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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160629/chitosan-and-its-composites-properties-for-use-in-bone-substitution
#1
REVIEW
Marek Stępniewski, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Jerzy Gosk
For many years, research has been carried out on finding an ideal bone substitute. Chitosan (CTS) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, obtained mainly from, inter alia, the shells of crustaceans. It is characterized by its high level of biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties as well as its support in the healing of wounds. Chitosan, due to its ability to form porous structures, can be used in the production of scaffolds used in the treatment of bone defects. There are numerous studies on the use of CTS in combination with other substances which aim to improve its biological and mechanical properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119915/an-update-on-potential-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-actions-of-snake-venom-l-amino-acid-oxidases-laaos
#2
Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Adriana Silva Pontes, Andreimar Martins Soares, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
LAAOs (EC 1.4.3.2) are found in concentrations that vary according to each species of snakes; Viperidae, Crotalidae and Elapidae contain 1-9% of this enzyme in their venoms. This review focuses on an update on molecular mechanisms, platelet activities, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, induction of apoptosis and inflammatory potential underlying the actions of SV-LAAOs. Snake venom LAAOs (SV-LAAOs) have become an interesting subject for pharmacological, structural and molecular studies. Although the mechanisms of action of these enzymes are not well understood they are a subject of a variety of studies, because LAAOs are multifunctional enzymes exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological effects, including the inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation, hemolysis and hemorrhage, in addition to the stimulation of apoptosis, the activation of leukocytes and the formation of edema...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096582/peripheral-blood-plasma-clot-as-a-local-antimicrobial-drug-delivery-matrix
#3
Jan Gessmann, Dominik Seybold, Fahim Ayami, Elvira Peter, Hinnerk Baecker, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Manfred Koeller
Platelet-free blood plasma clots were loaded either with antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, or linezolid) at concentrations of 5-300 µg/ml or with silver ions (silver acetate) at concentrations of 3.3-129 µg/ml. The release of antibiotics or silver from the clot matrix was analyzed after repeated immersion of the plasma clots using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, tissue cell compatibility was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)...
November 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072627/anticoagulant-activity-of-low-molecular-weight-compounds-from-heterometrus-laoticus-scorpion-venom
#4
Thien Vu Tran, Anh Ngoc Hoang, Trang Thuy Thi Nguyen, Trung Van Phung, Khoa Cuu Nguyen, Alexey V Osipov, Igor A Ivanov, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Scorpion venoms are complex polypeptide mixtures, the ion channel blockers and antimicrobial peptides being the best studied components. The coagulopathic properties of scorpion venoms are poorly studied and the data about substances exhibiting these properties are very limited. During research on the Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom, we have isolated low-molecular compounds with anticoagulant activity. Determination of their structure has shown that one of them is adenosine, and two others are dipeptides LeuTrp and IleTrp...
October 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067203/prospective-study-evaluating-the-incidence-of-bacteraemia-and-bacteruria-in-afebrile-and-febrile-neutropaenic-dogs-undergoing-chemotherapy
#5
Kimberly Shaffer, Jonathan Bach, Ruthanne Chun
The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and character of bacteraemia and bacteruria in afebrile and febrile neutropaenic dogs undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Fifty-five neutropaenic dogs presenting to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were enrolled for a total of 57 neutropaenic episodes. The overall incidence of bacteraemia was 12.3% (n = 7/57). Three afebrile dogs and four febrile dogs were bacteraemic; this difference was not significant (P = 0...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961393/development-of-antifouling-and-bactericidal-coatings-for-platelet-storage-bags-using-dopamine-chemistry
#6
Narges Hadjesfandiari, Marie Weinhart, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Rainer Haag, Donald E Brooks
Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat...
