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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166625/ambient-surface-mass-spectrometry-ion-mobility-spectrometry-of-intact-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Rian L Griffiths, Klaudia I Kocurek, Helen J Cooper
Ambient surface mass spectrometry encompasses a broad range of sampling and ionization techniques. To date, only a small subset of these, based on liquid microjunction extraction, have proven suitable for intact protein analysis from thin tissue sections. Liquid extraction surface analysis shows particular promise for this application. Recently, a range of ion mobility spectrometry approaches have been coupled with ambient mass spectrometry. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratios, decreased chemical noise and separation of molecular classes have been described for the analysis of various biological substrates...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166564/optical-control-of-dopamine-receptors-using-a-photoswitchable-tethered-inverse-agonist
#2
Prashant Donthamsetti, Nils Winter, Matthias Schönberger, Joshua Levitz, Cherise Stanley, Jonathan A Javitch, Ehud Y Isacoff, Dirk Trauner
Family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control diverse biological processes and are of great clinical relevance. Their archetype rhodopsin becomes naturally light sensitive by binding covalently to the photoswitchable tethered ligand (PTL) retinal. Other GPCRs, however, neither bind covalently to ligands nor are light sensitive. We sought to impart the logic of rhodopsin to light-insensitive Family A GPCRs in order to enable their remote control in a receptor-specific, cell-type-specific and spatio-temporally precise manner...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166547/chemical-metabolome-assay-by-high-resolution-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-and-assessment-of-associated-antitumoral-activity-of-actinocephalus-divaricatus
#3
Ana C Zanatta, Angela Mari, Milena Masullo, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos, Wagner Vilegas, Sonia Piacente, Lourdes Campaner Dos Santos
RATIONALE: Actinocephalus divaricatus (Eriocaulaceae) is an important source of income for the rural communities as it is sold as an ornamental plant. To date, no investigation has been conducted concerning the chemical composition and biological studies of the aerial parts of A. divaricatus. METHODS: The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this species was chemically characterized. We applied an analytical dereplication approach based on Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry in order to develop, identify and define rapidly the metabolite fingerprint of the aerial parts of A...
November 22, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#4
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165985/nanoscale-dynamics-of-amyloid-beta-42-oligomers-as-revealed-by-high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy
#5
Siddhartha Banerjee, Zhiqiang Sun, Eric Y Hayden, David B Teplow, Yuri L Lyubchenko
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers are emerging as potent neurotoxic species in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Detailed characterization of oligomer structure and dynamics are necessary to develop oligomer-specific therapeutic agents. However, oligomers exist transiently, which complicates their structural analysis. One approach to mitigate these problems has been photochemical cross-linking of native oligomers. In these states, the oligomers can be isolated and purified for physical and chemical studies...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165453/structural-and-electronic-properties-of-barbituric-acid-and-melamine-containing-ribonucleosides-as-plausible-components-of-prebiotic-rna-implications-for-prebiotic-self-assembly
#6
Sarabjeet Kaur, Purshotam Sharma, Stacey D Wetmore
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that RNA was the first informational polymer that originated from prebiotic chemical soup. However, since the reaction of d-ribose with canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U) fails to yield ribonucleosides (rNs) in substantial amounts, the spontaneous origin of rNs and the subsequent synthesis of RNA remains an unsolved mystery. To this end, it has been suggested that RNA may have evolved from primitive genetic material (preRNA) composed of simpler prebiotic heterocycles that spontaneously form glycosidic bonds with ribose...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165156/total-arsenic-and-speciation-analysis-of-saliva-and-urine-samples-from-individuals-living-in-a-chronic-arsenicosis-area-in-china
#7
Dapeng Wang, Yasuyo Shimoda, Sanxiang Wang, Zhenghui Wang, Jian Liu, Xing Liu, Huanyu Jin, Fenfang Gao, Jian Tong, Kenzo Yamanaka, Jie Zhang, Yan An
BACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that the determination of harmful chemical compounds excreted into saliva is useful for assessing their exposure levels. The aim of the present study was to compare the total arsenic and its species in saliva and urine samples collected from the people residing in an arsenic-contaminated area of China and to further verify the feasibility of using salivary arsenic as a new biomarker of arsenic exposure. METHODS: Total arsenic and speciation analyses in urine and saliva samples among 70 residents exposed to arsenic from drinking water in Shanxi, China were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP/MS)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164853/microfluidic-free-flow-electrophoresis-based-solvent-exchanger-for-continuously-operating-lab-on-chip-applications
#8
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Simon Pfeiffer, Ronny Frank, Felix Nitschke, Laura Mauritz, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
