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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088314/is-advanced-paternal-age-a-health-risk-for-the-offspring
#1
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Stine Kjaer Urhoj
In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence for adverse health effects in offspring of fathers of advanced age. First the evidence regarding fetal survival is addressed, and afterward we review the evidence regarding morbidity in children with older fathers. The adverse conditions most consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia...
January 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067728/advances-in-developmental-neuropsychiatry-autism-spectrum-disorder-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-self-injurious-behavior-down-syndrome-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#3
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#4
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031963/folic-acid-supplementation-what-is-new-fetal-obstetric-long-term-benefits-and-risks
#5
REVIEW
Hind N Moussa, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Ziad A Haidar, Sean C Blackwell, Baha M Sibai
The association between folic acid supplementation, prior to conception and/or during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, has been the subject of numerous studies. The worldwide recommendation of folic acid is at least 0.4 mg daily for all women of reproductive age, and 4-5 mg in high-risk women. In addition, evidence shows that folic acid supplementation could modulate other adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically, in pregnancies complicated by seizure disorders, preeclampsia, anemia, fetal growth restriction and autism...
June 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031961/fetal-origins-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-non-associated-maternal-factors
#6
REVIEW
Hind N Moussa, Anand Srikrishnan, Sean C Blackwell, Pramod Dash, Baha M Sibai
AIM: Several population-based studies have been conducted to determine whether maternal exposures are involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We review these studies and describe the factors not associated with increased risk for ASD development. METHODS: We identified studies describing associations between maternal exposures and ASD development. These studies include the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment, Nurses' Health Study II, and the Swedish population registry...
June 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018572/placental-methylome-analysis-from-a-prospective-autism-study
#7
Diane I Schroeder, Rebecca J Schmidt, Florence K Crary-Dooley, Cheryl K Walker, Sally Ozonoff, Daniel J Tancredi, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Janine M LaSalle
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders that are behaviorally diagnosed in early childhood. Most ASD cases likely arise from a complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors, an interface where the epigenetic marks of DNA methylation may be useful as risk biomarkers. The placenta is a potentially useful surrogate tissue characterized by a methylation pattern of partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) reflective of methylation patterns observed in the early embryo...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979975/tlr3-downregulates-expression-of-schizophrenia-gene-disc1-via-myd88-to-control-neuronal-morphology
#8
Chiung-Ya Chen, Hsin-Yu Liu, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Viral infection during fetal or neonatal stages increases the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Although neurons express several key regulators of innate immunity, the role of neuronal innate immunity in psychiatric disorders is still unclear. Using cultured neurons and in vivo mouse brain studies, we show here that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) acts through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) to negatively control Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (Disc1) expression, resulting in impairment of neuronal development...
January 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#9
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892236/1-in-100-babies-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-pathway
#10
Kerry Lyons
Alcohol consumed during pregnancy is the nation's leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities and birth defects. One in 100 babies is estimated to be born with alcohol-related damage, according to the World Health Organization. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are more common than autism but are under-diagnosed.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876552/long-term-altered-immune-responses-following-fetal-priming-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-maternal-immune-activation
#11
Destanie R Rose, Milo Careaga, Judy Van de Water, Kim McAllister, Melissa D Bauman, Paul Ashwood
Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD...
November 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860117/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-e-core-a-national-multi-stakeholder-modified-delphi-consensus-study
#12
B H Al Wattar, K Tamilselvan, R Khan, A Kelso, A Sinha, A M Pirie, D McCorry, K S Khan, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of core outcomes for studies on pregnant women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Delphi consensus study. POPULATION: Healthcare professionals, and patient representatives with lived experience of epilepsy in the UK. METHODS: We used a modified Delphi method and a consultation meeting to achieve consensus. Potential outcomes were identified by systematic review, and were scored using a Likert scale anchored between 1 (least important) and 5 (most important)...
November 16, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847193/extremely-low-gestational-age-and-very-low-birthweight-for-gestational-age-are-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-large-cohort-study-of-10-year-old-children-born-at-23-27-weeks-gestation
#13
Robert M Joseph, Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, Tim Heeren, Jean A Frazier, Janice Ware, Deborah Hirtz, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: No prospective cohort study of high-risk children has used rigorous exposure assessment and optimal diagnostic procedures to examine the perinatal antecedents of autism spectrum disorder separately among those with and without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify perinatal factors associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <70) in children born extremely preterm...
November 12, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809298/meconium-exposure-and-autism-risk
#15
K M Miller, G Xing, C K Walker
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether fetal meconium passage is associated with autism. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective birth cohort analysis of 9 945 896 children born in California 1991 to 2008 linked discharge diagnosis and procedure codes for prenatal stressors, meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with autism diagnoses for 47 277 children through 2012. We assessed the relative risk of autism by meconium status using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and clinical features...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791298/glucocorticoid-effects-on-cerebellar-development-in-a-chicken-embryo-model-exploring-changes-in-pax6-and-mmp-9-after-exposure-to-dexamethasone
#16
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Sigrid Bjørnstad, Gro H Mathisen, Petra K Aden, Ingvild Mikkola, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Kirsten E Rakkestad
The developing cerebellum is vulnerable to effects of glucocorticoids and cerebellar dysfunction is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. autism. Transcription factor PAX6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are critical for normal cerebellar development and are highly expressed in migrating neurons. Alterations in MMP-9 and PAX6 are associated with altered cerebellar development. In the present paper we have characterized growth rate and development of the cortical layers, and further investigated how the levels of PAX6 and MMP-9 as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) change in the cerebellum during the fetal period (E12-21) in chicken, which corresponds to the human perinatal period...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684946/maternal-obesity-and-neurodevelopmental-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-offspring
#17
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673421/does-prenatal-stress-alter-the-developing-connectome
#18
REVIEW
Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha, Sarah N Cross, Soo Hyun Kwon, Gordon Sze, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
Human neurodevelopment requires the organization of neural elements into complex structural and functional networks called the connectome. Emerging data suggest that prenatal exposure to maternal stress plays a role in the wiring, or miswiring, of the developing connectome. Stress-related symptoms are common in women during pregnancy and are risk factors for neurobehavioral disorders ranging from autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction, to major depression and schizophrenia...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664808/paternal-age-effects-on-sperm-foxk1-and-kcna7-methylation-and-transmission-into-the-next-generation
#19
Stefanie Atsem, Juliane Reichenbach, Ramya Potabattula, Marcus Dittrich, Caroline Nava, Christel Depienne, Lena Böhm, Simone Rost, Thomas Hahn, Martin Schorsch, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Children of older fathers carry an increased risk for developing autism and other disorders. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the correlation of sperm DNA methylation with paternal age and its impact on the epigenome of the offspring. Methylation levels of 9 candidate genes and LINE-1 repeats were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in sperm of 162 donors and 191 cord blood of resulting children (conceived by IVF/ICSI with the same sperm samples). Four genes showed a significant negative correlation between sperm methylation and paternal age...
September 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646260/prevention-of-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-exposed-to-folate-receptor-antibodies-implication-in-autism
#20
A Desai, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies have been associated with fetal abnormalities and cerebral folate deficiency-related developmental disorders. Over 70% of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are positive for these autoantibodies and high-dose folinic acid is beneficial in treating these children. Here we show that antibodies (Abs) to the rat FRα administered during gestation produce communication, learning and cognitive deficits in a rat model that can be prevented by folinic acid and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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