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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608170/multiplexed-isothermal-amplification-based-diagnostic-platform-to-detect-zika-chikungunya-and-dengue-1
#1
Ozlem Yaren, Barry W Alto, Kevin M Bradley, Patricia Moussatche, Lyudmyla Glushakova, Steven A Benner
Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, causing diseases with similar patient symptoms. However, they have different downstream patient-to-patient transmission potentials, and require very different patient treatments. Thus, recent Zika outbreaks make it urgent to develop tools that rapidly discriminate these viruses in patients and trapped mosquitoes, to select the correct patient treatment, and to understand and manage their epidemiology in real time. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests, including those receiving 2016 emergency use authorizations and fast-track status, detect viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which requires instrumentation, trained users, and considerable sample preparation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607289/plasmonic-photocatalyst-like-fluorescent-proteins-for-generating-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
REVIEW
Jung Woo Leem, Seong-Ryul Kim, Kwang-Ho Choi, Young L Kim
The recent advances in photocatalysis have opened a variety of new possibilities for energy and biomedical applications. In particular, plasmonic photocatalysis using hybridization of semiconductor materials and metal nanoparticles has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible or solar light. One critical underlying aspect of photocatalysis is that it generates and releases reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intermediate or final products upon light excitation or activation...
2018: Nano Convergence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604374/insulin-delivery-systems-combined-with-microneedle-technology
#3
Xuan Jin, Dan Dan Zhu, Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xin Dong Guo
Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs...
March 28, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601213/it-s-time-to-develop-a-new-draft-test-protocol-for-a-mars-sample-return-mission-or-two%C3%A2
#4
John D Rummel, Gerhard Kminek
The last time NASA envisioned a sample return mission from Mars, the development of a protocol to support the analysis of the samples in a containment facility resulted in a "Draft Test Protocol" that outlined required preparations "for the safe receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth" (Rummel et al., 2002 ). This document comprised a specific protocol to be used to conduct a biohazard test for a returned martian sample, following the recommendations of the Space Studies Board of the US National Academy of Sciences...
April 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553366/assessing-viability-and-infectivity-of-foodborne-and-waterborne-stages-cysts-oocysts-of-giardia-duodenalis-cryptosporidium-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-a-review-of-methods
#5
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361683/an-antibody-immobilized-silica-inverse-opal-nanostructure-for-label-free-optical-biosensors
#6
Wang Sik Lee, Taejoon Kang, Shin-Hyun Kim, Jinyoung Jeong
Three-dimensional SiO₂-based inverse opal (SiO₂-IO) nanostructures were prepared for use as biosensors. SiO₂-IO was fabricated by vertical deposition and calcination processes. Antibodies were immobilized on the surface of SiO₂-IO using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS), a succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-tetraethyleneglycol] ester (NHS-PEG₄-maleimide) cross-linker, and protein G. The highly accessible surface and porous structure of SiO₂-IO were beneficial for capturing influenza viruses on the antibody-immobilized surfaces...
January 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290480/cleaning-the-air-with-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-lessened-contact-infections-in-a-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#7
Tina Ethington, Sherry Newsome, Jerri Waugh, Linda D Lee
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether removing bacteria from the air with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UV-C) at the room level would reduce infection rates. METHODS: We reviewed infection data for 12 months before and after UV-C installation in the special care unit (SCU) of a long-term acute care hospital. All patients admitted to the SCU during the study time frame were included. Microbiologic impactor air sampling was completed in August 2015...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259374/improved-experimental-model-of-hepatic-cystic-hydatid-disease-resembling-natural-infection-route-with-stable-growing-dynamics-and-immune-reaction
#8
Rui-Qing Zhang, Xin-Hua Chen, Hao Wen
AIM: To investigate a safer way to set up the disease model of cystic echinococcosis without contamination risk and develop a novel experimental murine model of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. METHODS: C57B/6 mice were injected with human protoscolices of three different concentrations via the portal vein. The mice were followed for 10 mo by ultrasound, gross anatomy, and pathological and immunological examinations. The protoscolex migration in the portal vein, hydatid cyst growth, host immune reaction, and hepatic histopathology were examined periodically...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225179/synthesis-of-novel-benzodioxane-midst-piperazine-moiety-decorated-chitosan-silver-nanoparticle-against-biohazard-pathogens-and-as-potential-anti-inflammatory-candidate-a-molecular-docking-studies
#9
C S Karthik, H M Manukumar, A P Ananda, S Nagashree, K P Rakesh, L Mallesha, Hua-Li Qin, S Umesha, P Mallu, N B Krishnamurthy
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently being investigated along with the use of biodegradable polymer containing active agents in many areas of medicine for targeted applications. The present study was aimed to synthesize novel compound Benzodioxane midst piperazine (BP) and characterization of a BP decorated chitosan silver nanoparticles (BP*C@AgNPs) and shown effective against hazardous pathogens, and also having anti-inflammatory property. It was further evaluated for molecular docking proofs, and toxicity. The BP*C@AgNPs had spherical shape with size of 36...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216487/microplastics-increase-impact-of-treated-wastewater-on-freshwater-microbial-community
#10
Ester M Eckert, Andrea Di Cesare, Marie Therese Kettner, Maria Arias-Andres, Diego Fontaneto, Hans-Peter Grossart, Gianluca Corno
Plastic pollution is a major global concern with several million microplastic particles entering every day freshwater ecosystems via wastewater discharge. Microplastic particles stimulate biofilm formation (plastisphere) throughout the water column and have the potential to affect microbial community structure if they accumulate in pelagic waters, especially enhancing the proliferation of biohazardous bacteria. To test this scenario, we simulated the inflow of treated wastewater into a temperate lake using a continuous culture system with a gradient of concentration of microplastic particles...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214662/airborne-particulate-concentration-during-laser-hair-removal-a-comparison-between-cold-sapphire-with-aqueous-gel-and-cryogen-skin-cooling
#11
Edward V Ross, Gary S Chuang, Arisa E Ortiz, Scott A Davenport
BACKGROUND: High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. METHODS: A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal...
