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TGF-beta AND supplement

Venkatachalam Sukumaran, Se Chang Park, Sib Sankar Giri
This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhiqiang Zheng, Richard W Gelling
Advanced liver disease (ALD) is often characterized with overt malnutrition and liver fibrosis. In this study, a dietary supplement (DS) was first developed, including branch chain amino acids, fat soluble vitamins, zinc, medium chain triglycerides, soy lecithin, L-carnitine, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Benefits of DS were then tested using an ALD rat model treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6, 8, and 10 weeks, respectively. Our study showed that CCl4-induced drop of serum albumin and ratio of branch chain to aromatic amino acids were significantly prevented at all three time points...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
E Ozturk, O Telli, M I Gokce, C Ozcan, T M Okutucu, T Soygur, B Burgu
INTRODUCTION: It is generally agreed that the cause of a megaureter is narrowing at the vesicoureteral junction, with a functional obstruction arising from an aperistaltic, juxtavesical segment that is unable to transport urine at an acceptable rate. Histological examinations of megaureter specimens have reported several histological analyses, and the pathogenic role of transforming growth factor is still a matter of speculation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and its receptors (TGFRs) are expressed during ureterovesical junction (UVJ) and lower ureter development in mice, and whether exogenous TGF-β might postpone the maturation of smooth muscle cells, in the pathogenesis of megaureter using an embryonic organ-culture model...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Xing Zhao, Nathaniel S Hwang, David A Bichara, Daniel B Saris, Jos Malda, Joseph P Vacanti, Irina Pomerantseva, Cathryn A Sundback, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson, Mark A Randolph
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be obtained by minimally invasive means and would be a favourable source for cell-based cartilage regeneration. However, controlling the differentiation of the BMSCs towards the desired chondrogenic pathway has been a challenge hampering their application. The major aim of the present study was to determine if conditioned medium collected from cultured auricular chondrocytes could promote chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Auricular chondrocytes were isolated and grown in BMSC standard culture medium (SM) that was collected and used as chondrocyte-conditioned medium (CCM)...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Alexander D Cigan, Robert J Nims, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Clark T Hung, Gerard A Ateshian
Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach to treat osteoarthritis. However, current techniques produce tissues too small for clinical relevance. Increasingly close-packed channels have helped overcome nutrient transport limitations in centimeter-sized chondrocyte-agarose constructs, yet optimal channel spacings to recapitulate native cartilage compositional and mechanical properties in constructs this large have not been identified. Transient active TGF-β treatment consistently reproduces native compressive Young׳s modulus (EY) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in constructs, but standard dosages of 10ng/mL exacerbate matrix heterogeneity...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Jie Ding, Peter Kwan, Zengshuan Ma, Takashi Iwashina, Jianfei Wang, Heather A Shankowsky, Edward E Tredget
Dermal wound healing, in which transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays an important role, is a complex process. Previous studies suggest that vitamin D has a potential regulatory role in TGFβ1 induced activation in bone formation, and there is cross-talk between their signaling pathways, but research on their effects in other types of wound healing is limited. The authors therefore wanted to explore the role of vitamin D and its interaction with low concentration of TGFβ1 in dermal fibroblast-mediated wound healing through an in vitro study...
September 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Le Thanh Long, To Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Quang Huy, Soon Ha Kim, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Inflammatory and fibrotic responses are accelerated during the reperfusion period, and excessive fibrosis and inflammation contribute to cardiac malfunction. NecroX compounds have been shown to protect the liver and heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to further define the role and mechanism of action of NecroX-5 in regulating infl ammation and fi brosis responses in a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). We utilized HR-treated rat hearts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated H9C2 culture cells in the presence or absence of NecroX-5 (10 µmol/L) treatment as experimental models...
May 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Eva Johanna Kubosch, Emanuel Heidt, Anke Bernstein, Katharina Böttiger, Hagen Schmal
BACKGROUND: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC) possess a high chondrogenic differentiation potential, which possibly supports natural and surgically induced healing of cartilage lesions. We hypothesized enhanced chondrogenesis of SMSC caused by the vicinity of chondrocytes (CHDR). METHODS: Human SMSC and CHDR interactions were investigated in an in-vitro trans-well monolayer coculture over a time period of up to 21 days. Protein expression was analyzed using histology, immunostaining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Farshid Sefat, Mansour Youseffi, Seyed Ali Khaghani, Chin Fhung Soon, Farideh Javid
Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. It produces a cushioning effect at the joints and provides low friction to protect the ends of the bones from wear and tear/damage. It has poor repair capacity and any injury can result pain and loss of mobility. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a cytokine superfamily, regulates cell function, including differentiation and proliferation. Although the function of the TGF-βs in various cell types has been investigated, their function in cartilage repair is as yet not fully understood...
July 2016: Cytokine
Neil C Talbot, Ling Wang, Wesley M Garrett, Thomas J Caperna, Young Tang
The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines are described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-d bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO (SIMS mouse strain, thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant) feeder layers and were cultured in a medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 2-3 wk, primary colonies of hepatocytes were observed by phase-contrast microscopic observation...