For miniaturization and integration of chemical synthesis and analytics on small length scales, the development of complex lab on chip (LOC) systems is in the focus of many current research projects. While application specific synthesis and analytic modules and LOC devices are widely described, the combination and integration of different modules is intensively investigated. Problems for in-line processes such as solvent incompatibilities, e.g., for a multistep synthesis or the combination of an organic drug synthesis with a cell-based biological activity testing system, require a solvent exchange between serialized modules...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164535/multi-criterial-evaluation-of-p-removal-optimization-in-rural-wastewater-treatment-plants-for-a-sub-catchment-of-the-baltic-sea
#9
Michael Cramer, Tatyana Koegst, Jens Traenckner
Rural wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are recognized as a significant phosphorous (P)-emission source in the German sub-catchments of the Baltic Sea. But enhancement of P-removal is cost intensive especially for small communities. This study proposes a concept to efficiently reduce P-emissions from WWTP by introducing low-cost non-constructional measures and assessing the resulting change of ambient water quality on a river basin scale. As case study, we choose the Warnow catchment in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany) where 76 % of WWTP-emissions originate from treatment plants without P-discharge limits...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164107/poly-ethylene-glycol-and-cyclodextrin-grafted-chitosan-from-methodologies-to-preparation-and-potential-biotechnological-applications
#10
REVIEW
Estefânia V R Campos, Jhones L Oliveira, Leonardo F Fraceto
Chitosan, a polyaminosaccharide obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, possesses useful properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, low toxicity, and good miscibility with other polymers. It is extensively used in many applications in biology, medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, and the food and pharmaceutical industries. The amino and hydroxyl groups present in the chitosan backbone provide positions for modifications that are influenced by factors such as the molecular weight, viscosity, and type of chitosan, as well as the reaction conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163922/bright-and-sensitive-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-enabling-endogenous-fa-imaging-and-mechanistic-exploration-of-indirect-oxidative-damage-due-to-fa-in-various-living-systems
#11
Kun Dou, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Lingxin Chen, Ziping Cao, Tao Chen, Yulin Li, Jinmao You
As a notorious toxin, formaldehyde (FA) poses an immense threat to human health. Aberrantly elevated FA levels lead to serious pathologies, including organ damage, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Unfortunately, current techniques limit FA imaging to general comparative studies, instead of a mechanistic exploration of its biological role, and this is presumably due to the lack of robust molecular tools for reporting FA in living systems. More importantly, despite being reductive, FA, however, can induce oxidative damage to organisms, thus providing a challenge to the mechanistic study of FA using fluorescence imaging...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163669/current-status-and-perspectives-of-genome-editing-technology-for-microalgae
#12
REVIEW
Seungjib Jeon, Jong-Min Lim, Hyung-Gwan Lee, Sung-Eun Shin, Nam Kyu Kang, Youn-Il Park, Hee-Mock Oh, Won-Joong Jeong, Byeong-Ryool Jeong, Yong Keun Chang
Genome editing techniques are critical for manipulating genes not only to investigate their functions in biology but also to improve traits for genetic engineering in biotechnology. Genome editing has been greatly facilitated by engineered nucleases, dubbed molecular scissors, including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), TAL effector endonuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9. In particular, CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing fields with its simplicity, efficiency and accuracy compared to previous nucleases...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163371/cofactors-as-metabolic-sensors-driving-cell-adaptation-in-physiology-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
Chromatin architectures and epigenetic fingerprint regulation are fundamental for genetically determined biological processes. Chemical modifications of the chromatin template sensitize the genome to intracellular metabolism changes to set up diverse functional adaptive states. Accumulated evidence suggests that the action of epigenetic modifiers is sensitive to changes in dietary components and cellular metabolism intermediates, linking nutrition and energy metabolism to gene expression plasticity. Histone posttranslational modifications create a code that acts as a metabolic sensor, translating changes in metabolism into stable gene expression patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162910/a-library-of-chemically-defined-human-n-glycans-synthesized-from-microbial-oligosaccharide-precursors
#14
Brian S Hamilton, Joshua D Wilson, Marina A Shumakovich, Adam C Fisher, James C Brooks, Alyssa Pontes, Radnaa Naran, Christian Heiss, Chao Gao, Robert Kardish, Jamie Heimburg-Molinaro, Parastoo Azadi, Richard D Cummings, Judith H Merritt, Matthew P DeLisa
Synthesis of homogenous glycans in quantitative yields represents a major bottleneck to the production of molecular tools for glycoscience, such as glycan microarrays, affinity resins, and reference standards. Here, we describe a combined biological/enzymatic synthesis that is capable of efficiently converting microbially-derived precursor oligosaccharides into structurally uniform human-type N-glycans. Unlike starting material obtained by chemical synthesis or direct isolation from natural sources, which can be time consuming and costly to generate, our approach involves precursors derived from renewable sources including wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycoproteins and lipid-linked oligosaccharides from glycoengineered Escherichia coli...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162775/effect-of-methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate-on-the-culture-of-mammalian-cell
