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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629743/association-study-of-childhood-food-allergy-with-gwas-discovered-loci-of-atopic-dermatitis-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
Tomomitsu Hirota, Tsuguhisa Nakayama, Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Teruaki Matsui, Shiro Sugiura, Yuri Takaoka, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Shigeharu Fujieda, Akihiko Miyatake, Takashi Sasaki, Masayuki Amagai, Satoru Doi, Komei Ito, Motohiro Ebisawa, Mayumi Tamari
We found associations between FA and 14 GWAS-identified loci of AD and EoE: C11orf30/LRRC32, TMEM232/SLC25A46, TNFRSF6B/ZGPAT, OVOL1, KIF3A/IL13, GLB1, CCDC80, ZNF365, OR10A3/NLRP10, IL2/IL21, CLEC16A/DEXI, ZNF652, TSLP/WDR36 and STAT6. These findings improve our understanding of the complex heterogeneity of FA.
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607106/ubash3a-mediates-risk-for-type-1-diabetes-through-inhibition-of-t-cell-receptor-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#2
Yan Ge, Taylor K Paisie, Jeremy R B Newman, Lauren M McIntyre, Patrick Concannon
Although over 40 type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk loci have been mapped in humans, the causative genes and variants for T1D are largely unknown. Here, we investigated a candidate gene in the 21q22.3 risk locus-UBASH3A, which is primarily expressed in T cells where it is thought to play a largely redundant role. Genetic variants in UBASH3A have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases in addition to T1D. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these genetic associations is unresolved. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized role of UBASH3A in human T cells: UBASH3A attenuates the NF-κB signal transduction upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation by specifically suppressing the activation of the IKK complex...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589963/exposure-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-physiology
#3
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Inhalants, including toluene, target the addiction neurocircuitry and are often one of the first drugs of abuse tried by adolescents. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in regulating goal-directed/reward-motivated behaviors and different mPFC sub-regions have been proposed to promote (prelimbic, PRL) or inhibit (infralimbic, IL) these behaviors. While this dichotomy has been studied in the context of other drugs of abuse, it is not known whether toluene exposure differentially affects neurons within PRL and IL regions...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573158/mouse-embryonic-fibroblast-cell-culture-and-stimulation
#4
Lian-Qun Qiu, Wi S Lai, Deborah J Stumpo, Perry J Blackshear
Culture of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells represents a powerful system to test gene function due to their easy accessibility, rapid growth rates, and the possibility of a large number of experiments. Fibroblasts are a group of heterogeneous resident cells of mesenchymal origin that have various locations, diverse appearances and distinctive activities. Because of their ubiquitous distribution as tissue cells, these cells are poised to respond to factors released by newly activated innate immune cells, thus becoming a useful tool to study inflammation and immunity...
July 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570278/cxcl13-producing-tfh-cells-link-immune-suppression-and-adaptive-memory-in-human-breast-cancer
#5
Chunyan Gu-Trantien, Edoardo Migliori, Laurence Buisseret, Alexandre de Wind, Sylvain Brohée, Soizic Garaud, Grégory Noël, Vu Luan Dang Chi, Jean-Nicolas Lodewyckx, Céline Naveaux, Hugues Duvillier, Stanislas Goriely, Denis Larsimont, Karen Willard-Gallo
T follicular helper cells (TFH cells) are important regulators of antigen-specific B cell responses. The B cell chemoattractant CXCL13 has recently been linked with TFH cell infiltration and improved survival in human cancer. Although human TFH cells can produce CXCL13, their immune functions are currently unknown. This study presents data from human breast cancer, advocating a role for tumor-infiltrating CXCL13-producing (CXCR5-) TFH cells, here named TFHX13 cells, in promoting local memory B cell differentiation...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556984/the-emerging-role-of-anti-cd25-directed-therapies-as-both-immune-modulators-and-targeted-agents-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Flynn, John A Hartley
CD25 (also termed IL2RA) forms one component of the high-affinity heterotrimeric interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor on activated T cells. Its affinity for IL2 and cellular function are tightly regulated and vary in different cell types. The high frequency of CD25 on the surface of many different haematological tumour cells is now well established and, apart from its prognostic significance, CD25 may be present on leukaemic stem cells and enable oncogenic signalling pathways in leukaemic cells. Additionally, high CD25 expression in activated circulating immune cells and Tregs is a factor that has already been exploited by IL2 immunotherapies for treatment of tumours and autoimmune disease...