March 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Giuseppina Nicolini, Francesca Forini, Claudia Kusmic, Letizia Pitto, Laura Mariani, Giorgio Iervasi
Activation of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) signaling in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injured myocardium leads to dysregulation of miR-29-30-133, favoring the pro-fibrotic process that leads to adverse cardiac remodeling (CR). We have previously shown that timely correction of the post-ischemic low-T3 state (Low-T3S) exerts antifibrotic effects, but the underlying molecular players are still unknown. Here we hypothesize that a prompt, short-term infusion of T3 in a rat model of post I/R Low-T3S could hamper the early activation of the TGFβ1-dependent pro-fibrotic cascade to confer long-lasting cardioprotection against adverse CR...
November 23, 2015: Molecular Medicine
Michael B Albro, Robert J Nims, Krista M Durney, Alexander D Cigan, Jay J Shim, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Clark T Hung, Gerard A Ateshian
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has become one of the most widely utilized mediators of engineered cartilage growth. It is typically exogenously supplemented in the culture medium in its active form, with the expectation that it will readily transport into tissue constructs through passive diffusion and influence cellular biosynthesis uniformly. The results of this investigation advance three novel concepts regarding the role of TGF-β in cartilage tissue engineering that have important implications for tissue development...
January 2016: Biomaterials
M Asarat, V Apostolopoulos, T Vasiljevic, O Donkor
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major products of prebiotic fermentation and confer human health benefits such as immune-regulation. In this study, reconstituted skim milk supplemented with prebiotics (RSMP) including inulin, hi-maize or β-glucan was fermented by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. After 24 h of fermentation, probiotics growth and SCFAs production were investigated and the produced SCFAs were extracted. Inulin and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53013 (LGG) combination released highest concentrations of SCFAs compared to LGG and hi-maize or β-glucan...
2015: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
A M Algotar, R Behnejad, P Singh, P A Thompson, C H Hsu, S P Stratton
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on the human proteomic profile. DESIGN: Serum samples were collected in this pilot study from a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial (Watchful Waiting (WW)). SETTING: Subjects were followed every three months for up to five years at the University of Arizona Prostate Cancer Prevention Program. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and forty men (age < 85 years) had biopsy-proven prostate cancer, a Gleason sum score less than eight, no metastatic cancer, and no prior treatment for prostate cancer...
2015: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Wen-Ying Chen, Chun-Jung Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Frank Chiahung Mao
AIMS: Oxidative stress is involved in cholestasis-induced hepatic damage. Therefore, antioxidant therapy is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Studies have illustrated that chromium can enhance antioxidative capacity leading to a resolution of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess whether chromium has protective effects against cholestasis-related liver damage. MAIN METHODS: Cholestasis was produced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in male Sprague–Dawley rats for 3 weeks...
April 24, 2009: Life Sciences
Sib Sankar Giri, Shib Sankar Sen, Cheng Chi, Hyoun Joong Kim, Saekil Yun, Se Chang Park, V Sukumaran
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection...
October 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Timea Csak, Shashi Bala, Dora Lippai, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND & AIM: MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and miR-155-deficient (KO) mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) or -supplemented (MCS) control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed...
2015: PloS One
Zeinab Shirvani-Farsani, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Seyed Mahdi Mohammadi, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
AIM: A variety of evidence suggests that vitamin D can prevent the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). TGF-β pathway genes also play important roles in MS. Here, we aim to study whether vitamin D affects TGF-β pathway gene expression and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores in MS patients. MAIN METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 31 relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the levels of TGF-β2, TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII mRNAs in the RRMS patients before and after 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D...
August 1, 2015: Life Sciences
Chia-Wen Kuo, Chih-Jie Shen, Yu-Tang Tung, Hsiao-Ling Chen, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Wen-Hui Chang, Kai-Chung Cheng, Shang-Hsun Yang, Chuan-Mu Chen
AIM: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in developed countries throughout the world. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense system is the main problem that is responsible for the progression of diabetic kidney disease. In this study, we investigated whether human extracellular superoxide dismutase (hEC-SOD) can prevent diabetic nephropathy in the rat model. MAIN METHODS: Diabetic nephropathy symptoms were induced by intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
August 15, 2015: Life Sciences
Chi-Ting Su, Jenq-Wen Huang, Chih-Kang Chiang, Elizabeth C Lawrence, Kara L Levine, Branka Dabovic, Christine Jung, Elaine C Davis, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Zsolt Urban
Mutations in the gene for the latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 4 (LTBP4) cause autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C. To understand the molecular disease mechanisms of this disease, we investigated the impact of LTBP4 loss on transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. Despite elevated extracellular TGFβ activity, downstream signaling molecules of the TGFβ pathway, including pSMAD2 and pERK, were down-regulated in LTBP4 mutant human dermal fibroblasts. In addition, TGFβ receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) were reduced at the protein but not at the ribonucleic acid level...
July 15, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
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