#15
Hidenori Tani, Jun-Ichi Takeshita, Hiroshi Aoki, Kaoru Nakamura, Ryosuke Abe, Akinobu Toyoda, Yasunori Endo, Sadaaki Miyamoto, Masashi Gamo, Masaki Torimura, Hiroaki Sato
Several chemicals, such as methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB), have been widely used as preservatives in the water baths of CO2 incubators used for mammalian cell culture, and they are not considered to produce any biological effects. However, no detailed analyses of the effects of these compounds on cultured cells have been reported. In this study, we thus examined whether MHB in the incubator water bath affects cell viability or genome-wide gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells under control conditions [using only dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the culture medium] and under chemical-treated conditions using benzene and chloroform; conditions that simulate a cell-based toxicity assay...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162702/structural-basis-for-the-antiarrhythmic-blockade-of-a-potassium-channel-with-a-small-molecule
#16
Yoshio Takemoto, Diana P Slough, Gretchen Meinke, Christopher Katnik, Zachary A Graziano, Bojjibabu Chidipi, Michelle Reiser, Mohammed M Alhadidy, Rafael Ramirez, Oscar Salvador-Montañés, Steven Ennis, Guadalupe Guerrero-Serna, Marian Haburcak, Carl Diehl, Javier Cuevas, Jose Jalife, Andrew Bohm, Yu-Shan Lin, Sami F Noujaim
The acetylcholine-activated inward rectifier potassium current (IKACh) is constitutively active in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). We tested the hypothesis that the blocking of IKACh with the small molecule chloroquine terminates persistent AF. We used a sheep model of tachypacing-induced, persistent AF, molecular modeling, electrophysiology, and structural biology approaches. The 50% inhibition/inhibitory concentration of IKACh block with chloroquine, measured by patch clamp, was 1 μM. In optical mapping of sheep hearts with persistent AF, 1 μM chloroquine restored sinus rhythm...
November 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162678/stability-of-ceftazidime-and-heparin-in-four-different-types-of-peritoneal-dialysis-solutions
#17
Surendra Kandel, Syed Tabish R Zaidi, Troy Wanandy, Long Ming, Ronald Castelino, Kamal Sud, Rahul P Patel
BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of ceftazidime is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) from Pseudomonas. Patients with PDAP may also need IP heparin to overcome problems with drainage of turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids and blockage of catheters with fibrin. Physico-chemical stability of ceftazidime and heparin, and biological stability of heparin in many types of PD solutions is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the stability of ceftazidime and heparin in 4 types of PD solutions...
November 21, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161882/redox-active-quinones-chelators-as-possible-antitumor-drugs-properties-mechanisms-of-action-cells-delivery-and-cells-toxicity
#18
Nikolaj Polyakov, Tatyana Leshina, Lidiya Fedenok, Irina Slepneva, Igor A Kirilyuk, Justina Furso, Magdalena M Olchawa, Tadeusz Sarna, Martyna Elas, Itzhak Bilkis, Lev Weiner
SIGNIFICANCE: Chemotherapy is currently the principal method for treating many malignancies. Thus, development of improved antitumor drugs with enhanced efficacy and selectivity remains a high priority. Recent Advances: Anthracycline antibiotics (AAs), e.g., doxorubicin, daunomycin, and mitomycin C, are an important family of antitumor agents widely used in chemotherapy. All these compounds are quinones. They are thus capable of being reduced by appropriate chemicals or reductases. One of their important properties is that under aerobic conditions their reduced forms undergo oxidation, with concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i...
November 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161677/nanotechnology-based-recent-approaches-for-sensing-and-remediation-of-pesticides
#19
REVIEW
Deepak Rawtani, Nitasha Khatri, Sanjiv Tyagi, Gaurav Pandey
Pesticides are meant to control and destroy the pests and weeds. They are classified into different categories on the basis their origin and type of pest they target. Chemical pesticides such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are commonly used in agricultural fields. However, the excessive use of these agrochemicals have adverse effects on environment such as reduced population of insect pollinators, threat to endangered species and habitat of birds. Upon consumption; chemical pesticides also cause various health issues such as skin, eye and nervous system related problems and cancer upon prolonged exposure...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161508/design-and-fabrication-of-wettability-gradients-with-tunable-profiles-through-degrafting-organosilane-layers-from-silica-surfaces-by-tetrabutylammonium-fluoride
#20
Jason R Miles, Spencer L Schlenker, Yeongun Ko, Rohan R Patil, Balaji M Rao, Jan Genzer
Surface-bound wettability gradients allow for a high-throughput approach to evaluate surface interactions for many biological and chemical processes. Here we describe the fabrication of surface wettability gradients on flat surfaces by a simple, two-step procedure that permits precise tuning of the gradient profile. This process involves the deposition of homogeneous silane SAMs followed by the formation of a surface coverage gradient through the selective removal of silanes from the substrate. Removal of silanes from the surface is achieved by using tetrabutylammonium fluoride which cleaves selectively the Si-O bonds at the headgroup of the silane...
November 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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