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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918123/carnosic-acid-induces-apoptosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-via-ros-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#1
Xinrui Zhang, Yiling Chen, Guangsheng Cai, Xin Li, Di Wang
Carnosic acid (CA), an important bioactive phenolic diterpene mainly found in labiate plants, exerts various biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and neuroprotective activities. In the present study, we proved the deleterious effects of CA against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, CA significantly decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and migration, enhanced apoptosis, and increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells...
September 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917987/development-and-characterisation-of-electrospun-timolol-maleate-loaded-polymeric-contact-lens-coatings-containing-various-permeation-enhancers
#2
Prina Mehta, Ali Al-Kinani, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ming-Wei Chang, Raid G Alany, Zeeshan Ahmad
Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery; anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917842/multi-scale-simulations-of-biological-systems-using-the-opep-coarse-grained-model
#3
Fabio Sterpone, Sébastien Doutreligne, Thanh Thuy Tran, Simone Melchionna, Marc Baaden, Phuong H Nguyen, Philippe Derreumaux
Biomolecules are complex machines that are optimized by evolution to properly fulfill or contribute to a variety of biochemical tasks in the cellular environment. Computer simulations based on quantum mechanics and atomistic force fields have been proven to be a powerful microscope for obtaining valuable insights into many biological, physical, and chemical processes. Many interesting phenomena involve, however, a time scale and a number of degrees of freedom, notably if crowding is considered, that cannot be explored at an atomistic resolution...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917822/chemgenie-integration-of-chemogenomics-data-for-applications-in-chemical-biology
#4
REVIEW
Peter S Kutchukian, Charlie Chang, Sean J Fox, Erica Cook, Richard Barnard, David Tellers, Huijun Wang, Dante Pertusi, Meir Glick, Robert P Sheridan, Iain Wallace, Anne Mai Wassermann
Increasing amounts of biological data are accumulating in the pharmaceutical industry and academic institutions. However, data do not equal actionable information, and guidelines for appropriate data capture, harmonization, integration, mining, and visualization need to be established to fully harness their potential. Here, we describe ongoing efforts at Merck & Co. to structure data in the area of chemogenomics. We are integrating complementary data from both internal and external data sources into one chemogenomics database (Chemical Genetic Interaction Enterprise; CHEMGENIE)...
September 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917792/zno-nanotubes-supported-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-arrays-as-sensing-materials-for-electrochemical-detection-of-dopamine
#5
Hai-Hui Wang, Xuan-Jie Chen, Wei-Tian Li, Wen-Hui Zhou, Xiu-Chun Guo, Wen-Yi Kang, Dong-Xing Kou, Zheng-Ji Zhou, Yue-Na Meng, Qing-Wen Tian, Si-Xin Wu
In this study, ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs) were prepared onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and used as supports for MIPs arrays fabrication. Due to the imprinted cavities are always located at both inner and outer surface of ZNTs, these ZNTs supported MIPs arrays have good accessibility towards template and can be used as sensing materials for chemical sensors with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and fast response. Using K3[Fe(CN)6] as electron probe, the fabricated electrochemical sensor shows two linear dynamic ranges (0...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917767/hierarchical-oxygen-implanted-mos2-nanoparticle-decorated-graphene-for-the-non-enzymatic-electrochemical-sensing-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-alkaline-media
#6
Yudong Xue, Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Mingyong Wang, Shili Zheng, Yi Zhang, Wei Jin
