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Platelets antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895175/platelets-mediate-host-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus-through-direct-bactericidal-activity-and-by-enhancing-macrophage-activities
#1
Ramadan A Ali, Leah M Wuescher, Keith R Dona, Randall G Worth
Platelets are the chief effector cells in hemostasis. However, recent evidence suggests they have multiple roles in host defense against infection. Reports by us and others showed that platelets functionally contribute to protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection. In the current study, the capacity of mouse platelets to participate in host defense against S. aureus infection was determined by assessing two possibilities. First, we determined the ability of platelets to kill S. aureus directly; and, second, we tested the possibility that platelets enhance macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing of S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822369/short-term-effect-of-supplemental-yeast-extract-without-or-with-feed-enzymes-on-growth-performance-immune-status-and-gut-structure-of-weaned-pigs-challenged-with-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide
#2
Samuel M Waititu, Fugui Yin, Rob Patterson, Juan C Rodriguez-Lecompte, Charles M Nyachoti
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the response of piglets receiving a yeast extract without or with a multi-enzyme mixture compared with an antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) on performance, immune status and gut structure after an E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-six pigs were allotted to six treatments including: a non-challenged control (NCC); LPS-challenged control (CC); CC + AGP; CC + yeast extract; CC + enzymes; and CC + enzymes + yeast extract...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803456/linezolid-induced-thrombocytopenia-is-caused-by-suppression-of-platelet-production-via-phosphorylation-of-myosin-light-chain-2
#3
Masataka Tajima, Yoshinori Kato, Jun Matsumoto, Iori Hirosawa, Mariko Suzuki, Yuki Takashio, Mao Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Nishi, Harumi Yamada
Linezolid (LZD) is an antimicrobial that is commonly used for treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. However, the development of thrombocytopenia, one of the most frequent adverse side effects of this antimicrobial, can lead to discontinuation of LZD treatment. While clinical studies indicate that risk factors for the development of LZD-induced thrombocytopenia include treatment for >14 consecutive days, renal dysfunction, and chronic liver disease, the fundamental mechanism governing the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802906/platelet-mediated-modulation-of-adaptive-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Matteo Iannacone
Besides being the main cellular effectors of hemostasis, platelets possess a plethora of intracellular mediators (e.g. cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial molecules) as well as surface receptors (e.g. P-selectin, integrins, CD40L, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-2, junctional adhesion molecule [JAM]-A, CD44, Toll-like receptors, chemokine receptors) known for their involvement in inflammatory and immune responses. These aspects of platelet biology, which suggest an evolutionary link to a more primitive multifunctional innate defensive cell, position platelets at the interface between coagulation and immunity...
October 29, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795831/impact-of-switching-from-intravenous-to-oral-linezolid-therapy-in-japanese-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Akihiro Tanaka, Akiko Yano, Shinichi Watanabe, Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: High oral bioavailability of antimicrobial agents can result in the replacement of intravenous (IV) therapy with oral therapy when a patient meets defined clinical criteria. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of switching antibiotic administration route in Japan, especially for linezolid. This study evaluated an IV-to-oral antibiotic switching program for linezolid treatment at a university hospital in Japan. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 73 patients, we assessed the efficacy and safety of IV-to-oral linezolid therapy (n = 21 patients) compared with IV therapy alone (n = 52 patients)...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792313/multifunctional-mesoporous-carbon-capsules-and-their-robust-coatings-for-encapsulation-of-actives-antimicrobial-and-anti-bioadhesion-functions
#6
Gargi Mishra, Nitesh Mittal, Ashutosh Sharma
We present the synthesis and applications of multifunctional hollow porous carbon spheres with well-ordered pore architecture and ability to encapsulate functional nanoparticles. In the present work, the applications of hollow mesoporous carbon capsules (HMCCs) are illustrated in two different contexts. In the first approach, the hollow capsule core is used to encapsulate silver nanoparticles to impart antimicrobial characteristics. It is shown that silver-loaded HMCCs (concentration ∼100 μg/mL) inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacterial colonies of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) up to 96% and 83%, respectively...
