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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433018/atomistic-insight-into-the-non-classical-nucleation-mechanism-during-solidification-in-ni
#1
Grisell Díaz Leines, Ralf Drautz, Jutta Rogal
Nucleation is a key step during crystallization, but a complete understanding of the fundamental atomistic processes remains elusive. We investigate the mechanism of nucleation during solidification in nickel for various undercoolings using transition path sampling simulations. The temperature dependence of the free energy barriers and rate constants that we obtain is consistent with the predictions of classical nucleation theory and experiments. However, our analysis of the transition path ensemble reveals a mechanism that deviates from the classical picture of nucleation: the growing solid clusters have predominantly non-spherical shapes and consist of face-centered-cubic and random hexagonal-close-packed coordinated atoms surrounded by a cloud of prestructured liquid...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432219/optimized-cubic-protocol-for-3d-imaging-of-chicken-embryos-at-single-cell-resolution
#2
María Victoria Gómez-Gaviro, Evan Balaban, Diana Bocancea, María Teresa Lorrio, María Pompeiano, Manuel Desco, Jorge Ripoll, Juan José Vaquero
The CUBIC tissue clearing protocol has been optimized to produce translucent immunostained whole chicken embryos and embryo brains. When combined with multispectral light sheet microscopy, the validated protocol presented here provides a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for acquiring accurate histological images that preserve three-dimensional structural relationships with single-cell-level resolution in whole early-stage chicken embryos, and in the whole brains of late-stage embryos.
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430896/evidence-of-secular-trend-in-mandibular-pubertal-growth
#3
Raphael Patcas, Daniel B Wiedemeier, Goran Markic, Philipp Beit, Heidi Keller
Background: During puberty, mandibular growth follows a growth curve comparable to somatic growth. This study aimed to review the relationship between mandibular pubertal peak height velocity (PHV) and skeletal age, and to investigate the possibility of a secular trend. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed of two historical craniofacial growth studies (Denver Growth Study; observational time: 1943-1965, and Zurich Growth Study; observational time: 1982-1984) of healthy untreated subjects...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430499/bc8-silicon-si-iii-is-a-narrow-gap-semiconductor
#4
Haidong Zhang, Hanyu Liu, Kaya Wei, Oleksandr O Kurakevych, Yann Le Godec, Zhenxian Liu, Joshua Martin, Michael Guerrette, George S Nolas, Timothy A Strobel
Large-volume, phase-pure synthesis of BC8 silicon (Ia3[over ¯], cI16) has enabled bulk measurements of optical, electronic, and thermal properties. Unlike previous reports that conclude BC8-Si is semimetallic, we demonstrate that this phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a very small energy gap and moderate carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature, based on far- and midinfrared optical spectroscopy, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck and heat capacity measurements...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429759/dual-mechanisms-of-grain-refinement-in-a-fecocrni-high-entropy-alloy-processed-by-high-pressure-torsion
#5
Wenqian Wu, Min Song, Song Ni, Jingshi Wang, Yong Liu, Bin Liu, Xiaozhou Liao
An equiatomic FeCoCrNi high-entropy alloy with a face-centered cubic structure was fabricated by a powder metallurgy route, and then processed by high-pressure torsion. Detailed microscopy investigations revealed that grain refinement from coarse grains to nanocrystalline grains occurred mainly via concurrent nanoband (NB) subdivision and deformation twinning. NB-NB, twin-NB and twin-twin interactions contributed to the deformation process. The twin-twin interactions resulted in severe lattice distortion and accumulation of high densities of dislocations in the interaction areas...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429294/ocular-cubosome-drug-delivery-system-for-timolol-maleate-preparation-characterization-cytotoxicity-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#6
Jiayuan Huang, Tingting Peng, Yanrong Li, Zhengwen Zhan, Youmei Zeng, Ying Huang, Xin Pan, Chuan-Yu Wu, Chuanbin Wu
Glaucoma is an ocular disease featuring increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and its primary treatment strategy is to lower IOP by medication. Current ocular drug delivery in treating glaucoma is confronting a variety of challenges, such as low corneal permeability and bioavailability due to the unique anatomical structure of the human eye. To tackle these challenges, a cubosome drug delivery system for glaucoma treatment was constructed for timolol maleate (TM) in this study. The TM cubosomes (liquid crystalline nanoparticles) were prepared using glycerol monooleate and poloxamer 407 via high-pressure homogenization...