May 30, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554143/comparison-of-gene-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-and-cytokines-between-piau-and-commercial-line-landrace%C3%A3-large-white-crossbred-pigs-vaccinated-against-pasteurella-multocida-type-d
#7
Katiene Régia Silva Sousa, André Mauric Frossard Ribeiro, Waleska de Melo Ferreira Dantas, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Eliane Gasparino, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães
We aimed to compare Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytokines expression in local Piau breed and a Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs in response to vaccination against Pasteurella multocida type D. Seronegative gilts for Pasteurella multocida type D and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were used, from which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected in four time points (T0, T1, T2 and T3; before and after each vaccination dose). For bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells (BALF), we set groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals for both genetic groups...
May 22, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#8
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
May 22, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524801/association-of-ugt2b7-ugt1a9-abcg2-and-il23r-polymorphisms-with-rejection-risk-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#9
Heloísa Lizotti Cilião, Rossana Batista Oliveira Camargo-Godoy, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Lorena Iastrenski, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Despite advances in testing compatibility between donor and recipient, graft rejection remains a current concern. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that codify altered enzymes of metabolism, drug transport, and the immune system may contribute to graft rejection in transplant patients. This study examined the association between SNPs present in genes of these processes and occurrence of graft rejection episodes in 246 kidney transplant patients, 35% of which were diagnosed with rejection. Genotype-gene expression associations were also assessed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507940/cord-blood-cells-responses-to-il2-il7-and-il15-cytokines-for-mtor-expression
#10
Anahita Mohammadian, Elahe Naderali, Seyedeh Momeneh Mohammadi, Aliakbar Movasaghpour, Behnaz Valipour, Mohammad Nouri, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)is important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34(+) cells) in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs) from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507797/il15-induces-a-potent-antitumor-activity-in-nk-cells-isolated-from-malignant-pleural-effusions-and-overcomes-the-inhibitory-effect-of-pleural-fluid
#11
D Croxatto, S Martini, L Chiossone, F Scordamaglia, C F Simonassi, L Moretta, M C Mingari, P Vacca
Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable of recognizing and killing cancer cells and play an important role in tumor immunosurveillance. However, tumor-infiltrating NK cells are frequently impaired in their functional capability. A remarkable exception is represented by NK cells isolated from malignant pleural effusions (PE) that are not anergic and, upon IL2-induced activation, efficiently kill tumor cells. Although IL2 is used in various clinical trials, severe side effects may occur in treated patients. In this study, we investigated whether also other clinical-grade cytokines could induce strong cytotoxicity in NK cells isolated from pleural fluid of patients with primary or metastatic tumors of different origins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492521/coinjection-of-il2-dna-enhances-e7-specific-antitumor-immunity-elicited-by-intravaginal-therapeutic-hpv-dna-vaccination-with-electroporation
#12
Y Sun, S Peng, A Yang, E Farmer, T-C Wu, Chien-Fu Hung
The generation and use of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccines represent an appealing treatment method against HPV-associated cervical cancer due to their safety and durability. Previously, we created a therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine candidate by linking the HPV16-E7 DNA sequence to calreticulin (CRT/E7), which we showed could generate significant E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune responses against HPV16 oncogenes expressing murine tumor model TC-1. Here we assess the therapeutic efficacy of intravaginal immunization with pcDNA3-CRT/E7 followed by electroporation...
May 11, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483527/immuno-pcr-with-digital-readout
#13
Hendrik Schröder, Maximilian Grösche, Michael Adler, Mark Spengler, Christof M Niemeyer
Immuno-PCR (IPCR) combines the versatile ELISA antigen detection with ultrasensitive PCR signal amplification, thereby enabling the highly sensitive detection of a broad range of targets with a typically very large dynamic detection range. The quantification of the antigen is usually achieved by real-time PCR, which provides a correlation between the target concentration and amplified DNA marker. We here report on the implementation of digital droplet PCR as a means for direct quantification of DNA copies to enable the highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers...