October 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774337/a-new-proof-of-concept-in-bacterial-reduction-antimicrobial-action-of-violet-blue-light-405%C3%A2-nm-in-ex-vivo-stored-plasma
#7
Michelle Maclean, John G Anderson, Scott J MacGregor, Tracy White, Chintamani D Atreya
Bacterial contamination of injectable stored biological fluids such as blood plasma and platelet concentrates preserved in plasma at room temperature is a major health risk. Current pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) rely on the use of chemicals and/or ultraviolet light, which affects product quality and can be associated with adverse events in recipients. 405 nm violet-blue light is antibacterial without the use of photosensitizers and can be applied at levels safe for human exposure, making it of potential interest for decontamination of biological fluids such as plasma...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771742/pre-engraftment-bloodstream-infections-in-acute-leukemia-patients-undergoing-unrelated-cord-blood-transplantation-following-intensified-myeloablative-conditioning-without-atg
#8
Changcheng Zheng, Baolin Tang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xuhan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Liangquan Geng, Huilan Liu, Zimin Sun
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of pre-engraftment bloodstream infections (BSIs) on the outcomes in acute leukemia patients undergoing myeloablative cord blood transplantation (CBT). A total of 226 acute leukemia patients who received unrelated CBT were enrolled in this study, and all these patients received an intensified myeloablative conditioning without ATG. Pre-engraftment BSIs occurred in 72 patients (31.9 %), and the median time of onset was 4.5 days after cord blood infusion, BSIs of gram-negative bacilli, and gram-positive cocci comprised of 63...
October 22, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737518/antibacterial-and-antifouling-properties-of-a-polyurethane-surface-modified-with-perfluoroalkyl-and-silver-nanoparticles
#9
Deqiu Xu, Yuling Su, Lili Zhao, Fancui Meng, Chang Liu, Yayuan Guan, Jiya Zhang, Jianbin Luo
Inspired by mussel-adhesion phenomena in nature, a simple, mild surface modification process was elaborated to endow the polyurethane (PU) substrate with antibacterial/antifouling properties. In the present study, polydopamine was coated directly onto polyurethane surfaces. AgNO3 was then added and absorbed onto the surface by the active catechol and amine groups of the polydopamine coating. Meanwhile, the adsorbed Ag(+) ions were reduced in situ into metallic silver nanoparticles by the "bridge" of the polydopamine coating which yielded a coating with good antimicrobial properties...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726815/secretion-from-myeloid-cells-secretory-lysosomes
#10
Gillian M Griffiths
Many cells of the myeloid lineage use an unusual secretory organelle to deliver their effector mechanisms. In these cells, the lysosomal compartment is often modified not only to fulfill the degradative functions of a lysosome but also as a mechanism for secreting additional proteins that are found in the lysosomes of each specialized cell type. These extra proteins vary from one cell type to another according to the specialized function of the cell. For example, mast cells package histamine; cytotoxic T cells express perforin; azurophilic granules in neutrophils express antimicrobial peptides, and platelets von Willebrand factor...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714784/platelets-toll-like-receptor-4-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
Werner Schmid, Gottfried Novacek, Harald Vogelsang, Pavol Papay, Christian Primas, Alexander Eser, Simon Panzer
Platelets are activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and interplay with leukocytes. Engagement of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), which is expressed in human platelets, may be involved in crosstalks between platelets and leukocytes leading to their mutual activation for host defense. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), lipoprotein binding peptides, and sCD14 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 42 patients with active CD, in 43 patients with CD in remission, and in 30 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates and binding of the TLR-4 monoclonal antibody to platelets were determined by flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665149/spirostanol-glycosides-with-hemostatic-and-antimicrobial-activities-from-trillium-kamtschaticum
#12
Yu Chen, Wei Ni, Huan Yan, Xu-Jie Qin, Afsar Khan, Hui Liu, Tong Shu, Ling-Yu Jin, Hai-Yang Liu
Ten spirostanol glycosides, trillikamtosides A-J, together with eleven known analogues, were isolated from the hemostatic fraction of the 75% aqueous EtOH extract of the whole herbs of Trillium kamtschaticum. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and chemical methods. The aglycones of three of these compounds had unique 3β,17α-dihydroxy-spirostanes featuring a double bond between C-4 and C-5, while two others represent a rare class of spirostanol glycosides which possess a 5(6 → 7) abeo-steroidal aglycone...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554054/plasma-contributes-to-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-whole-blood-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Ramiro López-Medrano, José Manuel Guerra-Laso, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Cristina Diez-Tascón, Silvia García-García, Sara Blanco-Conde, Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano
The whole blood model for infection has proven useful to analyze the immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, because it exerts a significant antimicrobial activity. Although this activity has been generally assumed to be cellular, we have found that the leukocyte fraction of blood from healthy volunteers did not kill the bacilli. We have discovered that plasma was responsible for a large proportion, but not all, of the antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, infected monocytes controlled the mycobacterial multiplication when cultivated in the presence of plasma...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521990/effect-of-linezolid-on-hematologic-recovery-in-newly-diagnosed-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-following-induction-chemotherapy
#14
Adrienne N Nedved, Sean R DeFrates, Lindsay M Hladnik, Keith E Stockerl-Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. SETTING: Large, tertiary care academic medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514369/multiple-systemic-embolism-in-infective-endocarditis-underlying-in-barlow-s-disease
#15
Ziqing Yu, Bing Fan, Hongyi Wu, Xiangfei Wang, Chenguang Li, Rende Xu, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
BACKGROUND: Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE...
