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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042238/novel-strategy-for-immunomodulation-dissolving-microneedle-array-encapsulating-thymopentin-fabricated-by-modified-two-step-molding-technology
#1
Shiqi Lin, Bingzhen Cai, Guilan Quan, Tingting Peng, Gangtao Yao, Chune Zhu, Qiaoli Wu, Hao Ran, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Thymopentin (TP5) is commonly used in the treatment for autoimmune diseases, with a short plasma half-life (30 s) and a long treatment period (7 days to 6 months). It is usually administrated by syringe injection, resulting in compromised patient compliance. Dissolving microneedle array (DMNA) offers a superior approach for transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules, as it allows painless penetration through the stratum corneum and generates minimal biohazardous waste after dissolving in the skin. Despite recent advances in DMNA as a novel approach for transdermal drug delivery, problem of insufficient mechanical strength remains to be solved...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#2
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931561/genetic-mimetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-verification-standards-for-molecular-diagnostics
#3
Edith Erika Machowski, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Molecular diagnostics have revolutionized the management of health care through enhanced detection of disease or infection and effective engagement into care. In recognition of this, the World Health Organization approved the rollout out of nucleic acid amplification technologies for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using platforms such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay and more recently, GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra. These assays can simultaneously detect tuberculosis infection and assess rifampicin resistance...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910420/role-of-the-central-lysine-cluster-and-scrapie-templating-in-the-transmissibility-of-synthetic-prion-protein-aggregates
#4
Bradley R Groveman, Gregory J Raymond, Katrina J Campbell, Brent Race, Lynne D Raymond, Andrew G Hughson, Christina D Orrú, Allison Kraus, Katie Phillips, Byron Caughey
Mammalian prion structures and replication mechanisms are poorly understood. Most synthetic recombinant prion protein (rPrP) amyloids prepared without cofactors are non-infectious or much less infectious than bona fide tissue-derived PrPSc. This effect has been associated with differences in folding of the aggregates, manifested in part by reduced solvent exclusion and protease-resistance in rPrP amyloids, especially within residues ~90-160. Substitution of 4 lysines within residues 101-110 of rPrP (central lysine cluster) with alanines (K4A) or asparagines (K4N) allows formation of aggregates with extended proteinase K (PK) resistant cores reminiscent of PrPSc, particularly when seeded with PrPSc...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#5
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831211/screening-method-for-staphylococcus-aureus-identification-in-subclinical-bovine-mastitis-from-dairy-farms
#6
Natapol Pumipuntu, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Sirijan Santajit, Witawat Tunyong, Thida Kong-Ngoen, Woranich Hinthong, Nitaya Indrawattana
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA]), and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test, for S...
July 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747970/reproductive-performance-of-genetically-engineered-mice-housed-in-different-housing-systems
#7
Shikha Yadav, Inderjeet Yadav, Kunal Pratap, Pradeep Kumar Tiwari, Vijay Pal Singh
The genetically engineered mice require special husbandry care and are mainly housed in Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) systems and Static Micro Isolator Cages (SMIC) to minimize the risk for spreading undesirable microorganisms. However, the static micro isolation cage housing like SMIC are being replaced with IVC systems in many facilities due to a number of benefits like a higher density housing in limited space, better protection from biohazards and allergens and decreased work load due to decreased frequency of cage changing required in this system...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689517/an-assessment-of-irish-farmers-knowledge-of-the-risk-of-spread-of-infection-from-animals-to-humans-and-their-transmission-prevention-practices
#8
M M Mahon, M C Sheehan, P F Kelleher, A J Johnson, S M Doyle
The aim of this study was to ascertain farmers' knowledge of the risk of spread of infection from animals to humans, and their transmission prevention practices. This was a survey of farmers who submitted material to Ireland's Regional Veterinary Laboratories in 2015. There was an 84% response rate (1044 farmers). Ninety per cent of farmers were not aware that infection can be acquired from apparently healthy animals. Over half were not aware that disease could be contracted from sick poultry or pets. Conversely, the knowledge of the risk to pregnant women of infection from birthing animals was high (88%)...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681077/direct-analysis-of-site-specific-n-glycopeptides-of-serological-proteins-in-dried-blood-spot-samples
#9
Na Young Choi, Heeyoun Hwang, Eun Sun Ji, Gun Wook Park, Ju Yeon Lee, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Jin Young Kim, Jong Shin Yoo
Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides...