April 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428318/bottom-up-construction-of-a-superstructure-in-a-porous-uranium-organic-crystal
#7
Peng Li, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Christos D Malliakas, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Ashlee J Howarth, B Layla Mehdi, Alice Dohnalkova, Nigel D Browning, Michael O'Keeffe, Omar K Farha
Bottom-up construction of highly intricate structures from simple building blocks remains one of the most difficult challenges in chemistry. Here, we report a structurally complex, mesoporous uranium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) made from simple starting components. The structure is comprised of 10 uranium nodes and 7 tricarboxylate ligands (both crystallographically non-equivalent); resulting in a 173.3 angstrom cubic unit cell enclosing 816 uranium nodes and 816 organic linkers-the largest unit cell found for any nonbiological material...
April 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426215/five-and-six-coordinated-silver-i-complexes-derived-from-2-6-pyridyl-iminodiadamantanes-sustained-release-of-bioactive-silver-toward-bacterial-eradication
#8
Jorge Jimenez, Indranil Chakraborty, Anthony M Del Cid, Pradip K Mascharak
Silver(I) complexes of two designed tridentate ligands, namely, 2,6-(pyridyl)iminoditriazaadamantane (pydTAm) and 2,6-(pyridyl)iminodiadamantane (pydAm), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. [Ag(pydTAm)2](CF3SO3) (1), the hitherto unknown mer isomer of a silver(I) octahedral complex, crystallizes in a highly symmetric body-centered cubic I4̅3m space group. Quite in contrast, the Ag(I) center in the analogous [Ag(pydAm)2](CF3SO3) (2) complex resides in a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry and crystallizes in a triclinic P1̅ space group with two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit...
April 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422657/phased-array-ultrasound-system-for-planar-flow-mapping-in-liquid-metals
#9
Kevin Mader, Richard Nauber, Vladimir Galindo, Hannes Beyer, Lars Buttner, Sven Eckert, Jurgen Czarske
Controllable magnetic fields can be used to optimize flows in technical and industrial processes involving liquid metals in order to improve quality and yield. However, experimental studies in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) often involve complex, turbulent flows and require planar, two-component velocity measurements through only one acoustical access. We present the phased array ultrasound Doppler velocimeter (PAUDV) as a modular research platform for flow mapping in liquid metals. It combines the pulse wave Doppler method with the phased array technique to adaptively focus the ultrasound beam...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420828/y-tzp-zirconia-regeneration-firing-microstructural-and-crystallographic-changes-after-grinding
#10
Daniel Patrick Obelenis Ryan, Laiza Maria Grassi Fais, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Gabriel Rodrigues Hatanaka, Lucas Miguel Candido, Ligia Antunes Pereira Pinelli
This study evaluated microstructural and crystallographic phase changes after grinding (G) and regeneration firing/anneling (R) of Y-TZP ceramics. Thirty five bars (Lava(TM) and Ice Zirkon) were divided: Y-TZP pre-sintered, control (C), regeneration firing (R), dry grinding (DG), dry grinding+regeneration firing (DGR), wet grinding (WG) and wet grinding+regeneration firing (WGR). Grinding was conducted using a diamond bur and annealing at 1,000°C. The microstructure was analyzed by SEM and the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
April 18, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420474/-value-of-apacheiifor-predicting-the-nursing-workload-in-eicu
#11
Yongli Gao, Xingyu Zhu, Yan Ma, Na He, Dayan Li, Hai Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of acute physiology and chronic health evaluationII(APACHEII) for nursing workload in emergency intensive care unit (EICU). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Critical patients except for trauma admitted to EICU of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from June 2012 to July 2016 were enrolled. APACHEII score and therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS-28) score were calculated in each case...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419978/dissolved-oxygen-stream-temperature-and-fish-habitat-response-to-environmental-water-purchases
#12
Sarah E Null, Nathaniel R Mouzon, Logan R Elmore
Environmental water purchases are increasingly used for ecological protection. In Nevada's Walker Basin (western USA), environmental water purchases augment streamflow in the Walker River and increase lake elevation of terminal Walker Lake. However, water quality impairments like elevated stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations also limit ecosystems and species, including federally-threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout. In this paper, we prioritize water volumes and locations that most enhance water quality for riverine habitat from potential environmental water rights purchases...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418881/aspirin-as-a-potential-modality-for-the-chemoprevention-of-breast-cancer-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies-from-857-831-participants
#13
Liming Lu, Leiyu Shi, Jingchun Zeng, Zehuai Wen
BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk have drawn inconsistent results. In addition, the threshold effect of different doses, frequencies and durations of aspirin use in preventing breast cancer have yet to be established. RESULTS: The search yielded 13 prospective cohort studies (N=857,831 participants) that reported an average of 7.6 cases/1,000 person-years of breast cancer during a follow-up period of from 4...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417480/efficient-red-perovskite-light-emitting-diodes-based-on-solution-processed-multiple-quantum-wells