August 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506125/attenuation-of-thrombosis-and-bacterial-infection-using-dual-function-nitric-oxide-releasing-central-venous-catheters-in-a-9day-rabbit-model
#16
Elizabeth J Brisbois, Terry C Major, Marcus J Goudie, Mark E Meyerhoff, Robert H Bartlett, Hitesh Handa
UNLABELLED: Two major problems with implanted catheters are clotting and infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion/activation and an antimicrobial agent, and NO-releasing polymers are expected to have similar properties. Here, NO-releasing central venous catheters (CVCs) are fabricated using Elast-eon™ E2As polymer with both diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/NONO) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) additives, where the NO release can be modulated and optimized via the hydrolysis rate of the PLGA...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458459/platelets-new-bricks-in-the-building-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#17
REVIEW
Agostina Carestia, Tomas Kaufman, Mirta Schattner
In addition to being key elements in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have an important role in the inflammatory and innate immune response. This activity is associated with their capability to recognize pathogens through the expression of toll-like receptors, the secretion of various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors stored within their granules, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules that allows interaction with other immune cells, mainly neutrophils and monocytes. As part of the first line of defense, neutrophils control invading pathogens by phagocytosis, the release of antimicrobial proteins during degranulation, or through the formation of web-like structures named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411660/antimicrobial-effect-of-platelet-rich-plasma-and-platelet-rich-fibrin
#18
Pallavi S Badade, Swapna A Mahale, Alisha A Panjwani, Prutha D Vaidya, Ayushya D Warang
CONTEXT: Platelet concentrates have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors (GFs) in platelets α-granules that promote wound healing. Other than releasing a pool of GFs upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) against periodontal disease-associated bacteria...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399110/complete-remission-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy-after-treatment-with-eculizumab-in-a-patient-with-non-shiga-toxin-associated-bacterial-enteritis-a-case-report
#19
Taku Omura, Eizo Watanabe, Yasufumi Otsuka, Yoko Yoshida, Hideki Kato, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshiyuki Miyata, Shigeto Oda
UNLABELLED: To describe a case of complete remission of thrombotic microangiopathy after treatment with eculizumab in a patient with non-Shiga toxin-associated bacterial enteritis. CASE REPORT: Medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university teaching hospital.A 62-year-old man presented to a local hospital with mucous and bloody stool persisting for 1 month and worsening abdominal pain for 2 weeks. He had thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction and was admitted with a diagnosis of sepsis due to intraabdominal infection...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226170/recent-advances-in-thromboresistant-and-antimicrobial-polymers-for-biomedical-applications-just-say-yes-to-nitric-oxide-no
#20
Yaqi Wo, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Biomedical devices are essential for patient diagnosis and treatment; however, when blood comes in contact with foreign surfaces or homeostasis is disrupted, complications including thrombus formation and bacterial infections can interrupt device functionality, causing false readings and/or shorten device lifetime. Here, we review some of the current approaches for developing antithrombotic and antibacterial materials for biomedical applications. Special emphasis is given to materials that release or generate low levels of nitric oxide (NO)...
August 19, 2016: Biomaterials Science
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