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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#1
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892236/1-in-100-babies-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-pathway
#2
Kerry Lyons
Alcohol consumed during pregnancy is the nation's leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities and birth defects. One in 100 babies is estimated to be born with alcohol-related damage, according to the World Health Organization. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are more common than autism but are under-diagnosed.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876552/long-term-altered-immune-responses-following-fetal-priming-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#3
Destanie R Rose, Milo Careaga, Judy Van de Water, Kim McAllister, Melissa D Bauman, Paul Ashwood
Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD...
November 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860117/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-e-core-a-national-multi-stakeholder-modified-delphi-consensus-study
#4
B H Al Wattar, K Tamilselvan, R Khan, A Kelso, A Sinha, A M Pirie, D McCorry, K S Khan, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of core outcomes for studies on pregnant women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Delphi consensus study. POPULATION: Healthcare professionals, and patient representatives with lived experience of epilepsy in the UK. METHODS: We used a modified Delphi method and a consultation meeting to achieve consensus. Potential outcomes were identified by systematic review, and were scored using a Likert scale anchored between 1 (least important) and 5 (most important)...
November 16, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847193/extremely-low-gestational-age-and-very-low-birthweight-for-gestational-age-are-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-large-cohort-study-of-10-year-old-children-born-at-23-27-weeks-gestation
#5
Robert M Joseph, Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, Tim Heeren, Jean A Frazier, Janice Ware, Deborah Hirtz, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: No prospective cohort study of high-risk children has used rigorous exposure assessment and optimal diagnostic procedures to examine the perinatal antecedents of autism spectrum disorder separately among those with and without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify perinatal factors associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <70) in children born extremely preterm...
November 12, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#6
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809298/meconium-exposure-and-autism-risk
#7
K M Miller, G Xing, C K Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether fetal meconium passage is associated with autism. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective birth cohort analysis of 9 945 896 children born in California 1991 to 2008 linked discharge diagnosis and procedure codes for prenatal stressors, meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with autism diagnoses for 47 277 children through 2012. We assessed the relative risk of autism by meconium status using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and clinical features...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791298/glucocorticoid-effects-on-cerebellar-development-in-a-chicken-embryo-model-exploring-changes-in-pax6-and-mmp-9-after-exposure-to-dexamethasone
#8
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Sigrid Bjørnstad, Gro H Mathisen, Petra K Aden, Ingvild Mikkola, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Kirsten E Rakkestad
The developing cerebellum is vulnerable to effects of glucocorticoids and cerebellar dysfunction is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. autism. Transcription factor PAX6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are critical for normal cerebellar development and are highly expressed in migrating neurons. Alterations in MMP-9 and PAX6 are associated with altered cerebellar development. In the present paper we have characterized growth rate and development of the cortical layers, and further investigated how the levels of PAX6 and MMP-9 as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) change in the cerebellum during the fetal period (E12-21) in chicken, which corresponds to the human perinatal period...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684946/maternal-obesity-and-neurodevelopmental-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-offspring
#9
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673421/does-prenatal-stress-alter-the-developing-connectome
#10
REVIEW
Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha, Sarah N Cross, Soo Hyun Kwon, Gordon Sze, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
Human neurodevelopment requires the organization of neural elements into complex structural and functional networks called the connectome. Emerging data suggest that prenatal exposure to maternal stress plays a role in the wiring, or miswiring, of the developing connectome. Stress-related symptoms are common in women during pregnancy and are risk factors for neurobehavioral disorders ranging from autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction, to major depression and schizophrenia...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664808/paternal-age-effects-on-sperm-foxk1-and-kcna7-methylation-and-transmission-into-the-next-generation
#11
Stefanie Atsem, Juliane Reichenbach, Ramya Potabattula, Marcus Dittrich, Caroline Nava, Christel Depienne, Lena Böhm, Simone Rost, Thomas Hahn, Martin Schorsch, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Children of older fathers carry an increased risk for developing autism and other disorders. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the correlation of sperm DNA methylation with paternal age and its impact on the epigenome of the offspring. Methylation levels of 9 candidate genes and LINE-1 repeats were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in sperm of 162 donors and 191 cord blood of resulting children (conceived by IVF/ICSI with the same sperm samples). Four genes showed a significant negative correlation between sperm methylation and paternal age...
September 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646260/prevention-of-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-exposed-to-folate-receptor-antibodies-implication-in-autism
#12
A Desai, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies have been associated with fetal abnormalities and cerebral folate deficiency-related developmental disorders. Over 70% of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are positive for these autoantibodies and high-dose folinic acid is beneficial in treating these children. Here we show that antibodies (Abs) to the rat FRα administered during gestation produce communication, learning and cognitive deficits in a rat model that can be prevented by folinic acid and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634641/prenatal-diagnosis-of-17q12-deletion-syndrome-from-fetal-hyperechogenic-kidneys-to-high-risk-for-autism
#13
Yinon Gilboa, Sharon Perlman, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Ben Pode-Shakked, Alon Shrim, Einat Azaria-Lahav, Benjamin Dekel, Hagith Yonath, Michal Berkenstadt, Reuven Achiron
OBJECTIVE: The linkage between 17q12 microdeletions, renal anomalies, and higher risk for neurodevelopmental disorders is well described in the literature. The current study presents prenatal diagnosis of normal-sized fetal hyperechogenic kidneys leading to the diagnosis of 17q12 deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Over a period of 9 years in a single referral center, seven fetuses were diagnosed with hyperechogenic renal parenchyma and were followed up prospectively...
