antibacterial/antifouling properties. In the present study, polydopamine was coated directly onto polyurethane surfaces. AgNO3 was then added and absorbed onto the surface by the active catechol and amine groups of the polydopamine coating. Meanwhile, the adsorbed Ag(+) ions were reduced in situ into metallic silver nanoparticles by the "bridge" of the polydopamine coating which yielded a coating with good antimicrobial properties...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Gillian M Griffiths
Many cells of the myeloid lineage use an unusual secretory organelle to deliver their effector mechanisms. In these cells, the lysosomal compartment is often modified not only to fulfill the degradative functions of a lysosome but also as a mechanism for secreting additional proteins that are found in the lysosomes of each specialized cell type. These extra proteins vary from one cell type to another according to the specialized function of the cell. For example, mast cells package histamine; cytotoxic T cells express perforin; azurophilic granules in neutrophils express antimicrobial peptides, and platelets von Willebrand factor...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Werner Schmid, Gottfried Novacek, Harald Vogelsang, Pavol Papay, Christian Primas, Alexander Eser, Simon Panzer
Platelets are activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and interplay with leukocytes. Engagement of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), which is expressed in human platelets, may be involved in crosstalks between platelets and leukocytes leading to their mutual activation for host defense. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), lipoprotein binding peptides, and sCD14 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 42 patients with active CD, in 43 patients with CD in remission, and in 30 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates and binding of the TLR-4 monoclonal antibody to platelets were determined by flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yu Chen, Wei Ni, Huan Yan, Xu-Jie Qin, Afsar Khan, Hui Liu, Tong Shu, Ling-Yu Jin, Hai-Yang Liu
Ten spirostanol glycosides, trillikamtosides A-J, together with eleven known analogues, were isolated from the hemostatic fraction of the 75% aqueous EtOH extract of the whole herbs of Trillium kamtschaticum. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and chemical methods. The aglycones of three of these compounds had unique 3β,17α-dihydroxy-spirostanes featuring a double bond between C-4 and C-5, while two others represent a rare class of spirostanol glycosides which possess a 5(6 → 7) abeo-steroidal aglycone...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
Ramiro López-Medrano, José Manuel Guerra-Laso, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Cristina Diez-Tascón, Silvia García-García, Sara Blanco-Conde, Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano
The whole blood model for infection has proven useful to analyze the immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, because it exerts a significant antimicrobial activity. Although this activity has been generally assumed to be cellular, we have found that the leukocyte fraction of blood from healthy volunteers did not kill the bacilli. We have discovered that plasma was responsible for a large proportion, but not all, of the antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, infected monocytes controlled the mycobacterial multiplication when cultivated in the presence of plasma...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Adrienne N Nedved, Sean R DeFrates, Lindsay M Hladnik, Keith E Stockerl-Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. SETTING: Large, tertiary care academic medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Ziqing Yu, Bing Fan, Hongyi Wu, Xiangfei Wang, Chenguang Li, Rende Xu, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
BACKGROUND: Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE...
August 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth J Brisbois, Terry C Major, Marcus J Goudie, Mark E Meyerhoff, Robert H Bartlett, Hitesh Handa
UNLABELLED: Two major problems with implanted catheters are clotting and infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion/activation and an antimicrobial agent, and NO-releasing polymers are expected to have similar properties. Here, NO-releasing central venous catheters (CVCs) are fabricated using Elast-eon™ E2As polymer with both diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/NONO) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) additives, where the NO release can be modulated and optimized via the hydrolysis rate of the PLGA...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Agostina Carestia, Tomas Kaufman, Mirta Schattner
In addition to being key elements in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have an important role in the inflammatory and innate immune response. This activity is associated with their capability to recognize pathogens through the expression of toll-like receptors, the secretion of various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors stored within their granules, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules that allows interaction with other immune cells, mainly neutrophils and monocytes. As part of the first line of defense, neutrophils control invading pathogens by phagocytosis, the release of antimicrobial proteins during degranulation, or through the formation of web-like structures named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Pallavi S Badade, Swapna A Mahale, Alisha A Panjwani, Prutha D Vaidya, Ayushya D Warang
CONTEXT: Platelet concentrates have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors (GFs) in platelets α-granules that promote wound healing. Other than releasing a pool of GFs upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) against periodontal disease-associated bacteria...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Taku Omura, Eizo Watanabe, Yasufumi Otsuka, Yoko Yoshida, Hideki Kato, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshiyuki Miyata, Shigeto Oda
UNLABELLED: To describe a case of complete remission of thrombotic microangiopathy after treatment with eculizumab in a patient with non-Shiga toxin-associated bacterial enteritis. CASE REPORT: Medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university teaching hospital.A 62-year-old man presented to a local hospital with mucous and bloody stool persisting for 1 month and worsening abdominal pain for 2 weeks. He had thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction and was admitted with a diagnosis of sepsis due to intraabdominal infection...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yaqi Wo, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Biomedical devices are essential for patient diagnosis and treatment; however, when blood comes in contact with foreign surfaces or homeostasis is disrupted, complications including thrombus formation and bacterial infections can interrupt device functionality, causing false readings and/or shorten device lifetime. Here, we review some of the current approaches for developing antithrombotic and antibacterial materials for biomedical applications. Special emphasis is given to materials that release or generate low levels of nitric oxide (NO)...