#14
Shuting Zhang, Chang Yi, Nana Wang, Yan Sun, Wei Zou, Yingqiang Wei, Yu Cao, Yanfeng Miao, Renzhi Li, Yao Yin, Ni Zhao, Jianpu Wang, Wei Huang
This paper reports a facile and scalable process to achieve high performance red perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by introducing inorganic Cs into multiple quantum well (MQW) perovskites. The MQW structure facilitates the formation of cubic CsPbI3 perovskites at low temperature, enabling the Cs-based QWs to provide pure and stable red electroluminescence. The versatile synthesis of MQW perovskites provides freedom to control the crystallinity and morphology of the emission layer. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of chloride can further improve the crystallization and consequently the optical properties of the Cs-based MQW perovskites, inducing a low turn-on voltage of 2...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416262/use-of-dilute-ammonia-gas-for-treatment-of-1-2-3-trichloropropane-and-explosives-contaminated-soils
#15
Charles G Coyle, Scott A Waisner, Victor F Medina, Chris S Griggs
Laboratory studies were performed to test a novel reactive gas process for in-situ treatment of soils containing halogenated propanes or explosives. A soil column study, using a 5% ammonia-in-air mixture, established that the treatment process can increase soil pH from 7.5 to 10.2. Batch reactor experiments were performed to demonstrate contaminant destruction in sealed jars exposed to ammonia. Comparison of results from batch reactors that were, and were not, exposed to ammonia demonstrated reductions in concentrations of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), 1,3-dichloropropane (1,3-DCP), 1,2-dicholoropropane (1,2-DCP) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) that ranged from 34 to 94%...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415518/antimicrobial-property-cytocompatibility-and-corrosion-resistance-of-zn-doped-zro2-tio2-coatings-on-ti6al4v-implants
#16
Ruoyun Wang, Xiaojing He, Yuee Gao, Xiangyu Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Bin Tang
Zn-doped ZrO2/TiO2 porous coatings (Zn-ZrO2/TiO2) were prepared on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) by a hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The microstructures, phase constituents and elemental states of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the Zn-ZrO2/TiO2 coatings are porous and its thickness is approximately 13μm...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415389/antibacterial-osteogenic-and-angiogenic-activities-of-srtio3-nanotubes-embedded-with-ag2o-nanoparticles
#17
Yi Chen, Ang Gao, Long Bai, Yueyue Wang, Xin Wang, Xiangyu Zhang, Xiaobo Huang, Ruiqiang Hang, Bin Tang, Paul K Chu
Biomedical titanium (Ti) implants with good anti-infective, osteogenic, and angiogenic properties are in great demand. SrTiO3 nanotubes (NTs) are embedded with silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles (NPs) (denoted as NT-Sr-Ag) by a hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 NTs containing Ag2O NPs (denoted as NT-Ag) in a Sr(OH)2 solution. The morphology, composition, microstructure, ion release phenomenon, as well as antibacterial, osteogenic, and angiogenic activities are investigated in details. During the hydrothermal treatment, the amorphous TiO2 in the NTs morphs into cubic SrTiO3 gradually and the ordered nanotubular architecture is preserved...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415318/effects-of-spatial-and-temporal-noise-on-a-cubic-autocatalytic-reaction-diffusion-model
#18
Jean-Sébastien Gagnon, David Hochberg, Juan Pérez-Mercader
We characterize the influence that external noise, with both spatial and temporal correlations, has on the scale dependence of the reaction parameters of a cubic autocatalytic reaction diffusion (CARD) system. Interpreting the CARD model as a primitive reaction scheme for a living system, the results indicate that power-law correlations in environmental fluctuations can either decrease or increase the rates of nutrient decay and the rate of autocatalysis (replication) on small spatial and temporal scales.
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415240/density-functional-theory-for-fluid-solid-and-solid-solid-phase-transitions
#19
Atul S Bharadwaj, Yashwant Singh
We develop a theory to describe solid-solid phase transitions. The density functional formalism of classical statistical mechanics is used to find an exact expression for the difference in the grand thermodynamic potentials of the two coexisting phases. The expression involves both the symmetry conserving and the symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function. The theory is used to calculate phase diagram of systems of soft spheres interacting via inverse power potentials u(r)=ε(σ/r)^{n}, where parameter n measures softness of the potential...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415211/dynamics-of-vortex-antivortex-pairs-and-rarefaction-pulses-in-liquid-light
#20
David Feijoo, Angel Paredes, Humberto Michinel
We present a numerical study of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two transverse dimensions, relevant for the propagation of light in certain exotic media. A well-known feature of the model is the existence of flat-top bright solitons of fixed intensity, whose dynamics resembles the physics of a liquid. They support traveling wave solutions, consisting of rarefaction pulses and vortex-antivortex pairs. In this work, we demonstrate how the vortex-antivortex pairs can be generated in bright soliton collisions displaying destructive interference followed by a snake instability...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
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