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Seema Mehrotra, Paulomi Sudhir, Girish Rao, Jagadisha Thirthalli, T K Srikanth
There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression) for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology...
March 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Michael S Parker, Ambikaipakan Balasubramaniam, Floyd R Sallee, Steven L Parker
Eukaryote ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have expanded in the course of phylogeny by addition of nucleotides in specific insertion areas, the expansion segments. These number about 40 in the larger (25-28S) rRNA (up to 2,400 nucleotides), and about 12 in the smaller (18S) rRNA (<700 nucleotides). Expansion of the larger rRNA shows a clear phylogenetic increase, with a dramatic rise in mammals and especially in hominids. Substantial portions of expansion segments in this RNA are not bound to ribosomal proteins, and may engage extraneous interactants, including messenger RNAs (mRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Nicola Alessio, Francesco Riccitiello, Tiziana Squillaro, Stefania Capasso, Stefania Del Gaudio, Giovanni Di Bernardo, Marilena Cipollaro, Mariarosa A B Melone, Gianfranco Peluso, Umberto Galderisi
Several aspects of stem cell life are governed by epigenetic variations, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. Epigenetic events are also connected with the impairment of stem cell functions. For example, during senescence, there are significant changes in chromatin organization that alter transcription. The MECP2 protein can bind methylated cytosines and contribute to regulating gene expression at one of the highest hierarchical levels. Researchers are particularly interested in this protein, as up to 90% of Rett syndrome patients have an MECP2 gene mutation...
March 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Gerry Coghlan, Matthias Wolf, Oliver Distler, Christopher P Denton, Martin Doelberg, Satenik Harutyunova, Alberto M Marra, Nicola Benjamin, Christine Fischer, Ekkehard Grünig
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and determining factors in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and a DLCO < 60% predicted. Methods: In this bicentric, prospective cohort study, patients with SSc were assessed at baseline and after 3 years clinically including right heart catheterization (RHC). Analysis of determining factors for development of PH was performed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Ninety-six patients with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) <25 mmHg at baseline were followed 2...
March 21, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ralph Ziegler, Andreas Neu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is steadily rising and now stands at 22.9 new cases per year per 100 000 persons up to age 15. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective literature search, with special attention to the current German S3 guideline on diabetes in childhood and adolescence. RESULTS: Polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss are the characteristic presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus...
March 2, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Teemu J Niiranen, Mir Henglin, Brian Claggett, Vito M R Muggeo, Elizabeth McCabe, Mohit Jain, Ramachandran S Vasan, Martin G Larson, Susan Cheng
Importance: Given that hypertension remains a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, there are substantial ongoing efforts to define the optimal range of blood pressure (BP). Objective: To identify a common threshold level above which BP rise tends to accelerate in progression toward hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal, community-based epidemiological cohort study of adults enrolled in Framingham, Massachusetts, included 1252 participants (mean [SD] age, 35...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Kelly J Chan, Divya Jolly, Jennifer J Liang, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVE: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transmasculine treatment, there is a possible need for estrogen-lowering strategies adjunct to testosterone therapy. Further, guidelines advocate consideration of prophylactic female reproductive tissue surgeries for transgender men to avoid the possibility of estrogen-related health risks. Despite the paucity of objective data, some transgender men seek conversion inhibitors. We sought to determine estradiol levels in transgender men treated with testosterone therapy and the change in those levels with treatment, if any...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Sung Uk Baek, Kwang Hyun Kim, Joo Yeon Lee, Kyung Wha Lee
PURPOSE: To assess long-term changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and the development of glaucoma after early phacoemulsification in acute primary angle closure. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of acute primary angle closure patients treated with phacoemulsification in attack eyes versus fellow eyes. Within a month after the angle closure attack, all subjects underwent cataract surgery and were divided into two groups: group A received cataract surgery on their attack eyes...
