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Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Barbara Fenesi, Chelsea Mackinnon, Lucia Cheng, Joseph A Kim, Bruce C Wainman
The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens...
October 20, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Rupert R A Bourne, Hugh R Taylor, Seth R Flaxman, Jill Keeffe, Janet Leasher, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Richard A White, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff, Jost B Jonas
OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of individuals visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma and to examine regional differences and temporal changes in this parameter for the period from 1990 to 2012. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2010, we performed a systematic literature review for the period from 1980 to 2012. We primarily identified 14,908 relevant manuscripts, out of which 243 high-quality, population-based studies remained after review by an expert panel that involved application of selection criteria that dwelt on population representativeness and clarity of visual acuity methods used...
2016: PloS One
Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev, Paul A Smith
The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Leah McClimans, Geah Pressgrove, James Rhea
The quality of clinical ethics services in health care organizations is increasingly seen as an important aspect of the overall quality of care. But measuring this quality is difficult because there is a lack of clarity and consensus regarding the objectives of clinical ethics and the best outcome domains to measure. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of experts about the objectives and outcomes of clinical ethics services in the US. We interviewed 19 experts in clinical ethics, focusing on the appropriate objectives and outcomes of a clinical ethics service (CES)...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Changsheng Qu, Shui Wang, Peter Engelund Holm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
Jiang Li, Kai Su, Fang Li, Wei Tang, Yao Huang, Le Wang, Huiyao Huang, Jufang Shi, Min Dai
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and screening can decrease the mortality. High quality screening guideline is necessary and important for effective work. Our study is to review and evaluate the basic characteristics and methodology quality of the current global lung cancer screening guidelines so as to provide useful information for domestic study in the future. METHODS: Electronic searches were done in English and Chinese databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and some cancer official websites...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Tara M Weitz, Terrence Town
In a recent issue of Nature, Sevigny et al. (2016) report findings from a phase 1b clinical trial of aducanumab (a monoclonal antibody targeting misfolded amyloid-β peptides), revitalizing the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" and bringing mononuclear phagocytes center stage in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Mini Mol Menamparambath, Kihyuk Yang, Hyeong Hoon Kim, Oh Seung Bae, Mun Seok Jeong, Jae-Young Choi, Seunghyun Baik
Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) have received considerable attention for flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) since they provide a relatively low sheet resistance at a high transmittance. However, the diffuse light scattering, haze, has been regarded as a hurdle to achieve clarity of films. Here we revisit the Mie scattering theory to calculate the extinction and scattering coefficients of Ag NWs which were employed to estimate haze of TCFs. The theory predicted a decrease in haze with a decrease in Ag NW diameter which was supported by experimental investigations carried out using Ag NWs with 5 different diameters (17...
October 19, 2016: Nanotechnology
Rachel Young, Melissa Tully, Marizen Ramirez
Background Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Method Public school administrators (N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention...
October 17, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented a national ART scale-up program at public and private health facilities between 2004 and 2009. Little is known about how and why some health facilities have sustained ART programs and why others have not sustained these interventions. The objective of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of ART programs at six health facilities in Uganda which received donor support to commence ART between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: A case-study approach was adopted...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Daniel A Nidzgorski, Sarah E Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jamie J Kirkham, Sarah Gorst, Douglas G Altman, Jane M Blazeby, Mike Clarke, Declan Devane, Elizabeth Gargon, David Moher, Jochen Schmitt, Peter Tugwell, Sean Tunis, Paula R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Core outcome sets (COS) can enhance the relevance of research by ensuring that outcomes of importance to health service users and other people making choices about health care in a particular topic area are measured routinely. Over 200 COS to date have been developed, but the clarity of these reports is suboptimal. COS studies will not achieve their goal if reports of COS are not complete and transparent. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In recognition of these issues, an international group that included experienced COS developers, methodologists, journal editors, potential users of COS (clinical trialists, systematic reviewers, and clinical guideline developers), and patient representatives developed the Core Outcome Set-STAndards for Reporting (COS-STAR) Statement as a reporting guideline for COS studies...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Camila Pérez, Gabriela Nazar, Félix Cova
Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
A M Acosta, M A D S Lima, G Q Marques, P F Levandovski, L A F Weber
AIM: To translate, adapt and evaluate psychometric properties of the complete (15 items) and reduced (three items) versions of the Care Transitions Measure into Brazilian Portuguese. INTRODUCTION: The Care Transitions Measure assesses the quality of care transitions, from the perspective of patients. As accomplishing effective transitions is a challenge to healthcare systems, the instrument provides an opportunity to assess care transitions and improve quality initiatives...
October 18, 2016: International Nursing Review
Benjamin Rey, Cyril Dégletagne, Claude Duchamp
In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, "Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays" (Dégletagne et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
U Kiltz, D van der Heijde, A Boonen, W Bautista-Molano, R Burgos-Vargas, P Chiowchanwisawakit, T Duruoz, B El-Zorkany, I Essers, I Gaydukova, P Géher, L Gossec, S Grazio, J Gu, M A Khan, T J Kim, W P Maksymowych, H Marzo-Ortega, V Navarro-Compán, I Olivieri, D Patrikos, F M Pimentel-Santos, M Schirmer, F van den Bosch, U Weber, J Zochling, J Braun
INTRODUCTION: The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward-backward procedure...
2016: RMD Open
Jay Thakkar, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Gaurav Purohit, Swetha Thakkar, Jitender Sharma, Sunilkumar Verma, Neeraj Parakh, Sandeep Seth, Sundeep Mishra, Rakesh Yadav, Sandeep Singh, Rohina Joshi, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. OBJECTIVES: To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India...
2016: Heart Asia
Esther Heinen, Peter Birkholz, Klaus Willmes, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube
PURPOSE: To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. METHODS: Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency...
October 18, 2016: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
Lorena Sepsakos, Kevin Shah, T Peter Lindquist, William Barry Lee, Edward Holland
PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (ED) and to analyze potential risk factors for rejection. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 400 patients with Fuchs ED was performed. The primary outcome was the rate of endothelial graft rejection. Secondary outcomes included graft clarity after rejection, medications at the time of rejection, and preoperative graft thickness...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
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