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Brad Stone, Matthew Street, Warren Leigh, Haemish Crawford
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis shows a strong predilection for the tibia in the pediatric population and is a significant source of complications. The purpose of this article is to retrospectively review a large series of pediatric patients with tibial osteomyelitis. We compare our experience with that in the literature to determine any factors that may aid diagnosis and/or improve treatment outcomes. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective review was performed of clinical records of all cases of pediatric tibial osteomyelitis managed at the 2 children's orthopaedic departments in the Auckland region...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Ryan J Winston, Ahmed M Al-Rubaei, Godecke T Blecken, Maria Viklander, William F Hunt
The surface infiltration rates (SIR) of permeable pavements decline with time as sediment and debris clog pore spaces. Effective maintenance techniques are needed to ensure the hydraulic functionality and water quality benefits of this stormwater control. Eight different small-scale and full-scale maintenance techniques aimed at recovering pavement permeability were evaluated at ten different permeable pavement sites in the USA and Sweden. Maintenance techniques included manual removal of the upper 2 cm of fill material, mechanical street sweeping, regenerative-air street sweeping, vacuum street sweeping, hand-held vacuuming, high pressure washing, and milling of porous asphalt...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrew Wakefield, Emma L Stone, Gareth Jones, Stephen Harris
The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed 'powerdive' flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats...
August 2015: Royal Society Open Science
Mohamed Ismat Abdulmajed, Pallavoor Sudarsanam Anandaram, Vaughan Wyn Jones, Iqbal Singh Shergill
The accumulation of ureteric stone fragments causing ureteric blockage is known as 'Steinstrasse' or 'Stone Street' and is usually described as a complication of shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL). We herein present a rare case of massive Steinstrasse in a young male patient with no previous history of urolithiasis or lithotripsy.
March 2013: Turkish Journal of Urology
Nonso Ejikeme Okpala, Rich Enujioke Umeh, Ernest Nnemeka Onwasigwe
A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination form...
2015: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Emma Louise Stone, Andrew Wakefield, Stephen Harris, Gareth Jones
Artificial light at night is a major feature of anthropogenic global change and is increasingly recognized as affecting biodiversity, often negatively. On a global scale, newer technology white lights are replacing orange sodium lights to reduce energy waste. In 2009, Cornwall County Council (UK) commenced replacement of existing low-pressure sodium (LPS) high intensity discharge (HID) street lights with new Phillips CosmoPolis white ceramic metal halide street lights to reduce energy wastage. This changeover provided a unique collaborative opportunity to implement a before-after-control-impact field experiment to investigate the ecological effects of newly installed broad spectrum light technologies...
May 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
T J H Morgan, N T Uomini, L E Rendell, L Chouinard-Thuly, S E Street, H M Lewis, C P Cross, C Evans, R Kearney, I de la Torre, A Whiten, K N Laland
Hominin reliance on Oldowan stone tools-which appear from 2.5 mya and are believed to have been socially transmitted-has been hypothesized to have led to the evolution of teaching and language. Here we present an experiment investigating the efficacy of transmission of Oldowan tool-making skills along chains of adult human participants (N=184) using five different transmission mechanisms. Across six measures, transmission improves with teaching, and particularly with language, but not with imitation or emulation...
2015: Nature Communications
Sean C Skeldon, S Larry Goldenberg
Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction...
March 2014: Nature Reviews. Urology
Jessica Platt Bird, George Melika, James A Nicholls, Graham N Stone, Eileen A Buss
Live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees are hosts to a complex of gall making arthropods. However, the bullet galls produced by the asexual generation of the cynipid Disholcaspis quercuscirens (Ashmead) can esthetically and physically damage nursery and street trees, and thus reduce tree value. We sought to describe the unknown sexual generation of D. quercusvirens, describe the development of galls from both generations, record adult cynipid and parasitoid activity periods, and evaluate the efficacy of several insecticides to suppress the gall makers and prevent additional gall formation...
August 2013: Journal of Economic Entomology
Michelle R Stone, Guy E Faulkner, Raktim Mitra, Ron Buliung
OBJECTIVE: A child's opportunity for physical activity and the safety of engaging in activity are influenced by built environment (BE) elements. This study examined the relationship of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status (SES) with activity using a sampling frame that purposely located schools in varying neighbourhoods to ensure that there was variability in BE characteristics and SES. METHODS: Participants (1,027 Grade 5 & 6 students, Toronto, ON) were drawn from 16 schools that varied by neighbourhood type (pre-1946 "old/urban BE" with grid-based street layout versus post-1946 "new/inner-suburban BE" with looping street layout) and socio-economic status (low and high SES)...
2012: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Francisca Yankovic, Robert Swartz, Peter Cuckow, Melanie Hiorns, Stephen D Marks, Abraham Cherian, Imran Mushtaq, Patrick Duffy, Naima Smeulders
OBJECTIVE: Dextranomer-hyaluronic acid (Deflux(®)), the most widely used compound in the endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) today, is believed to provoke only minimal inflammation. Reports of calcification of Deflux(®) are increasing. We ascertain the incidence of Deflux(®) calcification appearing as distal ureteric calculi on ultrasound. METHODS: Three cases (2 external patients) of ureteroscopy for calcified submucosal Deflux(®) prompted a retrospective review of the notes and imaging of all children treated with Deflux(®) for VUR between December 2000 and January 2011 at Great Ormond Street Hospital...