March 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Ahmed S Zakaria, Alice Dragomir, Wassim Kassouf, Simon Tanguay, Armen Aprikian
OBJECTIVES: To characterize testosterone profile changes over time in a cohort of prostate cancer (PCa) patients managed with active surveillance (AS) and to assess its correlation with the initial disease characteristics and further progression. METHODS: We conducted retrospective chart review of PCa patients managed with AS. Patients were followed with PSA, total, free and bioavailable testosterone measurements, physical examination, and by repeat biopsies or periodic magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Arash Maleki, Hossein Aghaei, Stacey Lee
Purpose: To report the efficacy and safety of interferon alpha 2b in the treatment of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema resistant to conventional therapy. Observations: A 64-year-old patient presented with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema in her left eye, which developed two months after an uncomplicated cataract surgery and was resistant to multiple topical NSAIDs and multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections over the course of nine months. She also developed side effects to oral acetazolamide and intravitreal triamcinolone injection; a skin rash and a rise in intraocular pressure (34 mmHg), respectively...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
José C Ramalho, Isabel P Pais, António E Leitão, Mauro Guerra, Fernando H Reboredo, Cristina M Máguas, Maria L Carvalho, Paula Scotti-Campos, Ana I Ribeiro-Barros, Fernando J C Lidon, Fábio M DaMatta
Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO2 ] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO2 ] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO2 ] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marit Sørvoll, Aud Obstfelder, Britt Normann, Gunn Kristin Øberg
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy from an early age is considered important for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In preschool, dedicated aides are responsible for the daily follow-up and training under the supervision of a physiotherapist (PT). Knowledge is sparse regarding what is created and achieved in clinical practice involving triads (i.e. the PT, aide, and child) with respect to the enhancement of practical skills in dedicated aides. The study purpose was to explore form and content in supervision...
March 20, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Allen W Barton, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody, Katherine B Ehrlich
From a sample of African American families living in the rural South, this study tested the hypothesis that growing up in poverty is associated with heightened biological stress levels in youth that, in turn, forecast elevations in drug use in young adulthood. Supportive parenting during adolescence was hypothesized to protect youth's biological stress levels from rising in the context of poverty. African American youth and their primary caregivers from 385 families participated in a 14-year prospective study that began when youth were 11 years of age...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ali Salim, Erica Metz, James S Constant, Anandev Gurjala, Karen Yokoo, Winnie M Y Tong
INTRODUCTION: Despite the rising popularity of subcutaneous mastectomy (top surgery) in patients born female and identifying as male or nonbinary, there are limited studies on how prior breast surgeries affect subcutaneous mastectomy. This study evaluates if previous breast reduction affected subcutaneous mastectomy in this patient population. METHODS: The case series consists of 5 patients who, having had prior breast reductions, elected to have subcutaneous mastectomy...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Arieh Zaritsky, Avinoam Rabinovitch, Chenli Liu, Conrad L Woldringh
Cell size of bacteria M is related to 3 temporal parameters: chromosome replication time C , period from replication-termination to subsequent division D , and doubling time τ . Steady-state, bacillary cells grow exponentially by extending length L only, but their constant width W is larger at shorter τ 's or longer C 's, in proportion to the number of chromosome replication positions n (= C / τ ), at least in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium . Extending C by thymine limitation of fast-growing thyA mutants result in continuous increase of M , associated with rising W , up to a limit before branching...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
François Godart, Ali Houeijeh, Olivia Domanski, Marie-Paule Guillaume, Mélanie Brard, Hugues Lucron
AIM: To describe our initial experience with the Occlutech Duct Occluder (ODO) for percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). METHODS: Retrospective review of patients undergoing transcatheter PDA closure with the ODO in 2 academic centers. RESULTS: From April 2013 to September 2017, 42 patients underwent PDA closure. Median age at implantation was 34 months (range 4 months-68 years) and median weight was 12 kg (range 4...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jongho Kim, Erika D Feller, Wengen Chen, Yuanyuan Liang, Vasken Dilsizian
OBJECTIVES: The feasibility of18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for the diagnosis of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) infection has been demonstrated. Beyond the diagnoses of LVAD infection, the authors hypothesized that the pattern and site of the infection along its various components may significantly impact clinical management and patient outcome. BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage heart failure, the clinical use of LVAD for destination therapy is on the rise, accompanied by a higher prevalence of infections and serious complications...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Oscar H L Bing
Ammonia plays a central role in the life and death of all living organisms and has been studied for over one hundred years. Ammonia is necessary for growth and development but it is toxic in excess and, as a result, differing methods of ammonia neutralization have evolved. Following physiological and pathological stress to the heart, tissue ammonia levels rise. Local ammonia neutralization may be inadequate and excess ammonia may exert its toxic effects. Phenylbutyrate (PBA), which is FDA approved for the treatment of elevated blood ammonia in urea cycle disorders, provides an accessory pathway for ammonia clearance...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ruchita Dixit, Sowmya Nettem, Simerjit S Madan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Leah D Vance, Patrick J Stover
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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