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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740404/inhalational-gentamicin-treatment-is-effective-against-pneumonic-plague-in-a-mouse-model
#1
David Gur, Itai Glinert, Moshe Aftalion, Yaron Vagima, Yinon Levy, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Avital Tidhar, Arnon Tal, Sharon Maoz, Raphael Ber, Avi Pass, Emanuelle Mamroud
Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) , is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific "flu-like" symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733972/application-of-an-inline-dry-powder-inhaler-to-deliver-high-dose-pharmaceutical-aerosols-during-low-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy
#2
Dale Farkas, Michael Hindle, P Worth Longest
Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) offer a potentially effective option to deliver high dose inhaled medications simultaneously with mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to develop an inline DPI that is actuated using a low volume of air (LV-DPI) to efficiently deliver pharmaceutical aerosols during low flow nasal cannula (LFNC) therapy. A characteristic feature of the new inline LV-DPIs was the use of hollow capillary tubes that both pierced the capsule and provided a pathway for inlet air and exiting aerosol...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724399/treatment-compliance-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-treated-with-tobramycin-inhalation-powder-the-free-study
#3
Francesco Blasi, Vincenzo Carnovale, Giuseppe Cimino, Vincenzina Lucidi, Donatello Salvatore, Barbara Messore, Marta Bartezaghi, Elisa Muscianisi, Pasquale Alberto Porpiglia
BACKGROUND: A high treatment burden with nebulised therapies in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the major limitation for treatment compliance; moreover, studies on treatment compliance with inhaled antibiotics are limited. This study assessed compliance to TOBI® Podhaler™ (TIP) treatment in CF patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in a real-world setting using the Italian Treatment Adherence CF Questionnaire (ITA-CFq). METHODS: This longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study included 2 follow-up (FU) visits: FU-1 at 3-months±15-days from the baseline visit and FU-2 at the end of third TIP cycle (or 6-months after enrolment, whichever occurred first)...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720915/resource-use-evaluation-of-tobramycin-formulations-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#4
Shellie L Keast
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer from chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For patients with CF, 6 years of age and older, with P aeruginosa persistently present in cultures of the airways, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends the chronic use of inhaled tobramycin to reduce exacerbations. To ease treatment burden, a new dry powder formulation was developed. The objective of this research was to compare resource utilization between tobramycin inhaled solution (TIS) and a new tobramycin dry powder (TIP) formulation in a state Medicaid program...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699879/treatment-of-post-intubation-laryngeal-granulomas-systematic-review-and-proportional-meta-analysis
#5
Caroline Fernandes Rimoli, Regina Helena Garcia Martins, Daniele Cristina Catâneo, Rui Imamura, Antonio José Maria Catâneo
INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal granulomas post intubation are benign but recurrent lesions. There is no consensus for its treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effectiveness of different treatment modalities for primary or recurrent laryngeal granulomas resulting from endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Systematic review and proportional meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria - experimental or observational studies with at least five subjects. Outcomes studied - granuloma resolution, recurrence, and time for resolution...
April 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678900/prevention-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies
#6
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Adam T Hill, Claudia C Dobler, Noor Asi, Wigdan H Farah, Qusay Haydour, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are used to treat stable bronchiectasis of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) aetiology. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in patients with stable non-CF bronchiectasis with a focus on reducing exacerbations. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple databases were searched through September 2017...
April 20, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659359/-pneumonia-associated-with-mechanical-ventilation-update-and-recommendations-inter-societies-sadi-sati
#7
Wanda Cornistein, Ángel M Colque, María Inés Staneloni, María Monserrat Lloria, Mónica Lares, Ana Laura González, Alejandro Fernández Garcés, Edith Carbone
Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) worked together on the development of specific recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The methodology used was the analysis of the literature published in the last 15 years, complemented with the opinion of experts and local data. This document aims to offer basic tools to optimize diagnosis based on clinical and microbiological criteria, orientation in empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, news on posology and administration of antibiotics in critical patients and to promote effective measures to reduce the risk of VAP...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650193/inhalation-with-bronchodilator-combination-effective-in-reducing-length-of-hospital-stay-in-children-with-pneumonia
#8
Rahma Annisa, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the correlation between inhalation therapy and length of hospital stay in children under age of five with pneumonia. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 102 consecutive patients (secondary data) with pneumonia. The patients were divided depending on the type of therapy they received: Group I used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist + NaCl 0,9%, Group II used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist and anticholinergic + NaCl 0,9%, Group III used inhalation therapy with NaCl 0,9%, and Group IV used no inhalation therapy...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621625/ciprofloxacin-dry-powder-for-inhalation-ciprofloxacin-dpi-technical-design-and-features-of-an-efficient-drug-device-combination
#9
REVIEW
Pamela J McShane, Jeffry G Weers, Thomas E Tarara, Alfred Haynes, Preeti Durbha, Danforth P Miller, Tobias Mundry, Elisabeth Operschall, J Stuart Elborn
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by a cycle of bacterial infection and inflammation, resulting in increasing airway damage. Exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity and are strongly associated with disease progression. Many patients with bronchiectasis suffer from two or more exacerbations per year. However, there are no approved therapies to reduce or delay exacerbations in this patient population. Ciprofloxacin DPI is in development as a long-term, intermittent therapy to reduce exacerbations in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis and evidence of respiratory pathogens...
April 2, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607494/inhaled-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotics-for-long-term-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Sherie Smith, Nicola J Rowbotham, Kate H Regan
BACKGROUND: Inhaled antibiotics are commonly used to treat persistent airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contributes to lung damage in people with cystic fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend inhaled tobramycin for individuals with cystic fibrosis and persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection who are aged six years or older. The aim is to reduce bacterial load in the lungs so as to reduce inflammation and deterioration of lung function. This is an update of a previously published review...