November 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623126/-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-bisphenol-a-is-serotonin-the-lacking-link-in-the-chain
#14
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600838/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-preterm-infants-with-fetal-growth-restriction-evaluated-at-12-months-corrected-age
#15
Nelly Padilla, Peter Fransson, Antonio Donaire, Francesc Figueras, Angela Arranz, Magdalena Sanz-Cortés, Violeta Tenorio, Núria Bargallo, Carme Junqué, Hugo Lagercrantz, Ulrika Ådén, Eduard Gratacós
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects brain development in preterm infants, but little is known about its effects on resting-state functional connectivity. We compared 20 preterm infants, born at <34 weeks of gestation with abnormal antenatal Doppler measurements and birth weights <10th percentile, with 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age and 20 term infants. They were scanned without sedation at 12 months of age and screened for autistic traits at 26 months...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550733/impact-of-maternal-serotonin-transporter-genotype-on-placental-serotonin-fetal-forebrain-serotonin-and-neurodevelopment
#16
Christopher L Muller, Allison Mj Anacker, Tiffany D Rogers, Nick Goeden, Elizabeth H Keller, C Gunnar Forsberg, Travis M Kerr, Carly LA Wender, George M Anderson, Gregg D Stanwood, Randy D Blakely, Alexandre Bonnin, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Biomarker, neuroimaging, and genetic findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, we found that adult male mice expressing the autism-associated SERT Ala56 variant have altered central serotonin (5-HT) system function, as well as elevated peripheral blood 5-HT levels. Early in gestation, before midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the cortex, peripheral sources supply 5-HT to the forebrain, suggesting that altered maternal or placenta 5-HT system function could impact the developing embryo...
August 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526988/prenatal-perinatal-and-postnatal-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Imen Hadjkacem, Héla Ayadi, Mariem Turki, Sourour Yaich, Khaoula Khemekhem, Adel Walha, Leila Cherif, Yousr Moalla, Farhat Ghribi
OBJECTIVE: To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. METHOD: The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014). It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS...
August 12, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520745/prenatal-stress-exposure-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-methylation-and-child-autistic-traits-the-moderating-role-of-oxtr-rs53576-genotype
#18
Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Frank C Verhulst, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Janine F Felix, Henning Tiemeier, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
LAY ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), localized on chromosome 3p25, is considered a promising candidate for explaining genetic vulnerability to autistic traits. Although several lines of evidence implicate OXTR SNP rs53576 (G/A) variation in social behavior, findings have been inconsistent, possibly because DNA methylation after stress exposure was eliminated from consideration. This study investigated the main and interactive effects of OXTR rs53576 genotype, stress exposure, and OXTR methylation on child autistic traits...
August 13, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517034/paternal-hla-c-and-maternal-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-genotypes-in-the-development-of-autism
#19
Moriya Gamliel, Karen L Anderson, Richard P Ebstein, Nurit Yirmiya, David Mankuta
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface proteins found on natural killer cells, which are components of the innate immune system. KIRs recognize MHC class I proteins, mainly HLA-C and are further divided into two groups: short-tailed 2/3DS activating receptors and long-tailed 2/3DL inhibitory receptors. Based on the Barker Hypothesis, the origins of illness can be traced back to embryonic development in the uterus, and since KIR:HLA interaction figures prominently in the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated whether specific KIR:HLA combinations may be found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children compared with their healthy parents...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468947/cpg-sites-with-continuously-increasing-or-decreasing-methylation-from-early-to-late-human-fetal-brain-development
#20
Eberhard Schneider, Marcus Dittrich, Julia Böck, Indrajit Nanda, Tobias Müller, Larissa Seidmann, Tim Tralau, Danuta Galetzka, Nady El Hajj, Thomas Haaf
Normal human brain development is dependent on highly dynamic epigenetic processes for spatial and temporal gene regulation. Recent work identified wide-spread changes in DNA methylation during fetal brain development. We profiled CpG methylation in frontal cortex of 27 fetuses from gestational weeks 12-42, using Illumina 450K methylation arrays. Sites showing genome-wide significant correlation with gestational age were compared to a publicly available data set from gestational weeks 3-26. Altogether, we identified 2016 matching developmentally regulated differentially methylated positions (m-dDMPs): 1767m-dDMPs were hypermethylated and 1149 hypomethylated during fetal development...
October 30, 2016: Gene
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