December 7, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144386/creating-a-world-class-program-through-training-and-certification
#12
Ann Turner
The animal research field has gotten more sophisticated with the use of genetically engineered animals, biohazardous agents, and advanced technologies. Trained and competent personnel are a cornerstone of any animal care and use program. Individual career success is a combination of education, experience, continuing competence, professional development, and personal commitment. Integration of training and certification into programs demonstrate institutional commitment to quality research and enhance the program by providing staff with knowledge and training to address problems and situation that arise and to perform their job in a professional and effective manner...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116537/critical-analysis-of-excessive-utilization-of-crude-protein-in-ruminants-ration-impact-on-environmental-ecosystem-and-opportunities-of-supplementation-of-limiting-amino-acids-a-review
#13
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Rab N Soomro, Khawar Hayat, Mohamed A E Mohamed, Bello M Bodinga, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Protein quality plays a key role than quantity in growth, production, and reproduction of ruminants. Application of high concentration of dietary crude protein (CP) did not balance the proportion of these limiting amino acids (AA) at duodenal digesta of high producing dairy cow. Thus, dietary supplementation of rumen-protected AA is recommended to sustain the physiological, productive, and reproductive performance of ruminants. Poor metabolism of high CP diets in rumen excretes excessive nitrogen (N) through urine and feces in the environment...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082230/yeast-for-virus-research
#14
REVIEW
Richard Yuqi Zhao
Budding yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042238/novel-strategy-for-immunomodulation-dissolving-microneedle-array-encapsulating-thymopentin-fabricated-by-modified-two-step-molding-technology
#15
Shiqi Lin, Bingzhen Cai, Guilan Quan, Tingting Peng, Gangtao Yao, Chune Zhu, Qiaoli Wu, Hao Ran, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Thymopentin (TP5) is commonly used in the treatment for autoimmune diseases, with a short plasma half-life (30s) and a long treatment period (7 days to 6 months). It is usually administrated by syringe injection, resulting in compromised patient compliance. Dissolving microneedle array (DMNA) offers a superior approach for transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules, as it allows painless penetration through the stratum corneum and generates minimal biohazardous waste after dissolving in the skin. Despite recent advances in DMNA as a novel approach for transdermal drug delivery, problem of insufficient mechanical strength remains to be solved...
January 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#16
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the vi able v irus a erosol s ampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931561/genetic-mimetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-verification-standards-for-molecular-diagnostics
#17
Edith Erika Machowski, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Molecular diagnostics have revolutionized the management of health care through enhanced detection of disease or infection and effective enrollment into treatment. In recognition of this, the World Health Organization approved the rollout of nucleic acid amplification technologies for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using platforms such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the GenoType MTBDR plus line probe assay, and, more recently, GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra. These assays can simultaneously detect tuberculosis infection and assess rifampin resistance...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910420/role-of-the-central-lysine-cluster-and-scrapie-templating-in-the-transmissibility-of-synthetic-prion-protein-aggregates
#18
Bradley R Groveman, Gregory J Raymond, Katrina J Campbell, Brent Race, Lynne D Raymond, Andrew G Hughson, Christina D Orrú, Allison Kraus, Katie Phillips, Byron Caughey
Mammalian prion structures and replication mechanisms are poorly understood. Most synthetic recombinant prion protein (rPrP) amyloids prepared without cofactors are non-infectious or much less infectious than bona fide tissue-derived PrPSc. This effect has been associated with differences in folding of the aggregates, manifested in part by reduced solvent exclusion and protease-resistance in rPrP amyloids, especially within residues ~90-160. Substitution of 4 lysines within residues 101-110 of rPrP (central lysine cluster) with alanines (K4A) or asparagines (K4N) allows formation of aggregates with extended proteinase K (PK) resistant cores reminiscent of PrPSc, particularly when seeded with PrPSc...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#19
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831211/screening-method-for-staphylococcus-aureus-identification-in-subclinical-bovine-mastitis-from-dairy-farms
#20
Natapol Pumipuntu, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Sirijan Santajit, Witawat Tunyong, Thida Kong-Ngoen, Woranich Hinthong, Nitaya Indrawattana
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA]), and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test, for S...
July 2017: Veterinary World
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