May 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476932/transcriptional-heterogeneity-of-mast-cells-and-basophils-upon-activation
#14
Krishan D Chhiba, Chia-Lin Hsu, Sergejs Berdnikovs, Paul J Bryce
Mast cells and basophils are developmentally related cells whose activation is a hallmark of allergy. Functionally, mast cells and basophils overlap in their ability to produce several mediators, including histamine and granule proteases, but studies have increasingly demonstrated nonredundant roles. To characterize the transcriptional heterogeneity of mast cells and basophils upon their activation, we performed large-scale comparative microarrays of murine bone marrow-derived mast cells and bone marrow-derived basophils (BMBs) at rest, upon an adaptive-type activation (IgE cross-linking), or upon an innate-type activation (IL-33 stimulation)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468916/tumor-derived-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-directly-drives-human-natural-killer-cell-activation-and-subsequent-cell-death
#15
Lazar Vujanovic, Elizabeth C Stahl, Angela D Pardee, David A Geller, Allan Tsung, Simon C Watkins, Gregory A Gibson, Walter J Storkus, Lisa H Butterfield
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with reduced natural killer (NK)-cell numbers and function have been shown to have a poor disease outcome. Mechanisms underlying NK-cell deficiency and dysfunction in HCC patients remain largely unresolved. α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen produced by HCC. Previous studies demonstrated that tumor-derived AFP (tAFP) can indirectly impair NK-cell activity by suppressing dendritic cell function. However, a direct tAFP effect on NK cells remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of cord blood-derived AFP (nAFP) and that of tAFP to directly modulate human NK-cell activity and longevity in vitro Short-term exposure to tAFP and, especially, nAFP proteins induced a unique proinflammatory, IL2-hyperresponsive phenotype in NK cells as measured by IL1β, IL6, and TNF secretion, CD69 upregulation, and enhanced tumor cell killing...
June 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459871/immunological-effects-of-reduced-mucosal-integrity-in-the-early-life-of-balb-c-mice
#16
Katja Maria Bendtsen, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Łukasz Krych, Kerstin Skovgaard, Witold Kot, Finn Kvist Vogensen, Axel Kornerup Hansen
Certain stimuli at the gut barrier may be necessary in early life to establish a proper balance of immune tolerance. We evaluated a compromised barrier in juvenile mice in relation to microbiota and local and systemic immunity. BALB/c mice were treated with a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with or without ampicillin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to clarify the importance of microbial antigens and interaction between microbial-associated patterns and toll-like receptors. The barrier breach resulted in increased plasma LPS, which was highest in mice treated simultaneously with ampicillin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449719/interference-of-retroviral-envelope-with-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cell-responses-is-relieved-by-co-administration-of-cytokine-encoding-vectors
#17
Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch, Wibke Bayer
BACKGROUND: Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, where envelope interferes with the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses towards another, simultaneously or subsequently delivered, immunogen. RESULTS: In the Friend retrovirus mouse model, immunization with a plasmid encoding the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Leader-Gag protein resulted in induction of a strong GagL85-93-specific CD8(+) T cell response, while the response was completely abrogated by co-immunization with an F-MuLV Env-encoding plasmid...
April 27, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421423/the-effects-of-direct-fed-microbial-supplementation-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-on-growth-performance-intestinal-immune-status-and-epithelial-barrier-gene-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#18
U Gadde, S T Oh, Y S Lee, E Davis, N Zimmerman, T Rehberger, Hyun S Lillehoj
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine, and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Zero-day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments: basal diet (CON); basal diet supplemented with either antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD); or probiotics, namely, B. subtilis strain 1781 (PB1), a combination of B...
April 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415569/interleukin-2-regulatory-t-cell-axis-critically-regulates-maintenance-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#19
Sabrina Giampaolo, Gabriela Wójcik, Edgar Serfling, Amiya K Patra
The role of IL-2 in HSC maintenance is unknown. Here we show that Il2-/- mice develop severe anomalies in HSC maintenance leading to defective hematopoiesis. Whereas, lack of IL-2 signaling was detrimental for lympho- and erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis was enhanced in Il2-/- mice. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of dysregulated hematopoiesis in Il2-/- mice shows that the IL-2-Treg cell axis is indispensable for HSC maintenance and normal hematopoiesis. Lack of Treg activity resulted in increased IFN-γ production by activated T cells and an expansion of the HSCs in the bone marrow (BM)...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390203/lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-virulence-deactivation-by-stannous-fluoride
#20
Chris Haught, Sancai Xie, Ben Circello, Cheryl S Tansky, Deepa Khambe, Malgorzata Klukowska, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: Oral bacterial pathogens promote gingivitis and periodontal disease. Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), are known to enhance bacterial pathogenicity through binding with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a group of pattern recognition receptors critical to the activation of innate immunity, that are expressed on host cells. Both LPS and LTA contain lipophilic domains and anionic charges that may be susceptible to reactivity with stannous fluoride, a commonly used ingredient clinically proven for the treatment and prevention of gingivitis...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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