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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729887/whole-body-vibration-training-improves-balance-control-and-sit-to-stand-performance-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Ming-Chen Ko, Long-Shan Wu, Sangwoo Lee, Chien-Chun Wang, Po-Fu Lee, Ching-Yu Tseng, Chien-Chang Ho
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with decreased balance, which increases falling risk. The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility and effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensor muscle power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand performance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in the United States. METHODS: A randomized pilot study with participant blinding was conducted. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and compliance rate...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727061/behavior-of-immunologically-castrated-barrows-in-comparison-to-gilts-physically-castrated-barrows-and-intact-male-pigs
#2
C L Puls, A Rojo, P D Matzat, A L Schroeder, M Ellis
The behavior of immunologically castrated barrows (IC; with Improvest; Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ) was compared with that of intact males (IM), physically castrated barrows (PC), and gilts (G). The study used 160 commercial crossbred pigs in a randomized complete block design (blocking factor was start date of study) and was performed over an 8-wk period from 16 wk of age (67.2 ± 2.50 kg BW) to a final BW of 126.5 ± 6.05 kg. The first Improvest dose was given to IC at the start of the study (d 0), and the second dose was given 28 d later...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726983/effect-of-space-allowance-and-flooring-on-the-behavior-of-pregnant-ewes
#3
S G Vik, O Øyrehagen, K E Bøe
Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722029/effects-of-procedure-upright-equilibrium-time-sex-and-bmi-on-the-precision-of-body-fluid-measurements-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#4
S Thurlow, G Taylor-Covill, P Sahota, B Oldroyd, K Hind
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Extensive work has addressed the validity of bioimpedance (BIA) measurements and the effect of posture on fluid homeostasis. However, limited research has investigated effects of subject preparation. This study aimed to determine the precision of total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) measurements using a stand-on multifrequency BIA (MFBIA seca mBCA 514/515), in three pre-test procedures: supine, sitting, and following walking, with specific reference to the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI)...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721555/the-value-of-physical-performance-measurements-alongside-assessment-of-sarcopenia-in-predicting-receipt-and-completion-of-planned-treatment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-observational-exploratory-study
#5
Jemima T Collins, Simon Noble, John Chester, Helen E Davies, William D Evans, Daniel Farewell, Jason F Lester, Diane Parry, Rebecca Pettit, Anthony Byrne
INTRODUCTION: The presence of muscle mass depletion is associated with poor outcomes and survival in cancer. Alongside muscle mass, assessment of muscle strength or physical performance is essential for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prevalent form of cancer with high mortality, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) is commonly used to assess patients' suitability for treatment. However, a significant proportion of patients with good PS are unable to complete multidisciplinary team (MDT)-planned treatment...
July 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719977/the-efficacy-of-interactive-motion-capture-based-rehabilitation-on-functional-outcomes-in-an-inpatient-stroke-population-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
John Cannell, Emelyn Jovic, Amy Rathjen, Kylie Lane, Anna M Tyson, Michele L Callisaya, Stuart T Smith, Kiran Dk Ahuja, Marie-Louise Bird
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of novel interactive, motion capture-rehabilitation software to usual care stroke rehabilitation on physical function. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Two subacute hospital rehabilitation units in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: In all, 73 people less than six months after stroke with reduced mobility and clinician determined capacity to improve. INTERVENTIONS: Both groups received functional retraining and individualized programs for up to an hour, on weekdays for 8-40 sessions (dose matched)...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#7
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717053/pure-autonomic-failure
#8
REVIEW
Thomas P Brown
Pure autonomic failure is a degenerative disorder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Patients experience symptomatic hypotension that requires them to sit, squat or lie down to prevent syncope. It is associated with characteristic histopathological findings, resulting in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the peripheral autonomic nerves. These lesions are responsible for defects in the synthesis and release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals, resulting in significant hypotension. Patients with autonomic failure also have exaggerated blood pressure responses to common stimuli such as food or fluid intake, heat, exercise and medications...
July 17, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716535/variable-compensation-during-the-sit-to-stand-task-among-individuals-with-severe-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Yoshimasa Sagawa, Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure, Stéphane Armand, Anne Lubbeke, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Domizio Suva, Katia Turcot
BACKGROUND: Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) show variability during the sit-to-stand (STS) task, so they may not perform the STS in the same way. This study aimed to determine whether individuals with knee OA have different strategies in performing the STS. METHODS: Participants with knee OA and able-bodied individuals underwent STS evaluation at a self-selected pace with use of a motion measurement system consisting of 12 cameras and 2 force plates. RESULTS: In total, 101 participants (57 women) with knee OA showed 3 main STS strategies...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716518/virtual-animation-of-victim-specific-3d-models-obtained-from-ct-scans-for-forensic-reconstructions-living-and-dead-subjects
#10
C Villa, K B Olsen, S H Hansen
Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715287/outcome-measures-correlated-with-falls-in-nursing-home-residents-a-pilot-study
#11
Heidi S Moyer, Jeffrey Gale, Stephen Severe, Heather J Braden, Scott Hasson
Most fall risk and normal values are collected from the community-dwelling population, which is not representative of nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine the relationship of clinical impairment and activity limitation variables to the number of falls in nursing home residents; and 2) to determine the amount of variability that can be explained for the number of falls from these predictor variables. Seventeen active nursing home residents (83.7 ± 11.7 years) consented to participate...