September 29, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931468/platelet-released-growth-factors-inhibit-proliferation-of-primary-keratinocytes-in-vitro
#7
Andreas Bayer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Rouven Berndt, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Holger Jahr, Jochen Cremer, Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF(®)) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes' differentiation...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931287/enhanced-capture-of-bacteria-and-endotoxin-by-antimicrobial-wlbu2-peptide-tethered-on-polyethylene-oxide-spacers
#8
Ramya Raman, Miranda A Raper, Erik Hahn, Kate F Schilke
Severe sepsis is a life threatening immune response that may be caused by endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in circulating bacterial cell wall fragments. Hemoperfusion through a sorbent column coated with the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B (PMB) is a promising treatment for sepsis. However, PMB is cytotoxic and neurotoxic, and is a membrane disruptor that may fragment endotoxin vesicles. In addition, the blood is not protected from nonspecific interactions with the synthetic surface of the solid support. These effects may be responsible for the variety of undesirable clinical outcomes, including nonspecific adsorption of proteins, blood cell damage, platelet activation, and a lack of clear evidence of efficacy of the current hemoperfusion products...
September 20, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844963/novel-direct-factor-xa-inhibitory-compounds-from-tenebrio-molitor-with-anti-platelet-aggregation-activity
#9
Wonhwa Lee, Mi-Ae Kim, InWha Park, Jae Sam Hwang, MinKyun Na, Jong-Sup Bae
Tenebrio molitor is an edible insect that has antimicrobial, anticancer, and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to identify the unreported bioactive compounds from T. molitor larvae with inhibitory activities against factor Xa (FXa) and platelet aggregation. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-FXa and anti-platelet aggregation properties by monitoring clotting time, platelet aggregation, FXa activity, and thrombus formation. A diketopiperazine (1, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr)) and a phenylethanoid (2, N-acetyltyramine) were isolated and inhibited the catalytic activity of FXa in a mixed inhibition model and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and U46619...
August 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811680/the-antimicrobial-peptide-human-beta-defensin-3-is-induced-by-platelet-released-growth-factors-in-primary-keratinocytes
#10
Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803258/the-impact-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-morbidity-and-infections-during-azacitidine-treatment
#11
Natalia Lorenzana, Laura Francisca Avila, Sara Alonso, Enrique Colado, Teresa Bernal
The clinical consequences of the infectious events in patients receiving azacitidine are poorly documented. Likewise, the role of primary antimicrobial prophylaxis is unknown. In this retrospective, single-center study, we compare the impact of prophylaxis on the incidence of infection and morbidity in all consecutive higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, during the first 4 azacitidine cycles. Seventy-six patients, corresponding to 283 azacitidine cycles, were studied...
November 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795678/-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-coagulation-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#12
Fangxiao Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are net-like structure composed of DNA and nuclear proteins, which are produced by activated neutrophils under the circumstances of a variety of pathogens or drugs. As part of defensive mechanism, NETs have been proved to restrict the spread of pathogens and release of antimicrobial molecules. NETs can not only strengthen the adhesion between neutrophils and platelets, promote platelet mediated procoagulant reaction, but also lead to endothelial cell damage and coagulopathy in sepsis...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733990/dimethyl-fumarate-modulates-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-a-glutathione-and-superoxide-dependent-manner
#13
J H O Hoffmann, K Schaekel, D Hartl, A H Enk, E N Hadaschik
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear) granulocytes (PMN) were shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis by releasing IL-17 and LL-37/ DNA complexes via neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), webs of chromatin strands decorated with antimicrobial peptides, in psoriatic skin. Fumaderm(®) , a fumaric acid ester (FAE) formulation consisting of different FAE salts has been successfully used to treat psoriasis for decades. Most recently, FAE treatment was reported to inhibit NET formation in murine epidermolysis bullosa acquisita...
July 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708371/exploring-new-mechanisms-for-effective-antimicrobial-materials-electric-contact-killing-based-on-multiple-schottky-barriers
#14
Eva de Lucas-Gil, Julián J Reinosa, Kerstin Neuhaus, Liliana Vera-Londono, Marisol Martín-González, José F Fernández, Fernando Rubio-Marcos
The increasing threat of multidrug-resistance organisms is a cause for worldwide concern. Progressively microorganisms become resistant to commonly used antibiotics, which are a healthcare challenge. Thus, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents or new mechanisms different from those used is necessary. Here, we report an effective and selective antimicrobial activity of microstructured ZnO (Ms-ZnO) agent through the design of a novel star-shaped morphology, resulting in modulation of surface charge orientation...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689228/impact-of-a-rapid-molecular-test-for-positive-blood-cultures-from-neonatal-intensive-care-patients-on-clinical-management-a-retrospective-audit
#15
L L Koh, S O'Rourke, M Brennan, L Clooney, M Cafferkey, N McCallion, R J Drew
BACKGROUND: Both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci are common causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually relating to intravascular access device infections. AIMS: This project aimed to review the impact on antimicrobial treatment and clinical outcome in the NICU setting, of the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test (Cepheid, USA) for the identification of staphylococci in blood cultures. METHODS: A retrospective audit was carried out of the pre- and post-intervention periods; the intervention was the introduction of the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test...
