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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538872/melanoma-tumor-microenvironment-and-new-treatments
#1
Mara Huffenbaecher Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro Francisco Giavina-Bianchi, Cyro Festa
In the recent past years, many discoveries in the tumor microenvironment have led to changes in the management of melanoma and it is rising up hopes, specially, to those in advanced stages. FDA approved seven new drugs from 2011 to 2014. They are: Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib and Trametinib, kinases inhibitors used for patients that have BRAFV600E mutation; Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4), Pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), monoclonal antibodies that stimulate the immune system; and Peginterferon alfa-2b, an anti-proliferative cytokine used as adjuvant therapy...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538557/safety-of-outpatient-circumferential-body-lift-evidence-from-42-consecutive-cases
#2
J John Makipour, Erik Nuveen, Diana Abbott
BACKGROUND: Circumferential lower body lifts have become more prevalent with the rise of massive weight loss surgery. This has historically required inpatient admission. Only three previous groups have published their experience with outpatient lower body lifts. METHODS: The authors reviewed their experience with 42 consecutive outpatient circumferential body lifts from 2010 to 2016, and report patient demographics, operative details, and postoperative outcomes...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534479/efficient-protein-production-inspired-by-how-spiders-make-silk
#3
Nina Kronqvist, Médoune Sarr, Anton Lindqvist, Kerstin Nordling, Martins Otikovs, Luca Venturi, Barbara Pioselli, Pasi Purhonen, Michael Landreh, Henrik Biverstål, Zigmantas Toleikis, Lisa Sjöberg, Carol V Robinson, Nicola Pelizzi, Hans Jörnvall, Hans Hebert, Kristaps Jaudzems, Tore Curstedt, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson
Membrane proteins are targets of most available pharmaceuticals, but they are difficult to produce recombinantly, like many other aggregation-prone proteins. Spiders can produce silk proteins at huge concentrations by sequestering their aggregation-prone regions in micellar structures, where the very soluble N-terminal domain (NT) forms the shell. We hypothesize that fusion to NT could similarly solubilize non-spidroin proteins, and design a charge-reversed mutant (NT*) that is pH insensitive, stabilized and hypersoluble compared to wild-type NT...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534409/dimensionality-and-interface-engineering-of-2d-homologous-perovskites-for-boosted-charge-carrier-transport-and-photodetection-performances
#4
Dejian Yu, Fei Cao, Yalong Shen, Xuhai Liu, Ying Zhu, Haibo Zeng
Two dimensional (2D) homologous halide perovskites (HPs) microcrystallines have emerged as promising alternative light-sensitive materials, however, the undesirable quantum confinement effect and severe interfacial charge carrier scattering still hamper their applications in photodetectors (PDs). Here we propose a novel post-synthetic treatment to simultaneously solve both problems. 2D (OA)2FAn-1PbnBr3n+1 (OA and FA represent octadecylamine and formamidine) microplatelets film was immersed into solution containing FA+, leading to improvements in two aspects...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#5
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533403/reassessment-of-20th-century-global-mean-sea-level-rise
#6
Sönke Dangendorf, Marta Marcos, Guy Wöppelmann, Clinton P Conrad, Thomas Frederikse, Riccardo Riva
The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y(-1) Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532866/the-effects-of-12-weeks-pilates-inspired-exercise-training-on-functional-performance-in-older-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Natália Donzeli Vieira, Daniela Testa, Paula Cristine Ruas, Tânia de Fátima Salvini, Aparecida Maria Catai, Ruth Caldeira Melo
BACKGROUND: Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. METHODS: Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531091/ab-initio-studies-of-coherent-spin-transport-in-fe-hbn-graphene-van-der-waals-multilayers
#8
Aniekan Ukpong
This paper presents the results of ab initio studies of the electronic spin manipulation, inversion, filtering and transport using a ferromagnetic multilayer heterostructure. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations are performed based on van der Waals density functional theory to give unique insights to the generation, manipulation and transport of coherent spin conductance. By using an exact theory of the self-consistent ground state of the Fe-hBN/graphene multilayer as a model of the magnetic tunnel junction, this paper unravels the hidden asymmetries in the spin-resolved charge densities...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530451/effect-of-high-volume-injection-platelet-rich-plasma-and-sham-treatment-in-chronic-midportion-achilles-tendinopathy-a-randomized-double-blinded-prospective-study
#9
Anders Ploug Boesen, Rudi Hansen, Morten Ilum Boesen, Peter Malliaras, Henning Langberg
BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57)...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530405/novel-carrier-doping-mechanism-for-transparent-conductor-electron-donation-from-embedded-ag-nanoparticles-to-the-oxide-matrix
#10
Po-Shun Huang, Fen Qin, Ziye Xiong, Hyunwoo Shim, Tongchuan Gao, Paul W Leu, Jung-Kun Lee
A tradeoff between the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility is an inherent problem of traditional transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. In this study, we demonstrate that the electron concentration of TCO film can be increased without deteriorating the carrier mobility by embedding Ag nanoparticles (NPs) into Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films. An increment of Ag NP content up to 0.7 vol% in the AZO causes the electron concentration rising from 2 × 1019 to 4 × 1020 cm-3. A dependence of the conductivity on temperature suggests that the thermal activation energy of this electron donation from Ag NPs is similar to the Schottky barrier height at the Ag-AZO interface that is a difference between work function of Ag and electron affinity of the AZO...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528578/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-reduce-caesarean-delivery-rates-in-quebec-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Mira Johri, Edmond S W Ng, Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Jeffrey S Hoch, Thierry Ducruet, Nils Chaillet
BACKGROUND: Widespread increases in caesarean section (CS) rates have sparked concerns about risks to mothers and infants and rising healthcare costs. A multicentre, two-arm, cluster-randomized trial in Quebec, Canada assessed whether an audit and feedback intervention targeting health professionals would reduce CS rates for pregnant women compared to usual care, and concluded that it reduced CS rates without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal health. The effect was statistically significant but clinically small...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528448/prostate-cancer-related-anxiety-in-long-term-survivors-after-radical-prostatectomy
#12
Valentin H Meissner, Kathleen Herkommer, Birgitt Marten-Mittag, Jürgen E Gschwend, Andreas Dinkel
PURPOSE: Knowledge of the psychological distress of long- and very long-term (>10 years) prostate cancer (PC) survivors is limited. This study intended to examine the parameters influencing anxiety related to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PC in long-term survivors after radical prostatectomy. METHODS: We surveyed 4719 PC survivors from the German multicenter prospective database "Familial Prostate Cancer." We evaluated the association of PC-related anxiety (MAX-PC) with sociodemographic characteristics, family history of PC, global health status/quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30), depression and anxiety (PHQ-2; GAD-2), latest PSA level, time since radical prostatectomy, and current therapy...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526929/analytical-management-of-patients-undergoing-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-could-have-a-strong-impact-on-clinical-outcomes-a-follow-up-study
#13
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Sebastiano Ursi, Gianfranco Vitullo, Irma Griffo, Antonio Marino, Marika Caruso, Francesco Cipollone, Sabrina Capodifoglio, Veronica Breda, Elena Toniato, Alfonso Pennelli, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulant therapy, such as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), is prominent for the prevention of cerebral ischemic stroke or systemic embolism and all-cause mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, and mechanical or biological valve. VKA treatment requires monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in order to maintain it in a therapeutic range, avoiding side effects, the main and most significant of which is bleeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the event rates of several clinical composite outcomes, such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, and all-cause death...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526584/a-simple-algorithm-to-predict-falls-in-primary-care-patients-aged-65-to-74%C3%A2-years-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study
#14
Fernando Gomez, Yan Yan Wu, Mohammad Auais, Afshin Vafaei, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui
OBJECTIVE: Primary care practitioners need simple algorithms to identify older adults at higher risks of falling. Classification and regression tree (CaRT) analyses are useful tools for identification of clinical predictors of falls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults at 5 diverse sites: Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525914/cigarette-filter-ventilation-and-its-relationship-to-increasing-rates-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Min-Ae Song, Neal L Benowitz, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, K Michael Cummings, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Catalin Marian, Richard O'Connor, Vaughan W Rees, Casper Woroszylo, Peter G Shields