August 19, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Jun Hirai, Yuka Yamagishi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroshige Mikamo
We report herein on a case of bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum intermedium (O. intermedium) identified with biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). An 86-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with paralysis of the right side of the body and dysphagia. He was diagnosed as having a pontine infarction based on the brain MRI findings and was admitted to hospital to have anti-platelet therapy. Three days after admission, he had a fever. Although he had redness and swelling at the peripheral venous catheter insertion site, he was diagnosed as having aspiration pneumonia, since he had fine crackles on auscultation...
March 2016: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
He Huang, Wenjia Lai, Menghua Cui, Ling Liang, Yuchen Lin, Qiaojun Fang, Ying Liu, Liming Xie
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have tremendous potentials in medical devices due to their excellent antimicrobial properties. Blood compatibility should be investigated for AgNPs due to the potential blood contact. However, so far, most studies are not systematic and have not provided insights into the mechanisms for blood compatibility of AgNPs. In this study, we have investigated the blood biological effects, including hemolysis, lymphocyte proliferation, platelet aggregation, coagulation and complement activation, of 20 nm AgNPs with two different surface coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone and citrate)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mamdouh Abdulmaksoud Abdulrhman, Ahmad Alsaeed Hamed, Sahar Abdelmaksoud Mohamed, Nouran Abdel Aal Hassanen
OBJECTIVES: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common adverse effect of chemotherapy. Current management of FN is expensive and may induce side effects. Honey, as a natural honeybee product, has antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulator and anticancer effects. Additionally, honey is not expensive. The aim of this study is to test the effects of a 12-week honey consumption on children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) particularly with regard to FN. DESIGN: A randomized crossover clinical trial...
April 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Carolina Ferrairo Danieletto, Gustavo Zanna Ferreira, Gustavo Jacobucci Farah, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman
INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytopenia is the reduction in the number of blood -platelets, which may be caused by -several different conditions such as sepsis, disseminated intravascular -clotting, and large blood losses. Additionally, in rare situations, thrombocytopenia may also be induced by the use of medicaments. One of these drugs is the vancomycin, a glycopeptide presently used against -serious infections involving Gram-positive bacteria such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus...
April 5, 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
Christian Schoergenhofer, Michael Schwameis, Philipp Wohlfarth, Christine Brostjan, Simon T Abrams, Cheng-Hock Toh, Bernd Jilma
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an activator of neutrophil granulocytes. Neutrophil extracellular traps are a defensive mechanism consisting of neutrophils, platelets, DNA, histones and antimicrobial proteins. This study was performed to determine whether G-CSF increases histone-complexed DNA in the plasma of healthy volunteers. In total, 51 healthy volunteers (25 males and 26 females) were treated with G-CSF (18 with 300 µg single dose i.v., 27 with 5 µg/kg s.c. for 4 days) and six participants received a placebo...
March 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
José M C Ribeiro, Ines Martin-Martin, Bruno Arcà, Eric Calvo
Only adult female mosquitoes feed on blood, while both genders take sugar meals. Accordingly, several compounds associated with blood feeding (i.e. vasodilators, anti-clotting, anti-platelets) are found only in female glands, while enzymes associated with sugar feeding or antimicrobials (such as lysozyme) are found in the glands of both sexes. We performed de novo assembly of reads from adult Aedes aegypti female and male salivary gland libraries (285 and 90 million reads, respectively). By mapping back the reads to the assembled contigs, plus mapping the reads from a publicly available Ae...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Gremmel, Andrew L Frelinger, Alan D Michelson
Platelets are the smallest blood cells, numbering 150 to 350 × 10(9)/L in healthy individuals. The ability of activated platelets to adhere to an injured vessel wall and form aggregates was first described in the 19th century. Besides their long-established roles in thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets are increasingly recognized as pivotal players in numerous other pathophysiological processes including inflammation and atherogenesis, antimicrobial host defense, and tumor growth and metastasis. Consequently, profound knowledge of platelet structure and function is becoming more important in research and in many fields of modern medicine...
April 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Saumiya Gopal, Harish Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Periodontology
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