March 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600097/concurrent-thymic-carcinoma-and-middle-lobe-syndrome
#11
Xi Zheng, Yue Huang, Junhe Gou, Daxing Zhu, Qinghua Zhou
Surgery is one of the first-line treatments for thymic carcinoma. Middle lobe syndrome which is irresponsive to conservative therapies also calls for surgical intervention. We reported the case of a 65-year-old male who was diagnosed with coexistent thymic carcinoma and non-obstructive middle lobe syndrome. Before the operation, we took measures including repeated sputum examination, physical therapy, postural sputum drainage and bronchodilator inhalation. After removal of the mediastinal neoplasm, venous antibiotics were used to prevent pneumonia...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587336/oral-versus-inhaled-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#12
REVIEW
Sally Spencer, Lambert M Felix, Stephen J Milan, Rebecca Normansell, Pieter C Goeminne, James D Chalmers, Tim Donovan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance when compared with orally administered antibiotics...
March 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570493/does-anthrax-antitoxin-therapy-have-a-role-in-the-treatment-of-inhalational-anthrax
#13
Nicholas J Vietri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease and Bacillus anthracis is a likely pathogen to be used in a biological attack. The lack of clinical experience with anthrax has led experts to develop treatment guidelines. These guidelines recommend anthrax antitoxin to be used in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of patients with systemic anthrax infection, yet there is still a lack of human or animal data to support this recommendation. RECENT FINDINGS: The U...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553450/management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-at-the-nasser-medical-complex-a-clinical-audit
#14
Maha Al-Faqawi, Yousef Abuowda, Alaa Eldeen Elmassry, Bettina Böttcher
BACKGROUND: The frequency and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most important determinants of prognosis in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the management of patients presenting with COPD exacerbations at the Nasser Medical Complex in the Gaza Strip and to compare the management with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD 2015). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Nasser Medical Complex and diagnosed with COPD exacerbation between Jan 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540496/exacerbations-of-copd
#15
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534393/-a-retrospective-study-of-the-treatment-of-patients-hospitalized-for-asthma-exacerbation-in-china
#16
B Xing, J T Lin, H P Tang, L Yang, Y D Yuan, Y H Gu, P Chen, X J Liu, J Zhang, H G Liu, C Z Wang, W Zhou, D J Sun, Y Q Chen, Z C Chen, M Huang, Q C Lin, C P Hu, X H Yang, J M Huo, X W Ye, X Zhou, P Jiang, W Zhang, Y J Huang, L M Dai, R Y Liu, S X Cai, J Y Xu, J Y Zhou
Objective: To study the treatment of patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in China. Methods: This was a retrospective study and involved patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in 29 hospitals throughout China during Jan 2013 to Dec 2014. Information of the demographic features, the severity of the exacerbation, the medicine prescribed during the hospitalization and the use of mechanical ventilation were collected and analyzed. Results: During the study period, there were 3 240 patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation, and 1 369(42...
February 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525410/early-detection-using-qpcr-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-undergoing-eradication-treatment
#17
Ana C Blanchard, Ashley M Rooney, Yvonne Yau, Yu Zhang, Patrick J Stapleton, Eric Horton, Michelle Klingel, Sanja Stanojevic, Felix Ratjen, Bryan Coburn, Valerie Waters
BACKGROUND: Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) with a chronic phenotype is associated with antibiotic eradication therapy (AET) failure. Our objective was to determine whether higher levels of Pa (detected using qPCR) prior to culture positivity were associated with AET failure in pediatric CF patients. METHODS: Pa-specific qPCR was performed on stored sputa prior to culture positivity in pediatric CF patients with new-onset culture-positive Pa infections undergoing AET with a 28-day course of tobramycin-inhaled solution (TIS)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500117/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-severe-respiratory-failure-resulting-from-burns-and-smoke-inhalation-injury
#18
Lajos Szentgyorgyi, Chloe Shepherd, Ken W Dunn, Peter Fawcett, Julian M Barker, Paul Exton, Marc O Maybauer
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is one of the most frequent forms of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and can be used as rescue therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure resulting from burns and/or smoke inhalation injury. Experience and literature on this treatment option is still very limited, consequently results are varied. We report a retrospective analysis of our experience with veno-venous (VV) ECMO in burn patients. All five patients, three male and two female (age: 28-37 years) had flame type burns and smoke inhalation injury...
February 27, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486592/pyoderma-gangranosum-like-blastomycosis
#19
Jessica Mak, Ayman Al Habeeb, Mona Al Kalabi, Afsaneh Alavi
Blastomyces dermatitidis is typically contracted through inhalation of the dimorphic conidia, resulting in pulmonary infection as well as extrapulmonary disease through hematogenous spread. Blastomycosis is considered one of the great mimickers in medicine, with verrucous cutaneous blastomycosis resembling skin malignancy and B dermatitidis pulmonary infections often confused with lung cancer. Cutaneous blastomycosis can also often mimic pyoderma gangrenosum and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in any suspected case...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484848/treatment-of-severe-bronchiolitis-a-survey-of-canadian-pediatric-intensivists
#20
Matthew L Bradshaw, Alexandre Déragon, Pramod Puligandla, Guillaume Emeriaud, Anne-Marie Canakis, Patricia S Fontela
OBJECTIVE: To describe management practices and the factors guiding admission and treatment decisions for viral bronchiolitis across Canadian pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Canadian PICUs. SUBJECTS: Pediatric intensivists. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A survey using two case scenarios (non-intubated vs intubated patients) was developed using focus groups and a literature review...
May 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
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