July 8, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686663/in-vitro-release-pharmacokinetics-of-amikacin-teicoplanin-and-polyhexanide-in-a-platelet-rich-fibrin-layer-prf-a-laboratory-evaluation-of-a-modern-autologous-wound-treatment
#16
Daniela Knafl, Florian Thalhammer, Matthias G Vossen
OBJECTIVES: Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous fibrin glue, produced from patients' blood, which, besides intraoperative use, has applications in the treatment of infected wounds. The combination with antimicrobial agents results in a prolonged antibacterial effect allowing for wound dressing change intervals of seven days even in infected wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate release kinetics of amikacin, teicoplanin or polyhexanide from a PRF-layer. METHODS: PRF mixed with teicoplanin, amikacin or polyhexanide was sprayed on a silicon gauze patch and put on a colombia agar with bacteria with known minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and incubated for 24 hours and afterwards transferred to another agar with the same bacterial strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681651/the-contribution-of-leucocytes-to-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-platelet-rich-plasma-preparations-a-systematic-review
#17
Federica D'asta, Fenella Halstead, Paul Harrison, Sandra Zecchi Orlandini, Naiem Moiemen, Janet Lord
The infection of a wound is one of the major contributors to delays in healing and tissue regeneration. As multi-drug resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious threat, research in this field has focused on finding new agents and strategies to fight infection and additionally to reduce healing times. The topical use of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) as a biological accelerator of the healing process, has been safely used as a form of treatment for wounds since the 1990s. Although the presence or absence of leucocytes in PRP preparation was previously neglected, in the last decade more attention has been paid to their role and several studies have been conducted to explore both their immuno-metabolic effects and their antimicrobial properties...
July 6, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643535/efficacy-of-platelets-in-bone-healing-a-systematic-review-on-animal-studies
#18
Sabrina Marcazzan, Roberto Lodovico Weinstein, Massimo Del Fabbro
In presence of large bone defects, delayed bone union, non-union, fractures, and implant surgery, bone reconstruction may be necessary. Different strategies have been employed to enhance bone healing among which the use of autologous platelet concentrates. Due to the high content of platelets and platelet-derived bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, antimicrobial peptides), they are promising candidates to increase bone healing. However, a high heterogeneity of both preclinical and clinical studies resulted in contrasting results...
June 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625251/-a-novel-protein-peptide-associated-with-ischemic-heart-disease-dermcidin
#19
Hu Xia, Kai Feng
Dermcidin (DCD) was found in isolated human skin sweat glands with antimicrobial effect, and was defined as a kind of new small molecule antimicrobial peptide. It was a part of human sweat glands in the skin as the immune system's innate defense. With the studies of DCD, its extensive biological functions are gradually discovered. Since 2010, a number of studies have shown that DCD may be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis. And the role of DCD in ischemic heart disease has drawn increasing attention in particular its relationship with insulin secretion and glycemic control, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and hypertension, platelet aggregation and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557441/tyrosinase-mediated-surface-coimmobilization-of-heparin-and-silver-nanoparticles-for-antithrombotic-and-antimicrobial-activities
#20
Phuong Le Thi, Yunki Lee, Ho Joon Kwon, Kyung Min Park, Mi Hee Lee, Jong-Chul Park, Ki Dong Park
Thrombus and infections are the most common causes for the failure of medical devices, leading to higher hospitalization costs and, in some cases, patient morbidity. It is, therefore, necessary to develop novel strategies to prevent thrombosis and infection caused by medical devices. Herein, we report a simple and a highly efficient strategy to impart antithrombotic and antimicrobial properties to substrates, by simultaneously immobilizing heparin and in situ-synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) via a tyrosinase-catalyzed reaction...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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