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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#1
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440245/pluripotent-stem-cells-a-therapeutic-source-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
REVIEW
Sowmya Parameswaran, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to progressive loss of central vision in the elderly. At a cellular level, there is aging of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and accumulation of lipofuscin that interferes with the proper functioning of RPE which eventually leads to apoptosis. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease. Wet AMD which has neovascularization is managed by local therapies such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy and is managed with injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor-based therapy...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438762/etb-receptor-contribution-to-vascular-dysfunction-in-postmenopausal-women
#3
Megan M Wenner, Kelly N Sebzda, Andrew V Kuczmarski, Ryan T Pohlig, David G Edwards
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to age-related endothelial dysfunction in men via the ETA receptor. However, there are sex differences in the ET-1 system, and ETB receptors are modulated by sex hormones. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ETB receptors contribute to impaired vasodilatory function in postmenopausal women (PMW). We measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound, and cutaneous nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation during local heating (42°C) via laser Doppler flowmetry in 18 young (YW; 22±1 years) and 16 PMW (56±1 years)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437275/descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-after-failed-descemet-stripping-without-endothelial-keratoplasty
#4
Rohini Rao, Durga S Borkar, Kathryn A Colby, Peter B Veldman
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical course, surgical experience, and postoperative outcomes of 3 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) after failed Descemet stripping without endothelial keratoplasty. METHODS: Three patients who underwent DMEK for management of persistent corneal edema after deliberate Descemet stripping in the setting of Fuchs endothelial dystrophy were identified. Patients were examined at day 1, week 1, and months 1, 3, and 6 after DMEK...
April 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436294/overexpression-of-vla-4-in-glial-restricted-precursors-enhances-their-endothelial-docking-and-induces-diapedesis-in-a-mouse-stroke-model
#5
Anna Jablonska, Daniel J Shea, Suyi Cao, Jeff Wm Bulte, Miroslaw Janowski, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Piotr Walczak
The loss of oligodendrocytes after stroke is one of the major causes of secondary injury. Glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) have remylenating potential after intraparenchymal cerebral transplantation. The intraarterial (IA) injection route is an attractive gateway for global brain delivery, but, after IA infusion, naive GRPs fail to bind to the cerebral vasculature. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpression of Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) increases endothelial docking and cerebral homing of GRPs in a stroke model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435982/-changes-in-biological-functions-of-high-density-lipoprotein-after-abnormal-modification
#6
Hang Qu, Yang Yu, Shu-Cun Qin, Guo-Hua Song
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is composed of apolipoproteins, lipids and functional proteins. HDL protects against atherosclerosis (AS) by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). HDL inhibits the lipid oxidation, inflammation and restores endothelial function. During systemic inflammation or metabolic disorders, HDL can be modified abnormally and converted to a dysfunctional type, which results in the loss of anti-inflammatory factors including apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), paraoxonase (PON) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), and gains of pro-inflammatory factors such as serum amyloid A (SAA), triglyceride (TG) and oxidative lipid...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432873/conditional-deletion-of-bmal1-accentuates-microvascular-and-macrovascular-injury
#7
Ashay D Bhatwadekar, Eleni Beli, Diao Yanpeng, Jonathan Chen, Qianyi Luo, Alpha Alex, Sergio Caballero, James M Dominguez, Tatiana E Salazar, Julia V Busik, Mark S Segal, Maria B Grant
The brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (BMAL)-1 constitutes a major transcriptional regulator of the circadian clock. Here, we explored the impact of conditional deletion of Bmal1 in endothelium and hematopoietic cells in murine models of microvascular and macrovascular injury. We used two models of Bmal1(fx/fx);Tek-Cre mice, a retinal ischemia/reperfusion model and a neointimal hyperplasia model of the femoral artery. Eyes were enumerated for acellular capillaries and were stained for oxidative damage markers using nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431433/experimental-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-diabetic-mice-exhibited-severe-retinal-swelling-associated-with-vegf-elevation
#8
Ming-Hui Sun, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Yaping Joyce Liao
Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important risk factors for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). In this study, we investigated for the first time the impact of experimental AION in a DM model. Methods: We induced a photochemical thrombosis model of AION after streptozotocin-induced DM and performed serial optical coherence tomography (OCT), morphometric analyses, and VEGF levels in the retina and sera. Results: Compared with non-DM animals, experimental AION in DM mice led to significantly greater retinal swelling on day 1 and worse thinning at week 3 on OCT measurements...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#9
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of over-nutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429038/-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-for-treatment-of-endothelial-barrier-and-microcirculation-disorders-in-sepsis
#10
REVIEW
J Wollborn, N Schlegel, M A Schick
Sepsis is commonly associated with loss of microvascular endothelial barrier function (capillary leak) and dysfunctional microcirculation, which both promote organ failure. The development of a distinct therapy of impaired endothelial barrier function and disturbed microcirculation is highly relevant because both of these phenomena constitute crucial processes which critically influence the prognosis of patients. Numerous in vivo and in vitro trials over the past years have fostered a better understanding of the pathophysiology of capillary leak...