December 2013: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Cemal Göktaş, Rahim Horuz, Oktay Akça, Cihangir A Cetinel, Onder Cangüven, Alper Kafkaslı, Selami Albayrak, Kemal Sarıca
PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible effects of citrate replacement on the efficacy of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the management of kidney stones in cases with hypocitraturia. METHODS: Forty hypocitraturic cases with renal pelvic stones were randomized into two groups; while citrate replacement has been done before and at the time of SWL in Study Group I (n: 20), SWL was performed without any additional specific management for hypocitraturia in Study Group II (n: 20)...
October 2012: International Urology and Nephrology
Ronaldo C da Silva Junior, Cezar S Gomes, Saulo S Goulart Júnior, Fernanda V Almeida, Tatiane S Grobério, Jez W B Braga, Jorge J Zacca, Maurício L Vieira, Elvio D Botelho, Adriano O Maldaner
Recent information from various sources suggests that a new illicit drug, called "oxi", is being spread across Brazil. It would be used in the smoked form and it would look like to crack cocaine: usually small yellowish or light brown stones. As fully released in the media, "oxi" would differ from crack cocaine in the sense that crack would contain carbonate or bicarbonate salts whereas "oxi" would include the addition of calcium oxide and kerosene (or gasoline). In this context, this work presents a chemical profiling comparative study between "oxi" street samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Acre (CP/AC) and samples associated with both international and interstate drug trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in Acre (FP/AC)...
September 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Annie Y Chan, Scott A Storck, Donald U Stone
PURPOSE: To review ocular injuries resulting from "shake and bake" methamphetamine labs. METHOD: Retrospective case series of 4 patients with ocular injuries sustained from "shake and bake" lab explosions. RESULTS: Four men ages 20-39 underwent complete ophthalmologic examination after an injury from a "shake and bake" methamphetamine lab explosion.The mechanism of injury was initially misrepresented in each case; the physical findings were suggestive of thermal and alkali injury...
November 2011: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
Will Cooley
In the 1960s and 1970s African American “supergangs” emerged in Chicago. Many scholars have touted the “prosocial” goals of these gangs but fail to contextualize them in the larger history of black organized crime. Thus, they have overlooked how gang members sought to reclaim the underground economy in their neighborhoods. Yet even as gangs drove out white organized crime figures, they often lacked the know-how to reorganize the complex informal economy. Inexperienced gang members turned to extreme violence, excessive recruitment programs, and unforgiving extortion schemes to take power over criminal activities...
2011: Journal of Urban History
Maja Urosevic, Africa Yebra-Rodríguez, Eduardo Sebastián-Pardo, Carolina Cardell
A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*)...
January 1, 2012: Science of the Total Environment
Dalia M El-Sebaity, Wael Soliman, Asmaa Ma Soliman, Ahmed M Fathalla
PURPOSE: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt). METHODS: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded...
2011: Clinical Ophthalmology
Annette Thierauf, Sabine Lutz-Bonengel, Timo Sänger, Susanne Vogt, Wolf Rupp, Markus Grosse Perdekamp
Apart from collisions with road or rail vehicles and falls from height, self inflicted blunt force is a rare suicide method and mainly seen in psychiatric patients. The paper presents a rare case of suicide by active blunt force. A 68-year-old man committed suicide by repeatedly hitting his head with a stone. He sustained a craniocerebral trauma and finally died from hypothermia due to the low outdoor temperature. According to the relatives, the man was not diagnosed with a mental disorder or suicidal tendencies...
January 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Erin K Gibson, Heidi Exner, Ryan Stone, Jennifer Lindquist, Laura Cowen, Eric A Roth
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that needle exchange programs reduce HIV and HCV transmission for injection drug users (IDUs) but far less is known about the injection practices of IDUs enrolled in these programs. This study adopts a mixed methods approach to quantify high-risk injection practice patterns among IDUs enrolled in a needle exchange program in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada and gather qualitative data to understand underlying injection behaviour rationales and patterns...
July 2011: Drug and Alcohol Review
Alison Snow Jones, Marsha Lillie-Blanton, Valerie E Stone, Edward H Ip, Qiang Zhang, Tracey E Wilson, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol
OBJECTIVES: Relationships between non-use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), race/ethnicity, violence, drug use, and other risk factors are investigated using qualitative profiles of five risk factors (unprotected sex, multiple male partners, heavy drinking, crack, cocaine or heroin use, and exposure to physical violence) and association of the profiles and race/ethnicity with non-use of HAART over time. METHODS: A hidden Markov model was used to summarize risk factor profiles and changes in profiles over time in a longitudinal sample of HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study with follow-up from 2002 to 2005 (n = 802)...
September 2010: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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