Owing to the extensive applications of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological, environmental and chemical engineering, it is of great importance to investigate sensitive and selective sensing platform towards the detection of H2O2. Herein, oxygen-implanted MoS2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanocomposite is synthesized via a facile one-pot solvothermal method for the sensitive detection of H2O2 in alkaline media. The structure and morphology of the MoS2/graphene nanocomposites were systematically characterized, showing that Mo-O bonds are formed and oxygen is implanted into the crystal structure in the nanocomposite...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917414/chemical-and-physical-analysis-of-phaco-handpiece-tip-surfaces-before-and-after-cataract%C3%A2-surgery
#7
Paolo Cecchini, Rossella D'Aloisio, Manlio Antonuccio, Gianluca Turco, Federica Bondino, Elena Magnano, Marta Di Nicola, Daniele Tognetto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surface chemical composition and roughness of different phaco tips before and after their use during cataract surgery. SETTING: Eye Clinic, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Of the 66 tips studied, 33 (15 new, 15 after single use, and 3 after multiple uses) were studied with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and 33 (15 new, 15 after single use, and 3 after multiple uses) were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and contact profilometry...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917199/enhanced-phosphorus-and-ciprofloxacin-removal-in-a-modified-baf-system-by-configuring-fe-c-micro-electrolysis-investigation-on-pollutants-removal-and-degradation-mechanisms
#8
Longlong Zhang, Qinyan Yue, Kunlun Yang, Pin Zhao, Baoyu Gao
A modified biological aerated filter (BAF) system configured Fe-C micro electrolysis was applied to enhance phosphorus and ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal. A novel sludge ceramic and sintering ferric-carbon ceramic (SFC) were separately packed into a lab-scale BAF and Fe-C micro electrolysis reactor. The BAF and Fe-C micro electrolysis coupled system was operated about 230days. The enhancement of phosphorus and ciprofloxacin removals by Fe-C micro electrolysis, the degradation mechanisms of CIP and the variations of microbial population were investigated...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917186/compounds-isolated-from-eriobotrya-deflexa-leaves-protect-against-ultraviolet-radiation-b-induced-photoaging-in-human-fibroblasts
#9
Chung-Yu Huang, Yi-Tzu Lin, Hsiang-Chun Kuo, Wen-Fei Chiou, Mei-Hsien Lee
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to skin photoaging because of the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and downregulation of type I collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Eriobotrya deflexa (Hemsl.) Nakai (Rosaceae) is a flowering plant endemic to Taiwan, and its leaves have been used as an expectorant and in antitussive folk remedy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that an E. deflexa leaf extract functions as a free radical scavenger. The current evaluated the antiphotoaging effect of partitioned fractions and specific compounds from the leaves of E...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917149/a-comparison-study-between-electrospun-polycaprolactone-and-piezoelectric-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
Svetlana N Gorodzha, Albert R Muslimov, Dina S Syromotina, Alexander S Timin, Nikolai Y Tcvetkov, Kirill V Lepik, Aleksandra V Petrova, Maria A Surmeneva, Dmitry A Gorin, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Roman A Surmenev
In this study, bone scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), piezoelectric poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and a combination of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and silicate containing hydroxyapatite (PHBV-SiHA) were successfully fabricated by a conventional electrospinning process. The morphological, chemical, wetting and biological properties of the scaffolds were examined. All fabricated scaffolds are composed of randomly oriented fibres with diameters from 800nm to 12μm...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#11
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915909/differential-signal-sensitivities-can-contribute-to-the-stability-of-multispecies-bacterial-communities
#12
János Juhász, Dóra Bihary, Attila Jády, Sándor Pongor, Balázs Ligeti
BACKGROUND: Bacterial species present in multispecies microbial communities often react to the same chemical signal but at vastly different concentrations. The existence of different response thresholds with respect to the same signal molecule has been well documented in quorum sensing which is one of the best studied inter-cellular signalling mechanisms in bacteria. The biological significance of this phenomenon is still poorly understood, and cannot be easily studied in nature or in laboratory models...