April 20, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428220/cmtm3-cklf-like-marvel-transmembrane-domain-3-mediates-angiogenesis-by-regulating-cell-surface-availability-of-ve-cadherin-in-endothelial-adherens-junctions
#11
Ihsan Chrifi, Laura Louzao-Martinez, Maarten Brandt, Christian G M van Dijk, Petra Burgisser, Changbin Zhu, Johan M Kros, Dirk J Duncker, Caroline Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1(+) endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428204/flow-perturbation-mediates-neutrophil-recruitment-and-potentiates-endothelial-injury-via-tlr2-in-mice-implications-for-superficial-erosion
#12
Grégory Franck, Thomas Mawson, Grasiele Sausen, Manuel Salinas, Gustavo Santos Masson, Andrew P Cole, Marina Beltrami Moreira, Yiannis Chatzizisis, Thibaut Quillard, Yevgenia Tesmenitsky, Eugenia Shvartz, Galina K Sukhova, Filip K Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf, Elena Aikawa, Kevin Croce, Peter Libby
Rationale: Superficial erosion currently causes up to a third of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), yet we lack understanding of its mechanisms. Thrombi due to superficial intimal erosion characteristically complicate matrix-rich atheromata in regions of flow perturbation. Objective: This study tested in vivo the involvement of disturbed flow, and of neutrophils, hyaluronan, and TLR2 ligation in superficial intimal injury, a process implicated in superficial erosion. Methods and Results: In mouse carotid arteries with established intimal lesions tailored to resemble the substrate of human eroded plaques, acute flow perturbation promoted downstream endothelial cell (EC) activation, neutrophil accumulation, EC death and desquamation, and mural thrombosis...
April 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#13
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427101/tanshinol-alleviates-osteoporosis-and-myopathy-in-glucocorticoid-treated-rats
#14
Guanghua Chen, Xinle Zhang, Han Lin, Guizhi Huang, Yahui Chen, Liao Cui
Tanshinol is a major water-soluble active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether tanshinol has potential therapeutic effects against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and glucocorticoid-induced myopathy. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: a control group, a model group, and three model groups treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg of tanshinol, or calcitriol. All model groups received prednisone acetate for 90 days to induce glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis...
April 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427072/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injections-the-new-standard-of-care-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Xintong Li, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
For decades, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) formulations for intravitreal injection has provided a fresh perspective on PDR treatment, especially in eyes with concurrent diabetic macular edema (DME). The anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab has demonstrated a potentially protective effect on eyes with DME in terms of progression to PDR in the RIDE/RISE trials, as has aflibercept in the VIVID/VISTA trials...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427071/is-laser-still-important-in-diabetic-macular-edema-as-primary-or-deferral-therapy
#16
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
Laser treatment was used in the past to reduce the visual loss due to diabetic macular edema. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has completely revolutionized the management of diabetic retinopathy, with a significant improvement in the overall prognosis. Nevertheless, macular laser can still be applied in selected cases characterized by retinal thickness ≤400 microns, high visual acuity, extrafoveal location, and contraindications to the intravitreal approach with anti-VEGF and steroids...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427067/intravitreal-aflibercept-in-diabetic-macular-edema-long-term-outcomes
#17
Ugo Introini, Giuseppe Casalino
For decades, macular laser photocoagulation has been the standard of care in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). With the relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, DME treatment has entered a new era. VEGF is a well-known pro-angiogenic and pro-permeability factor involved in the pathogenesis of DME. VEGF blockade has proven remarkably effective at reducing DME and improving visual acuity (VA) in eyes with center involved DME causing VA loss in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424975/etv-2-activated-proliferation-of-endothelial-cells-and-attenuated-acute-hindlimb-ischemia-in-mice
#18
Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu, Hoa Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Lan Thi Phi, Oanh Thi-Kieu Nguyen, Ngoc Kim Phan
Ischemia is the reduction of blood flow to tissues by injury of blood vessels. Depending on the sites of tissues and grade of ischemia, ischemia can cause many serious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the E-twenty six (ETS) factor Ets variant 2 (ETV2) gene expression in angiogenesis and the effect of ETV2 gene therapy in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. The role of ETV2 on endothelial cell proliferation was evaluated in vitro. Knockdown of ETV2 expression was done using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral viral particles...
April 19, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423355/mesenchymal-stem-cells-release-exosomes-that-transfer-mirnas-to-endothelial-cells-and-promote-angiogenesis
#19
Min Gong, Bin Yu, Jingcai Wang, Yigang Wang, Min Liu, Christian Paul, Ronald W Millard, De-Sheng Xiao, Muhammad Ashraf, Meifeng Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to benefit patients with a variety of ischemic diseases via promoting angiogenesis. It is also well established that exosomes secreted from MSCs deliver bioactive molecules, including microRNAs (miRs) to recipient cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that exosomes secreted from MSCs deliver miRs into endothelial cells and mediate angiogenesis. The pro-angiogenic stimulatory capacity of exosomes was investigated using tube-like structure formation and spheroid-based sprouting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and in vivo Matrigel plug assay...
April 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422378/cellular-retinoic-acid-bioavailability-in-various-pathologies-and-its-therapeutic-implication
#20
REVIEW
Makoto Osanai
Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is a critical signaling molecule in various cell types. We found that RA depletion caused by expression of the RA-metabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 promotes carcinogenesis, implicating CYP26A1 as a candidate oncogene. Several studies of CYP26s have suggested that the biological effect of RA on target cells is primarily determined by "cellular RA bioavailability", which is defined as the RA level in an individual cell, rather than by the serum concentration of RA...
April 19, 2017: Pathology International
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