July 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715271/comparison-of-trunk-impairment-scale-versions-1-0-and-2-0-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-validation-study
#12
Ylva Nilsagård, Anna Carling, Oskar Davidsson, Lisbeth Franzén, Anette Forsberg
BACKGROUND: Trunk control impairment often accompanies multiple sclerosis (MS). Trunk stability is necessary for movements of extremities, as are selective trunk movements for normal gait. Measuring trunk function is thus of interest. METHODS: We examined the relationships between the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS1.0 and TIS2.0) and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 5 sit-to-stand test (5STS), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m timed walk test (10TW), 2-min walk test (2MWT), Falls Efficacy Scale - International, and 12-item MS Walking Scale (MSWS-12) in 47 outpatients...
July 17, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714802/binocular-vision-disorders-and-visual-attention-associations-with-balance-and-mobility-in-older-adults
#13
Mohammed M Althomali, Susan J Leat
Understanding which aspects of vision are related to falls is important. We examine the associations between tests of balance, mobility, fear of falling (FES-1) and aspects of vision in 72 adults aged 70+. Balance and mobility were examined using the One Legged Stance test (OLST), the Sit to Stand test (STST) and the 5 Meter Walking test (5MWT). Visual measures included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, binocular vision (BV) measurements, Useful field of View (UFV) and Attended Field of View (AFOV)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708428/reliability-and-correlation-of-static-and-dynamic-foot-arch-measurement-in-a-healthy-pediatric-population
#14
Karsten Hollander, Timo Scholz, Astrid Zech, Karl Wegscheider, Susanne Lezius, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Susanne Sehner
BACKGROUND: The measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite gold-standard. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intra-day- and inter-rater-reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) to explore the correlation between both arch indices and 3) to examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day. METHODS: Eighty-six children (age 8...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708068/mechanomyography-and-torque-during-fes-evoked-muscle-contractions-to-fatigue-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Nor Zainah Mohamad, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Glen M Davis, Ahmad Khairi Abdul Wahab, Nazirah Hasnan
A mechanomyography muscle contraction (MC) sensor, affixed to the skin surface, was used to quantify muscle tension during repetitive functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked isometric rectus femoris contractions to fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nine persons with motor complete SCI were seated on a commercial muscle dynamometer that quantified peak torque and average torque outputs, while measurements from the MC sensor were simultaneously recorded. MC-sensor-predicted measures of dynamometer torques, including the signal peak (SP) and signal average (SA), were highly associated with isometric knee extension peak torque (SP: r = 0...
July 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705242/non-communicable-diseases-and-related-risk-behaviors-among-men-and-women-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Pheak Chhoun, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Martin Steel, Jennifer Dionisio, Hattie Pearson, Gitau Mburu, Carinne Brody, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern for an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in people living with HIV. This concern is evident especially in developing countries where dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with NCDs are becoming more prominent. This study explored the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and related risk factors in men and women living with HIV in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 adult people living with HIV randomly selected from one city and four provinces in Cambodia...
July 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704634/comparison-of-sedentary-behaviors-in-office-workers-using-sit-stand-tables-with-and-without-semiautomated-position-changes
#17
Dechristian França Barbieri, Divya Srinivasan, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ana Beatriz Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: We compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers. BACKGROUND: Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables and whether patterns are influenced by table configuration...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704627/task-specific-training-for-adults-with-chronic-knee-pain-a-case-series
#18
Allyn M Bove, Nancy Baker, Heather Livengood, Visnja King, Joseph Mancino, Adam Popchak, G Kelley Fitzgerald
Study Design Case series. Background Recent evidence suggests that traditional impairment-based rehabilitation approaches for patients with knee pain may not result in improved function or reduced disability. This case series describes a novel task-specific training approach to exercise therapy for patients with chronic knee pain and reports changes in measures of clinical outcome (pain and physical function) following participation in the training program. Case Description Seven patients with chronic knee pain aged ≥ 40 years were included...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704258/effect-of-alternating-standing-and-sitting-on-blood-pressure-and-pulse-wave-velocity-during-a-simulated-workday-in-adults-with-overweight-obesity
#19
Bethany Barone Gibbs, Robert J Kowalsky, Sophy J Perdomo, John M Taormina, Jeffrey R Balzer, John M Jakicic
OBJECTIVE: Reducing prolonged sitting at work has been recommended by an expert panel, but whether intermittent standing improves vascular health is unclear. We aimed to test whether using a sit-stand desk could reduce blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) during a simulated workday. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with pre-to-Stage 1 hypertension completed a randomized crossover study with two simulated workday conditions: STAND-SIT (alternating standing and sitting condition every 30 min) and SIT (continuous sitting condition)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703120/effects-of-body-habitus-on-internal-radiation-dose-calculations-using-the-5-year-old-anthropomorphic-male-models
#20
Tianwu Xie, Niels Kuster, Habib Zaidi
Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models...
July 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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