August 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662748/institutional-oversight-of-occupational-health-and-safety-for-research-programs-involving-biohazards
#10
Melissa C Dyson, Calvin B Carpenter, Lesley A Colby
Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627636/formulation-and-characterization-of-egcg-for-the-treatment-of-superficial-bladder-cancer
#11
Katarzyna Dettlaff, Maciej Stawny, Magdalena Ogrodowczyk, Anna Jelińska, Waldemar Bednarski, Dorota Wątróbska-Świetlikowska, Rick W Keck, Omar A Khan, Ibrahim H Mostafa, Jerzy Jankun
In the United States, the annual incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 70,000 new cases, with a mortality rate of approximately 15,000/year. The most common subtype (70%) of bladder cancer is superficial, namely hte non-muscle invasive disease form limited to the urothelium. The rate of progression and recurrence is up to 40 and 70%, respectively. Urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder is typically treated with transurethral resection. The cancerous cells can float onto the adjacent epithelium, increasing the risk of recurrence...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602947/radiation-exposure-from-depleted-uranium-the-radiation-bystander-effect
#12
Alexandra C Miller, Rafael Rivas, Leonard Tesoro, Gregor Kovalenko, Nikola Kovaric, Peter Pavlovic, David Brenner
Depleted uranium (DU) is a radioactive heavy metal used primarily in military applications. Published data from our laboratory have demonstrated that DU exposure in vitro to immortalized human osteoblast cells (HOS) is both neoplastically transforming and genotoxic. In vivo studies have also demonstrated that DU is leukemogenic and genotoxic. DU possesses both a radiological (alpha particle) and chemical (metal) component but is generally considered a chemical biohazard. Studies have shown that alpha particle radiation does play a role in DU's toxic effects...
September 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530149/a-technology-roadmap-of-smart-biosensors-from-conventional-glucose-monitoring-systems
#13
Pravin Shende, Pratiksha Sahu, Ram Gaud
The objective of this review article is to focus on technology roadmap of smart biosensors from a conventional glucose monitoring system. The estimation of glucose with commercially available devices involves analysis of blood samples that are obtained by pricking finger or extracting blood from the forearm. Since pain and discomfort are associated with invasive methods, the non-invasive measurement techniques have been investigated. The non-invasive methods show advantages like non-exposure to sharp objects such as needles and syringes, due to which there is an increase in testing frequency, improved control of glucose concentration and absence of pain and biohazard materials...
June 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490143/method-for-sampling-and-analysis-of-volatile-biomarkers-in-process-gas-from-aerobic-digestion-of-poultry-carcasses-using-time-weighted-average-spme-and-gc-ms
#14
Jacek A Koziel, Lam T Nguyen, Thomas D Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen
A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick's first law of diffusion were within 6...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454614/guideline-implementation-surgical-smoke-safety
#15
Jennifer L Fencl
Research conducted during the past four decades has demonstrated that surgical smoke generated from the use of energy-generating devices in surgery contains toxic and biohazardous substances that present risks to perioperative team members and patients. Despite the increase in information available, however, perioperative personnel continue to demonstrate a lack of knowledge of these hazards and lack of compliance with recommendations for evacuating smoke during surgical procedures. The new AORN "Guideline for surgical smoke safety" provides guidance on surgical smoke management...
May 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446740/biological-risk-among-agriculture-and-construction-workers-in-molise-region-central-italy
#16
Manuela Tamburro, Vincenza Anzelmo, Paolo Bianco, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Francesco Salierno, Giancarlo Ripabelli
BACKGROUND: Biological risk is a significant issue in workplaces due to continuous modification of work organization and condition. OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, perception and knowledge of biological risk, as well as adoption of prevention measures were evaluated among construction and agriculture workers. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was administered to workers to collect socio-demographic and employment information, in addition to data on risk perception and knowledge, and adoption of preventive measures, including those related to work activities...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387174/institutional-oversight-of-occupational-health-and-safety-for-research-programs-involving-biohazards
#17
Melissa C Dyson, Calvin B Carpenter, Lesley A Colby
Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The fieldof microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364328/use-of-three-monitoring-approaches-to-manage-a-major-chrysosporum-ovalisporum-bloom-in-the-murray-river-australia-2016
#18
Adam Crawford, Jon Holliday, Chester Merrick, John Brayan, Mark van Asten, Lee Bowling
An unusual bloom of Chrysosporum ovalisporum (basionym Aphanizomenon ovalisporum) occurred for the first time in the Murray River and distributary rivers in New South Wales, Australia, from mid-February to early June 2016. At its greatest extent, it contaminated a combined river length of ca. 2360 km. Chrysosporum ovalisporum usually comprised >99% of the total bloom biovolume at most locations sampled, which at times exceeded 40 mm(3) l(-1). The origins of the bloom were most likely reservoirs on the upper Murray River, with cyanobacterial-infested water released from them contaminating the river systems downstream...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327159/the-clinical-use-of-stress-echocardiography-in-ischemic-heart-disease
#19
REVIEW
Rosa Sicari, Lauro Cortigiani
Stress echocardiography is an established technique for the assessment of extent and severity of coronary artery disease. The combination of echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress allows to detect myocardial ischemia with an excellent accuracy. A transient worsening of regional function during stress is the hallmark of inducible ischemia. Stress echocardiography provides similar diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as radionuclide stress perfusion imaging or magnetic resonance, but at a substantially lower cost, without environmental impact, and with no biohazards for the patient and the physician...
March 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286118/maternal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-promotes-the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-adult-onset-reproductive-dysfunctions-through-the-female-germline-in-mice
#20
Paola Pocar, Nadia Fiandanese, Anna Berrini, Camillo Secchi, Vitaliano Borromeo
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0...
May 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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