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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109168/integrated-omics-analysis-of-specialized-metabolism-in-medicinal-plants
#1
Amit Rai, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Medicinal plants are the rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their approach to explore biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. Recent advancements in the high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. Reduced cost to generate omics datasets, and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several plant origin bio-active metabolites...
January 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109049/production-of-the-antibiotic-secondary-metabolite-solanapyrone-a-by-the-fungal-plant-pathogen-ascochyta-rabiei-during-fruiting-body-formation-in-saprobic-growth
#2
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Frank M Dugan, Tobin L Peever, David R Gang, George Vandemark, Weidong Chen
Fungi are noted producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which are of pharmacological importance. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of these molecules during the fungal life cycle in nature remain elusive. Solanapyrones are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by diverse fungal species including the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. This molecule was originally thought to function as a phytotoxin facilitating pathogenesis of A. rabiei. Chemical profiling and gene expression studies showed that solanapyrone A was specifically produced during saprobic, but not parasitic growth of A...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108957/effect-of-temperature-on-surface-characteristics-of-nitrogen-ion-implanted-biocompatible-titanium
#3
Hossein Aghajani, Mohsen Sadeghpour Motlagh
It has been established that nitrogen implantation can modify metals surface properties such as corrosion, wear, friction, etc. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen implantation into titanium and its alloys leads to the formation of titanium nitride, which has interesting biological, chemical, and mechanical properties. In the present investigation, commercially pure biocompatible titanium implanted by nitrogen. Implantation of ions performed at 80 keV and a dose of 2.1 × 10(18) ions/cm(2) at four different temperatures of 300, 473, 673 and 873 k...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108888/biofilm-phosphorus-uptake-capacity-as-a-tool-for-the-assessment-of-pollutant-effects-in-river-ecosystems
#4
Lorenzo Proia, Anna Romaní, Sergi Sabater
Biofilms are a key component in the nutrient removal from the water column. However, nutrient uptake by biofilms may be hampered by the occurrence of pollutants or other stressors. This study aimed: (i) to investigate the biofilm phosphorus (P) uptake capacity as a relevant process for the maintenance of fluvial water quality and (ii) to explore the sensitivity of this process to different chemical and environmental stressors. We conducted chamber experiments to test for the relevance of biofilm P uptake capacity (PUC) as a tool to detect effects of pollutants on river self-depuration...
January 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108656/functionally-interdependent-shape-switching-nanoparticles-with-controllable-properties
#5
Justin R Halman, Emily Satterwhite, Brandon Roark, Morgan Chandler, Mathias Viard, Anna Ivanina, Eckart Bindewald, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Martin Panigaj, My N Bui, Jacob S Lu, Johann Miller, Emil F Khisamutdinov, Bruce A Shapiro, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Kirill A Afonin
We introduce a new concept that utilizes cognate nucleic acid nanoparticles which are fully complementary and functionally-interdependent to each other. In the described approach, the physical interaction between sets of designed nanoparticles initiates a rapid isothermal shape change which triggers the activation of multiple functionalities and biological pathways including transcription, energy transfer, functional aptamers and RNA interference. The individual nanoparticles are not active and have controllable kinetics of re-association and fine-tunable chemical and thermodynamic stabilities...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108360/archaeal-lipids-in-oral-delivery-of-therapeutic-peptides
#6
Ann-Christin Jacobsen, Sara M Jensen, Gert Fricker, Martin Brandl, Alexander Treusch
Archaea contain membrane lipids that differ from those found in the other domains of life (Eukarya and Bacteria). These lipids consist of isoprenoid chains attached via ether bonds to the glycerol carbons at the sn-2,3 positions. Two types of ether lipids are known, polar diether lipids and bipolar tetraether lipids. The inherent chemical stability and unique membrane-spanning characteristics of tetraether lipids render them interesting for oral drug delivery purposes. Archaeal lipids form liposomes spontaneously (archaeosomes) and may be incorporated in conventional liposomes (mixed vesicles)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108278/comparison-of-the-redox-chemistry-of-sulfur-and-selenium-containing-analogs-of-uracil
#7
N Connor Payne, Andrew Geissler, Aileen Button, Alexandru R Sasuclark, Alayne L Schroll, Erik L Ruggles, Vadim N Gladyshev, Robert J Hondal
Selenium is present in proteins in the form of selenocysteine, where this amino acid serves catalytic oxidoreductase functions. The use of selenocysteine in nature is strongly associated with redox catalysis. However, selenium is also found in a 2-selenouridine moiety at the wobble position of tRNA(Glu), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Lys). It is thought that the modifications of the wobble position of the tRNA improves the selectivity of the codon-anticodon pair as a result of the physico-chemical changes that result from substitution of sulfur and selenium for oxygen...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108024/isolation-of-isoflavones-from-iris-kashmiriana-baker-as-potential-anti-proliferative-agents-targeting-nf-kappab
#8
Afroze Alam, Varun Jaiswal, Sohail Akhtar, B S Jayashree, K L Dhar
Cancer is possibly one of the most devastating and complex disease and therefore involves chemotherapy as one of the frontline strategies in its therapy. However, expected toxicity and resistance with chemotherapeutic agents encourage us to use the plant derived natural chemotherapeutic sources at the clinical stage of cancer therapy. In view of this strategy, herein new glycosides and isoflavonoids were isolated from Iris kashmiriana Baker and subjected to structure elucidation followed by their biological evaluation...