September 15, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915557/loss-of-p16-ink4a-stimulates-aberrant-mitochondrial-biogenesis-through-a-cdk4-rb-independent-pathway
#13
Ethika Tyagi, Bin Liu, Chelsea Li, Tong Liu, Jared Rutter, Douglas Grossman
The tumor suppressor p16INK4A (p16) inhibits cell cycle progression through the CDK4/Rb pathway. We have previously shown that p16 regulates cellular oxidative stress, independent of its role in cell cycle control. We investigated whether loss of p16 had a direct impact on the mitochondria. We found that p16-null primary mouse fibroblasts (PMFs) displayed increased mitochondrial mass and expression of mitochondrial respiratory subunit proteins compared to wild-type (WT) PMFs. These findings in p16-null PMFs were associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors PRC and TFAM...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915490/bioremoval-of-zinc-and-manganese-by-bacterial-biofilm-a-bioreactor-based-approach
#14
Trishna Pani, Anamika Das, Jabez Williams Osborne
Industrialization has led to the disposal of a massive amount of heavy metals every year, showing perilous effects on humans, marine life and agricultural products. There are numerous chemical and biological approaches available but their implementation is limited due to high cost and low efficiency. Therefore, the present study was focused on the biofilm- based bioremoval of heavy metals (zinc and manganese) using indigenous bacteria isolated from the tannery sludge obtained from Ranipet, Tamil Nadu. The effective isolate was capable of tolerating up to 2000mg/L of zinc and manganese and was further used for development of biofilm on the peels of Cucumis sativus...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915442/electron-cryo-tomography-captures-macromolecular-complexes-in-native-environments
#15
REVIEW
Lindsay A Baker, Michael Grange, Kay Grünewald
Transmission electron microscopy has a long history in cellular biology. Fixed and stained samples have been used for cellular imaging for over 50 years, but suffer from sample preparation induced artifacts. Electron cryo-tomography (cryoET) instead uses frozen-hydrated samples, without chemical modification, to determine the structure of macromolecular complexes in their native environment. Recent developments in electron microscopes and associated technologies have greatly expanded our ability to visualize cellular features and determine the structures of macromolecular complexes in situ...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915441/femtosecond-mega-electron-volt-electron-microdiffraction
#16
X Shen, R K Li, U Lundström, T J Lane, A H Reid, S P Weathersby, X J Wang
To understand and control the basic functions of physical, chemical and biological processes from micron to nano-meter scale, an instrument capable of visualizing transient structural changes of inhomogeneous materials with atomic spatial and temporal resolutions, is required. One such technique is femtosecond electron microdiffraction, in which a short electron pulse with femtosecond-scale duration is focused into a micron-scale spot and used to obtain diffraction images to resolve ultrafast structural dynamics over a localized crystalline domain...
September 1, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915379/study-on-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction-catalyzed-by-a-cold-tolerant-marine-strain-phylogenetically-related-to-erythrobacter-citreus
#17
Lianqiang Li, Fei Ding, Lin Sang, Jiaquan Liu, Duolu Mao, Xingjiang Liu, Qiang Xu
As the development of marine economy, the submarine battery with the seawater electrolyte has obtained more and more attentions. Owing to the conventional electrochemical catalysts of the cathodes in seawater battery are expensive, it is to seek the new biological catalysts to improve the electrochemical performance of the cathode and reduce the cost of seawater battery. A novel marine bacterial strain (Strain SQ-32) phylogenetically related to the Erythrobactercitreus strain has been isolated from the sea-bed sludge in the Yellow Sea of China successfully...
September 8, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915259/a-novel-mechanism-of-antibody-mediated-enhancement-of-flavivirus-infection
#18
Denise Haslwanter, Dieter Blaas, Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is a well-described phenomenon that is based on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fcγ receptors expressed on myeloid cells. Here we describe a novel mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement of infection by a flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus) in transformed and primary human cells, which is independent of the presence of Fcγ receptors. Using chemical cross-linking and immunoassays, we demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody (mab) A5, recognizing an epitope at the interface of the dimeric envelope protein E, causes dimer dissociation and leads to the exposure of the fusion loop (FL)...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915088/abiotic-and-biotic-formation-of-amino-acids-in-the-enceladus-ocean
#19
Elliot L Steel, Alfonso Davila, Christopher P McKay
The active plume at Enceladus' south pole makes the indirect sampling of its global ocean possible. The partially resolved chemistry of the plume, which points to conditions that are seemingly compatible with life, has made orbital sampling missions a priority. We present a conceptual model of energy flux, hydrothermal H2 production, and both abiotic and biotic production of amino acids. Based on the energy flux observed at the south pole and the inferred internal hydrothermal activity, we estimate an H2 production of 0...
September 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915043/proton-network-flexibility-enables-robustness-and-large-electric-fields-in-the-ketosteroid-isomerase-active-site
#20
Lu Wang, Stephen D Fried, Thomas E Markland
Hydrogen bond networks play vital roles in biological functions ranging from protein folding to enzyme catalysis. Here we combine electronic structure calculations and ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations, which incorporate both nuclear and electronic quantum effects, to show why the network of short hydrogen bonds in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase is remarkably robust to mutations along the network and how this gives rise to large local electric fields. We demonstrate that these properties arise from the network's ability to respond to a perturbation by shifting proton positions and redistributing electronic charge density...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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