The 2014 Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health concluded that changing cigarette designs have caused an increase in lung adenocarcinomas, implicating cigarette filter ventilation that lowers smoking machine tar yields. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the authority to regulate cigarette design if doing so would improve public health. To support a potential regulatory action, two weight-of-evidence reviews were applied for causally relating filter ventilation to lung adenocarcinoma. Published scientific literature (3284 citations) and internal tobacco company documents contributed to causation analysis evidence blocks and the identification of research gaps...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525273/directional-fluid-gating-by-janus-membranes-with-heterogeneous-wetting-properties-for-selective-oil-water-separation
#16
Prashant Gupta, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
The rising oil seepage accidents evolved into a global issue necessitating immediate counter measure to abridge its catastrophic repercussions on sensitive marine ecosystem urging innovative techniques for effective oil/water separation. Here, we report surface tailored wettability modified superhydrophobic/superoleophilic Janus membrane by impregnating non-ionic surfactant stabilized nano-sized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dispersion polymerized via non-fluorinated processing aid onto cotton substrate using Meyer rod coating technique, exhibiting excellent separation efficiency up to 98% with various petroleum products and retaining its intrinsic properties for at least 30 recurrences...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523763/proton-mr-spectroscopy-of-lesion-evolution-in-multiple-sclerosis-steady-state-metabolism-and-its-relationship-to-conventional-imaging
#17
Ivan I Kirov, Shu Liu, Assaf Tal, William E Wu, Matthew S Davitz, James S Babb, Henry Rusinek, Joseph Herbert, Oded Gonen
Although MRI assessment of white matter lesions is essential for the clinical management of multiple sclerosis, the processes leading to the formation of lesions and underlying their subsequent MRI appearance are incompletely understood. We used proton MR spectroscopy to study the evolution of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) in pre-lesional tissue, persistent and transient new lesions, as well as in chronic lesions, and related the results to quantitative MRI measures of T1-hypointensity and T2-volume...
May 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523649/highly-sensitive-detection-of-ionizing-radiations-by-a-photoluminescent-uranyl-organic-framework
#18
Jian Xie, Yaxing Wang, Wei Liu, Xuemiao Yin, Lanhua Chen, Youming Zou, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Guokui Liu, Shuao Wang
Precise detection of low-dose X- and γ-radiations remains a challenge and is particularly important for studying biological effects under low-dose ionizing radiation, safety control in medical radiation treatment, survey of environmental radiation background, and monitoring cosmic radiations. We report here a photoluminescent uranium organic framework, whose photoluminescence intensity can be accurately correlated with the exposure dose of X- or γ-radiations. This allows for precise and instant detection of ionizing radiations down to the level of 10(-4)  Gy, representing a significant improvement on the detection limit of approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to other chemical dosimeters reported up to now...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523127/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-hifu-ablation-of-benign-thyroid-nodules-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Brian Hung-Hin Lang, Arnold L H Wu
BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of imaging studies being done nowadays, the number of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules is expected to rise. Although many of these nodules are small and benign in nature, some do grow and may cause pressure and/or thyrotoxic symptoms. Surgical resection has traditionally been recommended for symptomatic nodules but is associated with risk of hypothyroidism, bleeding, infection, and nerve damage. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one of the non-surgical thermal ablation techniques that may serve as an alternative in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522530/high-harmonic-generation-in-graphene-enhanced-by-elliptically-polarized-light-excitation
#20
Naotaka Yoshikawa, Tomohiro Tamaya, Koichiro Tanaka
The electronic properties of graphene can give rise to a range of nonlinear optical responses. One of the most desirable nonlinear optical processes is high-harmonic generation (HHG) originating from coherent electron motion induced by an intense light field. Here, we report on the observation of up to ninth-order harmonics in graphene excited by mid-infrared laser pulses at room temperature. The HHG in graphene is enhanced by an elliptically polarized laser excitation, and the resultant harmonic radiation has a particular polarization...
May 19, 2017: Science
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