January 17, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107981/recent-progress-challenges-and-trends-in-trace-determination-of-drug-analysis-using-molecularly-imprinted-solid-phase-microextraction-technology
#9
REVIEW
Saeedeh Ansari, Majid Karimi
The quantification of drugs in biological samples is a significant task for determination of the physiological efficiency in evaluated drugs in the drug discovery. To analysis of the chemical compounds at the trace and ultratrace levels, adequate analytical procedures should be applied. Therefore, sample preparation method undoubtedly is the most important stage in the trace determination process. In spite of the great growth of analytical instrumentation during the recent years, sample preparation is still nowadays considered the impasse of the all analytical procedure, especially in drugs analysis...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107906/development-of-data-independent-acquisition-workflows-for-metabolomic-analysis-on-a-quadrupole-orbitrap-platform
#10
Juntuo Zhou, Yuhua Li, Xi Chen, Lijun Zhong, Yuxin Yin
Untargeted metabolomic profiling has been widely used in recent years. However, the low reproducibility of the data-dependent acquisition (DDA) strategy presents a major bottleneck that considerably limits the reliability of metabolomic studies in biological and clinical research. The data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategy is proposed to solve the above-mentioned problem, and it is gaining popularity. This paper presents a novel approach for performing metabolomic analysis using an untargeted, liquid chromatography-data independent-mass spectrometry (LC-DIA-MS) strategy on a quadrupole-Orbitrap platform...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107651/one-ring-to-fight-them-all-the-sulfazecin-story
#11
Daniel Braga, Gerald Lackner
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Li et al. (2017) report on the biosynthesis of the monobactam sulfazecin by Pseudomonas acidophila and hypothesize a novel mechanism of β-lactam ring formation. As monobactam antibiotics are unaffected by some emerging resistance mechanisms (particularly metallo-β-lactamases), this discovery opens prospects to engineer β-lactam antibiotics against multi-drug resistant pathogens.
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107648/parp-1-controls-the-adipogenic-transcriptional-program-by-parylating-c-ebp%C3%AE-and-modulating-its-transcriptional-activity
#12
Xin Luo, Keun Woo Ryu, Dae-Seok Kim, Tulip Nandu, Carlos J Medina, Rebecca Gupte, Bryan A Gibson, Raymond E Soccio, Yonghao Yu, Rana K Gupta, W Lee Kraus
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification of proteins mediated by PARP family members, such as PARP-1. Although PARylation has been studied extensively, few examples of definitive biological roles for site-specific PARylation have been reported. Here we show that C/EBPβ, a key pro-adipogenic transcription factor, is PARylated by PARP-1 on three amino acids in a conserved regulatory domain. PARylation at these sites inhibits C/EBPβ's DNA binding and transcriptional activities and attenuates adipogenesis in various genetic and cell-based models...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107624/tocilizumab-alendronate-conjugate-for-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Hwiwon Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyemin Kim, Sei Kwang Hahn
An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) - Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) - poly(ethylene glycol) - N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS)...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107539/towards-cost-effective-operational-monitoring-systems-for-complex-waters-analyzing-small-scale-coastal-processes-with-optical-transmissometry
#14
Marta Ramírez-Pérez, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Sonja Wiegmann, Elena Torrecilla, Raul Bardaji, Rüdiger Röttgers, Astrid Bracher, Jaume Piera
The detection and prediction of changes in coastal ecosystems require a better understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions, which involves that observations should be performed continuously. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for small, simple and cost-effective in situ sensors to analyze complex coastal waters at a broad range of scales. In this context, this study seeks to explore the potential of beam attenuation spectra, c(λ), measured in situ with an advanced-technology optical transmissometer, for assessing temporal and spatial patterns in the complex estuarine waters of Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) as a test site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106994/enzymatic-halogenation-and-dehalogenation-reactions-pervasive-and-mechanistically-diverse
#15
Vinayak Agarwal, Zachary D Miles, Jaclyn M Winter, Alessandra S Eustáquio, Abrahim A El Gamal, Bradley S Moore
Naturally produced halogenated compounds are ubiquitous across all domains of life where they perform a multitude of biological functions and adopt a diversity of chemical structures. Accordingly, a diverse collection of enzyme catalysts to install and remove halogens from organic scaffolds has evolved in nature. Accounting for the different chemical properties of the four halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) and the diversity and chemical reactivity of their organic substrates, enzymes performing biosynthetic and degradative halogenation chemistry utilize numerous mechanistic strategies involving oxidation, reduction, and substitution...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106830/-188-re-v-nitrido-radiopharmaceuticals-for-radionuclide-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra Boschi, Petra Martini, Licia Uccelli
The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. (188)Re is readily available from an (188)W/(188)Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported...
January 19, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106757/new-enzyme-inhibitory-triterpenoid-from-marine-macro-brown-alga-padina-boergesenii-allender-kraft
#17
Liaqat Ali, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Al-Broumi, Rashid Al-Harrasi, Lubna Al-Kharusi, Javid Hussain, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
In continuation to our study of the chemical and biological potential of the secondary metabolites isolated from Omani seaweeds, we investigated a marine brown alga, Padina boergesenii. The phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of a new secondary metabolite, padinolic acid (1), along with some other semi-pure fractions and sub-fractions. The planar structure was confirmed through MS and NMR (1D and 2D) spectral data. The NOESY experiments coupled with the biogenetic consideration were helpful in assigning the stereochemistry in the molecule...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106711/biological-fuel-cells-and-membranes
#19
REVIEW
Zahra Ghassemi, Gymama Slaughter
Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e...
January 17, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106264/role-of-microbial-inoculation-and-industrial-by-product-phosphogypsum-on-growth-and-nutrients-uptake-of-maize-zea-mays-l-grown-in-calcareous-soil
#20
Abdul-Aziz R Al-Enazy, Saud S Al-Oud, Fahad N Al-Barakah, R A Adel, Usman
BACKGROUND: Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrients availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg(-1) ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg(-1) ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl; Azotobacter chroococcum, phosphate-solubilizing bacterium of Bacillus megaterium var...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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